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1.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 631-636, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985921

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the characteristics of pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters of antibacterial agents in children with sepsis treated by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 20 children with sepsis (confirmed or suspected) who were treated with ECMO and antimicrobial in the Department of Critical Medicine of Hunan Children's Hospital from March 2021 to December 2022 were enrolled as the ECMO group. Through therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), the PK-PD parameters of antibacterial agents were analyzed. Twenty five children with sepsis in the same department who were treated with vancomycin but no ECMO at the same time were enrolled as the control group. The individual PK parameters of vancomycin were calculated by Bayesian feedback method. The PK parameters in the two groups were compared, and the correlation between trough concentration and area under the curve (AUC) was analyzed. Wilcoxon rank sum test was used for inter group comparison. Results: Twenty patients in the ECMO group, included 6 males and 14 females, with an onset age of 47 (9, 76) months. In the ECMO group, 12 children (60%) were treated with vancomycin, and the trough concentration was less than 10 mg/L in 7 cases, 10-20 mg/L in 3 cases, and >20 mg/L in 2 cases; AUC/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (MIC=1 mg/L)<400 was in 1 case, 400-600 in 3 cases, and >600 in 8 cases. Among the 11 children (55%) who were treated with β-lactam antibiotics, there were 10 cases with drug concentration at 50% dosing interval (CT50)>4 MIC and 9 cases with trough concentration>MIC, both CT50 and trough concentration of cefoperazone reached the target. Among the 25 cases of control group, 16 were males and 9 females, with an onset age of 12 (8, 32) months. There was a positive correlation between vancomycin trough concentration and AUC (r2=0.36, P<0.001). The half-life of vancomycin and the 24-hour AUC (AUC0-24 h) in the ECMO group were higher than those in the control group (5.3 (3.6, 6.8) vs. 1.9 (1.5, 2.9) h, and 685 (505, 1 227) vs. 261 (210, 355) mg·h/L, Z=2.99, 3.50, respectively; both P<0.05), and the elimination rate constant and clearance rate was lower than those in the control group (0.1 (0.1, 0.2) vs. 0.4 (0.2, 0.5), 0.7 (0.5, 1.3) vs. 2.0 (1.1, 2.8) L/h, Z=2.99, 2.11, respectively; both P<0.05). Conclusion: The PK-PD parameters in septic children treated by ECMO varied with a longer half-life, higher AUC0-24 h, lower elimination rate constant and clearance rate.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Humans , Child , Child, Preschool , Infant , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Bayes Theorem , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Prospective Studies , Sepsis/drug therapy
2.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 284-288, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971074

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the application value of transport ventilator in the inter-hospital transport of critically ill children.@*METHODS@#The critically ill children in Hunan Children's Hospital who were transported with or without a transport ventilator were included as the observation group (from January 2019 to January 2020; n=122) and the control group (from January 2018 to January 2019; n=120), respectively. The two groups were compared in terms of general data, the changes in heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood oxygen saturation during transport, the incidence rates of adverse events, and outcomes.@*RESULTS@#There were no significant differences between the two groups in sex, age, oxygenation index, pediatric critical illness score, course of disease, primary disease, heart rate, respiratory rate, and transcutaneous oxygen saturation before transport (P>0.05). During transport, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the changes in heart rate, respiratory rate, and transcutaneous oxygen saturation (P>0.05). The incidence rates of tracheal catheter detachment, indwelling needle detachment, and sudden cardiac arrest in the observation group were lower than those in the control group during transport, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Compared with the control group, the observation group had significantly shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit and significantly higher transport success rate and cure/improvement rate (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The application of transport ventilator in the inter-hospital transport can improve the success rate of inter-hospital transport and the prognosis in critically ill children, and therefore, it holds promise for clinical application in the inter-hospital transport of critically ill children.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Critical Illness , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Ventilators, Mechanical , Prognosis
3.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 566-571, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981995

