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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879105

ABSTRACT

Weeds is one of the important parts of agricultural ecosystem of Chinese materia medica. Weeds is a double-edged sword with advantages and disadvantages for the cultivated medicinal plants. In this study, we firstly analyzed the positive and negative effects of weeds on the yield and quality of Chinese materia medica. We then explored the possible mechanisms for the weeds' positive effects from the aspects of interspecific relationship, soil microecological environment, light environment, natural control of pests and so on. We also summarized three basic principles of weed control, that is, "making medicinal plants and weeds coexist harmoniously, achieving the overall optimum growth of medicinal plants", "prevention first, integrated control" and "preserving beneficial weeds and increasing their beneficial effects, removing harmful weeds and control their adverse effects". Finally, we introduced several common weed ecological control technology in field of the cultivated medicinal plants in China, including technology of controlling weeds by no-tillage, stral mulch, rotation, alternative herbs, competitive crops, and allelopathy. This study is aimed to apply the ecology theory to guide weed management and control, so as to achieve the goal of advantages promotion and disadvantages elimination of weeds to cultivated medicinal plants, making weeds into treasure and to promote the sustainable and healthy development of Chinese medicinal materials production and the protection of weed diversity.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , China , Ecosystem , Materia Medica , Plants, Medicinal
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879104

ABSTRACT

Ecological agriculture is a crucial way for agriculture of Chinese materia medica, which emphasizes the application of ecological principles in the cultivation of traditional Chinese medicine. While long-term intensive farming and modern chemical agriculture have threatened soil health, the sustainable development of ecological agriculture of Chinese materia medica is constrained. No-til-lage can reduce both frequency and intensity of tillage. Compared with conventional agriculture, no-tillage can reduce soil disturbance, maintain no-tillage for a long or permanent period and keep mulching. The application of no-tillage has a long history. More and more studies have shown that no-tillage has many advantages over conventional tillage, and the ecological and economic benefits of no-tillage are particularly outstandingin long-term. The cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials adheres to the principle of not grabbing land from farmland, making full use of the soil resources under forests, mountains and wasteland. Reducing the risk of soil loss and sustai-nable utilization are the core issues in the process of new land cultivation. No-tillage application, which not only inherits the traditional Chinese concept of natural farming, but also integrates the laws of ecological agriculture, will become the core strategies of sustainable development of Chinese materia medica ecological agriculture. This study will introduce the basic concepts and development process of no-tillage, analyze their ecological benefits in ecological agriculture of Chinese materia medica, and put forward their application strategies.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Sustainable Development
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878816

ABSTRACT

It is crucial to establish a complete set of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) quality traceability management process system, in order to stabilize the pricing order of TCM market and reconstruct the transmission path of TCM quality signals. In this study, we reviewed the mature experience of food and drug supervision at home and abroad, analyzed the quality characteristics of TCM, and put forward that the quality control of TCM products can learn from the hazard analysis and critical control point(HACCP) system in food safety quality control. This study points out that the HACCP system provides not only technical guidance for the traceability management of TCM, but also ideas for improving the quality of TCM products and the safety risk control of TCM. The application of the HACCP system in TCM quality control can help establish an international dialogue platform for TCM and help realize the modernization and internationalization of TCM industry.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771497

ABSTRACT

China has a long history of the international trade of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM).And the export products mainly composed of Chinese herbal medicine and its extracts with Chinese patent herbal medicine and health care products as complementary items.The international trade of TCM faces problems of structural disequilibrium in export products and trade barriers.In this study,we used Michael Porter's diamond model to analyze the international competitiveness of TCM industry.We found that TCM industry in China was rich in production factors and broad in market demands,but lack of the related and supporting industries.In addition,compared with the herbal medicine manufacturers in European,American and Japanese,enterprises in China were weaker in the strategy making,market positioning and industry competing.The development of the international market of herbal medicine,the arrival of the aging society,and the introduced policies of the TCM,provide great opportunities for TCM industry' s development.In order to improve the competitiveness of the TCM industry,we propose to increase the international recognition of TCM by developing clinical study,cope with international trade barrier by strengthen international standardization research,and improve the competitiveness of TCM industry by economies of scale formed by the accumulation of the pharmaceutical industry.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Economics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Economics , Models, Economic
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774523