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the role of plasma exchange combined with continuous blood purification in the treatment of refractory Kawasaki disease shock syndrome (KDSS).@*METHODS@#A total of 35 children with KDSS who were hospitalized in the Department of Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Hunan Children's Hospital, from January 2019 to August 2022 were included as subjects. According to whether plasma exchange combined with continuous veno-venous hemofiltration dialysis was performed, they were divided into a purification group with 12 patients and a conventional group with 23 patients. The two groups were compared in terms of clinical data, laboratory markers, and prognosis.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the conventional group, the purification group had significantly shorter time to recovery from shock and length of hospital stay in the pediatric intensive care unit, as well as a significantly lower number of organs involved during the course of the disease (P<0.05). After treatment, the purification group had significant reductions in the levels of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, heparin-binding protein, and brain natriuretic peptide (P<0.05), while the conventional group had significant increases in these indices after treatment (P<0.05). After treatment, the children in the purification group tended to have reductions in stroke volume variation, thoracic fluid content, and systemic vascular resistance and an increase in cardiac output over the time of treatment.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Plasma exchange combined with continuous veno-venous hemofiltration dialysis for the treatment of KDSS can alleviate inflammation, maintain fluid balance inside and outside blood vessels, and shorten the course of disease, the duration of shock and the length of hospital stay in the pediatric intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Plasma Exchange , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Renal Dialysis , Plasmapheresis , Shock
4.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 249-254, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928595

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the efficacy and application value of plasma exchange as an adjuvant therapy in children with hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS).@*METHODS@#A prospective randomized controlled trial was designed. Forty children with severe HPS were enrolled, who were treated in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of Hunan Children's Hospital from October 2018 to October 2020. The children were randomly divided into a plasma exchange group and a conventional treatment group using a random number table, with 20 children in each group. The children in the conventional treatment group received etiological treatment and conventional symptomatic supportive treatment, and those in the plasma exchange group received plasma exchange in addition to the treatment in the conventional treatment group. The two groups were compared in terms of general information, clinical symptoms and signs before and after treatment, main laboratory markers, treatment outcome, and prognosis.@*RESULTS@#Before treatment, there were no significant differences between the two groups in gender, age, course of the disease before admission, etiological composition, pediatric critical illness score, involvement of organ or system functions, and laboratory markers (P>0.05). After 7 days of treatment, both groups had remission and improvement in clinical symptoms and signs. After treatment, the plasma exchange group had significantly lower levels of C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and serum protein levels than the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). The plasma exchange group also had significantly lower levels of alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin than the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). The length of stay in the PICU in the plasma exchange group was significantly shorter than that in the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). The plasma exchange group had a significantly higher treatment response rate than the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the total length of hospital stay and 3-month mortality rate (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Plasma exchange as an adjuvant therapy is effective for children with severe HPS. It can improve clinical symptoms and signs and some laboratory markers and shorten the length of stay in the PICU, and therefore, it may become an optional adjuvant therapy for children with severe HPS.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/therapy , Plasma Exchange , Plasmapheresis , Prospective Studies
5.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 197-202, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935670

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the prognostic factors of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) who had undergone cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in China. Methods: From November 2017 to October 2018, this retrospective multi-center study was conducted in 11 hospitals in China. It contained data from 281 cases who had undergone CPR and all of the subjects were divided into CHD group and non-CHD group. The general condition, duration of CPR, epinephrine doses during resuscitation, recovery of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), discharge survival rate and pediatric cerebral performance category in viable children at discharge were compared. According to whether malignant arrhythmia is the direct cause of cardiopulmonary arrest or not, children in CHD and non-CHD groups were divided into 2 subgroups: arrhythmia and non-arrhythmia, and the ROSC and survival rate to discharge were compared. Data in both groups were analyzed by t-test, chi-square analysis or ANOVA, and logistic regression were used to analyze the prognostic factors for ROSC and survival to discharge after cardiac arrest (CA). Results: The incidence of CA in PICU was 3.2% (372/11 588), and the implementation rate of CPR was 75.5% (281/372). There were 144 males and 137 females with median age of 32.8 (5.6, 42.7) months in all 281 CPA cases who received CPR. CHD group had 56 cases while non-CHD had 225 cases, with the percentage of 19.9% (56/281) and 80.1% (225/281) respectively. The proportion of female in CHD group was 60.7% (34/56) which was higher than that in non-CHD group (45.8%, 103/225) (χ2=4.00, P=0.045). There were no differences in ROSC and rate of survival to discharge between the two groups (P>0.05). The ROSC rate of children with arthythmid in CHD group was 70.0% (28/40), higher than 6/16 for non-arrhythmic children (χ2=5.06, P=0.024). At discharge, the pediatric cerebral performance category scores (1-3 scores) of CHD and non-CHD child were 50.9% (26/51) and 44.9% (92/205) respectively. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the independent prognostic factors of ROSC and survival to discharge in children with CHD were CPR duration (odds ratio (OR)=0.95, 0.97; 95%CI: 0.92~0.97, 0.95~0.99; both P<0.05) and epinephrine dosage (OR=0.87 and 0.79, 95%CI: 0.76-1.00 and 0.69-0.89, respectively; both P<0.05). Conclusions: There is no difference between CHD and non-CHD children in ROSC and survival rate of survival to discharge was low. The epinephrine dosage and the duration of CPR are related to the ROSC and survival to discharge of children with CHD.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Heart Arrest/therapy , Heart Defects, Congenital/therapy , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Retrospective Studies
6.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 998-1004, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775067

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of different energy feeding patterns on the nutritional status, clinical course, and outcome of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) and severe pneumonia.@*METHODS@#A total of 43 malnourished infants, aged 0.05). At discharge and 1 and 3 months after surgery, the control group had significantly higher degree of malnutrition and level of nutritional risk than the observation group (P<0.05). The analysis of variance with repeated measures showed significant differences in body weight, upper arm circumference, weight-for-age Z-score, height-for-age Z-score, weight-for-height Z-score, and albumin level at different time points and between different groups, and there was an interaction between group factors and time factors (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the observation group had a significantly lower average daily intake of fluid, a significantly higher average daily intake of energy, and a significantly lower incidence rate of insufficient feeding during hospitalization (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the observation group had significantly shorter length of hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and duration of postoperative pyrexia, as well as significantly lower hospital costs (P<0.05). No significant adverse reactions were observed in either group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#An appropriate increase in postoperative energy supply for children with CHD can improve the status of malnutrition and clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Energy Intake , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular , Therapeutics , Nutritional Status , Pneumonia , Therapeutics
7.
International Eye Science ; (12): 137-139, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-695141

ABSTRACT

AIM:To investigate the quality of life of elderly patients with low vision and its nursing service demand,in order to improve the quality of life of elderly low vision group and provide theory basis.METHODS:A cross-sectional study method,in a tertiary hospital in Fuzhou city elderly patients with low vision 200 cases were as the research object,USES the Chinese version of quality of life scale (CLVQOL),low vision care service demand questionnaire investigation were taken.RESULTS:In elderly patients with low vision life quality score was 54.92±12.11,the nursing service demand score 30.34± 8.93,medium and high demand was of 88%.Quality of life was negatively correlated with nursing service demand value (r=-0.266,P<0.01).CONCLUSION:The quality of life of elderly patients with low vision was low,nursing service demand is high,especially on visual function recovery training of nursing service requirements.Aging brings important social problems in China,attaches great importance to the elderly care service demand,discussion with precise visual nursing care intervention in low vision group,it is necessary to improve the quality of life.

8.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 506-510, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-261200

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the value of blood lactic acid (BLA) in evaluating disease severity and prognosis in children with sepsis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 484 children with sepsis were enrolled and divided into common sepsis group (n=310), severe sepsis group (n=105), and septic shock group (n=69). BLA level was measured before treatment, and the results of BLA re-examination after early fluid resuscitation were collected for children with septic shock and a BLA level of >2 mmol/L.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The BLA level increased with the increasing severity of sepsis. The analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the cut-off value of BLA for the diagnosis of septic shock was 2.25 mmol/L, with a sensitivity of 82.6% and a specificity of 79.8%. The fatality rates in the BLA ≤1 mmol/L, BLA 1.1-2 mmol/L, BLA 2.1-4 mmol/L, and BLA >4 mmol/L groups were 8.5%, 9.4%, 27.2%, and 67.6%, respectively, and the risk of death in the BLA >4 mmol/L group was 22.4 times that in the BLA ≤1 mmol/L group. In children with septic shock who had a BLA level of >2 mmol/L before treatment and whose BLA levels were ≤2 mmol/L or >2 mmol/L after resuscitation, the fatality rates were 33.3% and 69.2%, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>BLA can be used to evaluate disease severity and prognosis in children with sepsis, and a BLA level of 2.25 mmol/L has a high value in diagnosing septic shock. Early resuscitation helps BLA level return to normal and can improve the prognosis of children with septic shock.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Lactic Acid , Blood , Prognosis , Sepsis , Blood , Mortality , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 961-964, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279016