ABSTRACT

Rhizosphere bacteria play a vital role in plant nutrition absorption,growth and disease resistance. In this study,high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the rhizosphere bacterial communities of Salvia miltiorrhiza and S. miltiorrhiza f. alba. Moreover,the function of dominant rhizosphere bacterial communities was analyzed. We found that Sphingobacteriales,Sphingomonadales and Nitrosomonadaceae were both dominant and specific bacteria in the rhizosphere of S. miltiorrhiza. The main functions of dominant rhizosphere bacteria communities in both species include promoting transformation of soil nutrients,improving plant immunity and ability of stress tolerance. This study was the first to compare rhizobacterial communities structure and function of S. miltiorrhiza and S. miltiorrhiza f. alba,which provided a new theoretical reference for studing the rhizosphere mechanism of healthy S. miltiorrhiza planting in the future.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Classification , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Rhizosphere , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Microbiology , Soil Microbiology
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773199

ABSTRACT

The study aims to investigate spatial distribution pattern and age structure of wild Angelica sinensis in Gansu province.Ten plots each with an area of 100 m2 were set and the spatial coordinates of all wild A. sinensis individuals were measured within each plot. Based on plant individual mapping data,we explored the spatial distribution pattern and its differences between different life history stages of wild A. sinensis in Gansu province by using nearest neighbor distance statistics. Correlation analysis were carried out to explore the relationship between spatial aggregation degree and topographic factors. We also distinguished individuals to three life history stages( i.e. seedlings,adults and boltings) and then test the differences among/between them using nonparametric test.(1)We found that the dominant spatial distribution pattern of wild A. sinensis population in Gansu was aggregated distribution. There was no significant correlation between spatial aggregation degree of wild A. sinensis and altitude,slope and aspect. There was no significant difference between the average distance from seedlings to their nearest bolting individuals; the average distance from adult individuals to their nearest seedlings was significantly larger than the average distance from adult individuals to their nearest adult individuals; and the average distance from bolting individuals to their nearest adult individuals was significantly smaller than the average distance from bolting individuals to their nearest bolting individuals.(2)The age structure was showed as a declining population,characterized by less seedlings and bolting individuals,while more adult individuals within population. The population characteristics of wild A. sinensis,characterized by aggregated distribution pattern and senescent type of age structure,are disadvantage to its population development. The factors,such as habitat specialization,human activities and intraspecific competition,which shapes the current population characteristics,may increase the threatened status of wild A. sinensis. We suggest to strengthen the protection of wild A. sinensis.


Subject(s)
Altitude , Angelica sinensis , China , Conservation of Natural Resources , Ecosystem , Seedlings , Spatial Analysis
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777455

ABSTRACT

Dao-di herbs have been synonymous with quality medicinal herbs in our mind hearts since ancient times and are the essence of Chinese medicine culture. The development of genuine regional herbs faces problems such as insufficient supply of local resources and lack of competitive advantages. It is necessary to seek a suitable model to protect and develop authentic medicinal materials. The protection mode of geographical indication products has become more mature. Geographical indication(GI) products and authentic medicinal materials are all related to the origin. There is certain commonality between them. However, there are also differences between authentic Chinese herbal medicines and geographical indications, and it is unsuitable to simply equate the authentic Chinese medicinal materials with GI products. This article comprehensively combs and compares the development of the authentic Chinese herbal medicines and geographical indication products, and believes that it is necessary to fully learn from the experience of GI products and combine the characteristics of authentic medicinal materials to establish a set of protection systems that meet the characteristics of authentic medicinal materials. Through this research, it has positive significance to promote the protection and management of authentic medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Geography , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal , Research
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771724

ABSTRACT

The three objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) are the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of benefit sarising from the utilization of genetic resources.The Nagoya Protocol significantly advances the CBD's third objective by providing a strong basis for greater legal certainty and transparency for both providers and users of genetic resources.In June 2016, the Chinese government approved the accession to the Nagoya Protocol. The implementation of the Nagoya Protocol is bound to greatly influence the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as its development relies on medical biological genetic resources.Both the protection and access of medical biological genetic resources and its related traditional knowledge and the introduction, breeding, biosynthesis and the extraction and modification of effective components of medicinal organism are with the prescribed scope of the Nagoya Protocol. In this study, we simply introduce the background and main contents of the Nagoya Protocol in first. We then explore the relationship between the Nagoya Protocol and the TCM.We also analyze the positive effects on the TCM for China to be one of the parties of the Nagoya Protocol and finally make some proposals for better implementation of the Nagoya Protocol.This study has certain reference significance to the resource economy and management of TCM.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , China , Conservation of Natural Resources , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Reference Standards
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776404