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the role of Pediatric Critical Illness Score (PCIS) in evaluating the prognosis and severity of severe hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>This study included 424 children with severe HFMD, consisting of 390 survivors and 34 deceased patients. Related physiological parameters and clinical data were collected for calculating PCIS scores. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was employed to assess the performance of PCIS in evaluating the complications and outcomes.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The median of PCIS scores for survivors was higher than that for deceased patients (P<0.01). Of the 424 children with severe HFMD, only 26 (6.1%) had critical illness according to the severity assessment using PCIS. The AUC (95%CI) of PCIS was 0.74 (0.66, 0.82) in predicting pulmonary edema, 0.82 (0.74, 0.90) in predicting pulmonary hemorrhage, and 0.83 (0.75, 0.92) in predicting death.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>PCIS can predict the complications and prognosis in children with severe HFMD. However, the existing scoring system of PCIS cannot fully assess the severity of HFMD.</p>


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Critical Illness , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease , Diagnosis , Prognosis
10.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 194-197, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-269510

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the impact of continuous blood purification (CBP) on T-cell subsets and prognosis in children with severe sepsis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 42 children with severe sepsis were randomly divided into a control group (n=22) and a CBP group (n=20). The patients in the control group received conventional treatment, while those in the CBP group underwent continuous veno-venous hemofiltration daily 12-24 hours for 3 days besides conventional treatment. Changes in clinical variables and in peripheral blood regulatory T cell subsets were assessed 3 and 7 days after treatment.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The pediatric intensive care unit length of stay and duration of mechanical ventilation were significantly shortened and the 28-day mortality rate was significantly lower in the CPB treatment group as compared with the control group (P<0.05). In the CBP treatment group, the percentage of CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) T cell populations and PCIS scores were significantly higher at 3 and 7 days after treatment than before treatment (P<0.05). At 7 days after treatment, the percentage of CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) T cell populations, CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio and PCIS scores were significantly higher in the CBP group than in the control group (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The CBP treatment may counteract the suppression of immune function and thus improve prognosis in children with severe sepsis.</p>


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , CD4-CD8 Ratio , Hemofiltration , Sepsis , Allergy and Immunology , Therapeutics , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , Allergy and Immunology
11.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 1884-1886, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-733240

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the early diagnostic value of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) for acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) in children and its influence on prognosis.Methods Fifty-two children with ALI/ARDS were selected as the experiment group,and 36 children with cardiac disease merging dyspnea were selected as the control group.The serum levels of NT-pro-BNP were measured in the 2 groups.The pediatric critical illness score(PCIS),lung injury score (LIS) and 28-day mortality were analyzed in the experiment group.The serum level of NT-pro-BNP,and the different condition and prognosis were compared in 2 groups,and the difference of the NT-pro-BNP levels were compared in children with ALI/ARDS.Results The NT-proBNP levels in experiment group were significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.05).But the NT-pro-BNP levels in children with cardiaogenic pulmonary edema were significantly higher than ALI/ARDS(P < 0.05).The NT-pro-BNP levels of the children who died in 28 d,or with LIS > 2.5 scores or PCIS≤70 scores were higher than that of children who were survived,or with LIS ≤ 2.5 scores or PCIS > 70 scores (P =0.001,0.013,0.002).The NT-pro-BNP levels were negatively correlated with PCIS(P < 0.05),and the NT-pro-BNP levels were positively correlated with the 28-day mortality and LIS(all P < 0.05).Conclusions The measurement of serum NT-pro-BNP can help to evaluate the severity and prognosis of ALI/ARDS children.

12.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 886-889, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-345687

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study clinical features, treatment and curative effects in children with acute clenbuterol poisoning, in order to provide a basis for early diagnosis and treatment.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Clinical data of 28 hospitalized children with acute clenbuterol poisoning in April 2011 were retrospectively studied.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Of the 28 patients, there were 15 males and 13 females, aged 1 to 13 years (mean age 6.5±4.8 years). Vomiting, palpitations and limb shaking were found as main clinical manifestations in the patients. Main changes of blood biochemical included hypokalemia, lactic acidosis, hyperglycemia, hypsocreatinkinase. Snus tachycardia and S-T segment depression were observed on ECG. Patients' symptoms were gradually alleviated after 12-78 hours by use of beta blockers, potassium supplement, protecting the heart and other symptomatic and supportive treatment. Blood biochemical indexes were improved after 48 hours of admission. All of the patients were cured after 5 days. The symptoms of the patients do not longer occur during a follow up of half a month.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Acute clenbuterol poisoning is characterized by vomiting, palpitations, limb shaking, hypokalemia, lactic acidosis and tachycardia in children. An early effective treatment of this disease can improve prognosis in children.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Acute Disease , Adrenergic beta-Agonists , Poisoning , Clenbuterol , Poisoning , Electrocardiography , Retrospective Studies
13.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 216-218, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-236835

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe changes in T cell subsets in children with sepsis and their prognosis, and to investigate the clinical significance of these changes in the occurrence and development of sepsis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Fifty children with severe sepsis and 150 children with general sepsis were enrolled as subjects, and 50 age-matched healthy children were included as controls. The percentages of CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in peripheral blood and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio were measured by flow cytometry. The pediatric critical illness score (PCIS) was calculated within 24 hours of admission.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The children with severe sepsis showed significantly lower percentages of CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio and PCIS than the controls and children with general sepsis (P<0.01). Among the 200 cases of sepsis, the percentages of CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio and PCIS were significantly lower in the cured group than in the deceased group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Children with sepsis have different degrees of cellular immunosuppression, and the degree of cellular immunosuppression is significantly correlated with the severity of the disease. Detection of T cell subsets in peripheral blood is of great significance for evaluating immune function and judging disease severity in children with sepsis.</p>


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , CD4-CD8 Ratio , Prognosis , Sepsis , Allergy and Immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , Allergy and Immunology
14.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 199-204, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-359771

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the variation of serum insulin levels in critically ill children and investigate the underlying mechanism and clinical significance to provide the basis for treatment.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Totally 332 critically ill children admitted in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of Hunan Children's Hospital from Nov., 2011 to April, 2012 were studied. The high insulin group (n = 332) was defined as insulin levels within 24 h > 11.1 mU/L and was divided into 2 groups: mildly elevated group (n = 194): 11.10 - 33.30 mU/L, increased three times group (n = 138): > 33.3 mU/L. Insulin, C-peptide and blood glucose were measured within 24 hours after admission, on day 3 and 7. Other results of inflammatory markers, lactate, cardiac enzymes, amylase, pancreatic ultrasound, hepatic and renal function as well as indicators related to severity and prognosis were recorded after admission.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The peak of insulin level was seen on day 1, then presented a downward trend and reached the normal level on day 7. The peaks of blood glucose and C-peptide level were seen on day 1 then declined, the levels on day 7 were still slightly higher than normal level. The insulin level on admission (41.47 ± 30.85) mU/L were positively correlated with lactic acid (2.29 ± 1.81) mmol/L and procalcitonin level (5.08 ± 6.70) ng/ml (r = 0.370, P = 0.000; r = 0.168, P = 0.002) (P < 0.01). The insulin level on admission in children with 1 organ failure (41.24 ± 22.60) mU/L or 2 or multiple organ failure (48.98 ± 22.17) mU/L was higher than that in children with non-organ failure (34.11 ± 29.84) mU/L (U = 1621.001, P = 0.000;U = 1300.000, P = 0.000) (P < 0.01). The insulin level on admission in death group (52.99 ± 32.34) mU/L was higher than that in survival group (32.85 ± 24.10) mU/L (U = 1585.000, P = 0.000) (P < 0.01). Ten cases in death group were complicated with pancreatic damage and the average insulin level on admission was (65.29 ± 50.53) mU/L.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The high insulin level was correlated with the degree of inflammatory response, ischemia and hypoxia. The high insulin level in critically ill children was relevant to the pancreatic damage, the severity of the disease, organ dysfunction, and evaluation of prognosis.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Blood Glucose , Metabolism , C-Peptide , Blood , Calcitonin , Blood , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide , Critical Illness , Insulin , Blood , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Multiple Organ Failure , Blood , Mortality , Pancreas , Metabolism , Pathology , Prognosis , Protein Precursors , Blood , Survival
15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2265-2271, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-324878