ABSTRACT

Poria cocos is one of medical materials frequently used in China and well marketed at home and abroad. Based on the analysis of exports and imports data of P. cocos, we found that large proportions of P. cocos were exported, while only a small proportions of those were imported in China between 2011 and 2016. During periods of these six years, the annual exporting trade of P. cocos in quantity significantly decreased, but that in dollars tend to increase slightly and the unit-prices of P. cocos significantly increased. Statistically, the average annual export trade of P. cocos from 2011 to 2016 in quantity and dollars were 9 279.73 tons and 35.454 million dollars, respectively. And the average annual export in unit-price was 4.14 dollars per kilogram. In total, P. cocos came from 29 provinces and exported to 44 countries through 21 ports. More than 98% of total exports of P. cocos were flew to the markets of countries in Asia, of which Hong Kong was the major partner in import trade of P. cocos. Large amount of P. cocos came from Guangdong province and exported mainly through Shenzhen port. Except the exports, China also imports P. cocos from other countries, among which Korea was the major country exports largest amount of P. cocos to China. And most of P. cocos were imported by Jilin province and mainly through Changchun port. To improve the export kinetic, quality and profits of P. cocos, and thus enhance the international competitiveness of the industry of P. cocos, Chinese governments should emphasize the researches on the products of P. cocos, broaden the demand space of the high-end customers, stimulate the high-end market grow in high speed and accelerate the process of standardization in future.


Subject(s)
China , Commerce , Republic of Korea , Wolfiporia
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687442

ABSTRACT

Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) is a perennial herbal plant as a bulk commodity of traditional Chinese medicinal material. With the growing market demand, the planting scale of Danshen has been fast enlarged. The occurance of diseases on Danshen has become as a major threaten of its production. Root diseases are most devastated on Danshen. Rootrot is the most important disease, and Fusarium wilt comes second. Leaf spot occurs most on aerial part of Danshen. In the Danshen industry, the chemical control is most commonly used, with biological agents as supplements. This review summarized the symptom, pathogen, epidemiology, and control method of 7 diseases on Danshen (rootrot, Fusarium wilt, southern blight, root knot nematode, leaf spot, leaf red and virus diseases), providing guidelines for disease diagnostics, pathogen isolation and identification, proper pesticide application and integrated control.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687331

ABSTRACT

Ex-situ conservation is an important means to protect biological genetic resources. Resource protection has received more and more attention with the continuous improvement of the comprehensive utilization of traditional Chinese medicine resources. In this paper, the research and compilation of the species list of ex-situ cultivated medicinal plants in 12 Chinese Academy of Sciences botanic gardens and 19 specialized medicinal botanic gardens in China were carried out. Based on the Species 2000(2017) and other classification databases, species diversity of medicinal plants ex-situ cultivated in these botanical gardens were analyzed. The study found that there were 16 351 higher plant species in our country, belonging to 276 families and 1 936 genera. Of these, 6 949 specieswere medicinal plants, accounting for 50.4% of the total medicinal plants. There were 1 280 medicinal plants were in threatened status, accounting for 19.6% of all threatened species in the Chinese Biodiversity Red List, with ex-situ cultivated proportion of 59.5%. And 3 988 medicinal plants were Chinese endemic species, accounting for 22.5% of all Chinese endemic species, with ex-situ cultivated proportion of 53.3%. This article has reference significance for the management and protection of medicinal plant resources.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-338271

ABSTRACT

The rich diversity in medicinal plants provides an important material basic for the development of Traditional Chinese medicine in China. It is important to explore the present situation of medicinal plants within special regions in order to provide scientific instructions for their sustainable protection and exploitation and utilization. In this study, we carried out the field survey according to the guideline of national survey of Chinese material medica resources and the guideline of plant species diversity survey and estimation at county level with the line transect method. With the field surveyed data, we explored the diversity and distribution of the threatened medicinal vascular plants in Lancang. We found that there were 33 species of the threatened medicinal vascular plants in this county. These species were from 23 genera and 17 families, and were composed of one critical endangered, 10 endangered and 22 vulnerable species. They were widely distributed across the whole county and were most concentrated in the town of Nuozhadu, Fazhanhe, Nuofu and Zhutang, which were located in the southeastern, southwestern and western of Lancang, respectively. We also found that the plant species richness followed a unimodal pattern along elevation. In addition, we found that the areas of Nuozhadu Nature Reserve in Lancang only covered six threatened medicinal vascular plants, while most of the regions with high species richness were not well protected. Therefore, we proposed to make more efforts to improve the protection measurements in order to better protect and utilize the medicinal plants in Lancang.

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