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) often develops acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and its incidence and mortalities in critically ill pediatric patients in China were 2% and 40% respectively. This study aimed at prospectively investigating incidence, causes, mortality and its risk factors, and any relationship to initial tidal volume (V(T)) levels of mechanical ventilation, in children £5 years of age with AHRF and ARDS.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In 12 consecutive months in 23 pediatric intensive care units (PICU), AHRF and ARDS were identified in those requiring > 12 hour intratracheal mechanical ventilation and followed up for 90 days or until death or discharge. ARDS was diagnosed according to the American-European Consensus definitions. The mortality and ventilation free days (VFD) were measured as the primary outcome, and major complications, initial disease severity, and burden were measured as the secondary outcome.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In 13 491 PICU admissions, there were 439 AHRF, of which 345 (78.6%) developed ARDS, resulting in incidences of 3.3% and 2.6%, and corresponding mortalities of 30.3% and 32.8% respectively along with 8.2 and 6.7 times of relative risk of death in those with pneumonia (62.9%) and sepsis (33.7%) as major underlying diseases respectively. No association was found in V(T) levels during the first 7 days with mortality, nor for V(T) at levels < 6, 6 - 8, 8 - 10, and > 10 ml/kg in the first 3 days with mortality or length of VFD. By binary Logistic regression analyses, higher pediatric risk of mortality score III, higher initial oxygenation index, and age < 1 year were associated with higher mortality or shorter VFD in AHRF.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The incidence and mortalities of AHRF and ARDS in children £5 years were similar to or lower than the previously reported rates (in age up to 15 years), associated with initial disease severity and other confounders, but causal relationship for the initial V(T) levels as the independent factor to the major outcome was not found.</p>


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pneumonia , Epidemiology , Mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Epidemiology , Mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency , Epidemiology , Mortality , Sepsis , Epidemiology , Mortality
16.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 4-9, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286152

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the pathological reports and clinical data of the cases with pancreatic damage in critically ill children, and summarize the clinical features and biological markers of critically ill children with pancreatic damage or pancreatic necrosis so as to provide the basis for early diagnosis and treatment in children complicated with pancreatic damage.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The clinical data of 13 patients treated in our hospital from 2003 to 2009 whose autopsy confirmed pancreatic damage existed and the pathological results of all organs were collected and analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>All the cases had acute onset; 7 cases had fever, 2 had abdominal pain, the other cases had abdominal distention, hepatosplenomegaly, hypoactive bowel sounds, ascites, intestinal obstruction and gastrointestinal bleeding, etc. All these cases had abnormal liver function, especially elevated ALT or AST level and significantly decreased albumin, 9 cases had abnormal blood glucose, 5 cases had elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). In abdominal B-mode ultrasonography, no case showed abnormal pancreas acoustic image. Autopsy confirmed that 7 cases had varying degrees of necrosis of the pancreas, other 6 cases showed edematous, hemorrhagic or inflammatory changes, which may be associated with adrenal gland, liver, lung, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, thymus, mediastinal and mesenteric lymph nodes and other damage. All these children died within 36 hours after the patients' conditions worsened.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Pancreatic damage or necrosis in critically ill children had acute and ferocious onset, short course and were prone to multiple organ damage or failure to which all pediatric clinicians should have high alert.</p>


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Critical Illness , Pancreas , Pathology , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing , Diagnosis , Pathology , Therapeutics , Retrospective Studies
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