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1.
Journal of International Oncology ; (12): 87-90, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989526

ABSTRACT

Lumican is a member of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan family, which is involved in cell processes related to tumorigenesis and development, such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell proliferation, migration, invasion and adhesion. The expression of Lumican in different tumors is positively or negatively correlated with tumor progression, and can be used as a reference for tumor prognosis and efficacy evaluation. Further study of the correlation and potential mechanism between Lumican and tumor therapy resistance can provide new ideas for predicting clinical therapeutic efficacy.

2.
Journal of International Oncology ; (12): 523-526, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907572

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the value of CD4/CD8 ratio and total B lymphocytes before radiotherapy in predicting the occurrence of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in patients with esophageal cancer and lung cancer.Methods:The clinicopathological data of 28 patients with esophageal and 16 patients with lung cancer undergoing radiotherapy from April 2018 to March 2020 in Hefei Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Sciences were retrospectively analyzed, and the patients were divided into RP group ( n=16) and non-RP group ( n=28) according to whether RP occurred during and after treatment. The CD4/CD8 ratio and total B lymphocytes before radiotherapy between the two groups, and the CD4/CD8 ratio and total B lymphocytes before and after radiotherapy in the RP group were compared. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to analyze the value of CD4/CD8 ratio and total B lymphocytes before radiotherapy in predicting RP. Results:The CD4/CD8 ratio before radiotherapy in the RP group was significantly lower than that in the non-RP group (0.993±0.179 vs. 1.708±0.170), with a statistically significant difference ( t=2.706, P=0.009); the total B lymphocytes in the RP group was significantly lower than that in non-RP group [(4.409±0.823)% vs. (8.153±1.017)%], with a statistically significant difference ( t=0.986, P=0.015). The CD4/CD8 ratio in the RP group was lower than that before radiotherapy when RP occurred (0.785±0.167 vs. 0.993±0.179), with no statistically significant difference ( t=1.376, P=0.189). The total B lymphocytes in the RP group was lower than that before radiotherapy when RP occurred [(3.487±1.018)% vs. (4.409±0.823)%], with no statistically significant difference ( t=0.804, P=0.433). The critical values of CD4/CD8 ratio and total B lymphocytes predicted RP were 0.580 and 0.357, respectively. The areas under the curve (AUC) of CD4/CD8 for predicting RP was 0.802 (95% CI: 0.653-0.932), the sensitivity was 89.29%, and the specificity was 68.75%. The AUC of total B lymphocytes for predicting RP was 0.694 (95% CI: 0.483-0.814), the sensitivity was 85.71%, and the specificity was 50.00%. The AUC of the two combined diagnostic method for RP was 0.834 (95% CI: 0.697-0.932), the sensitivity and specificity were 81.25% and 89.29%. AUC of the two combined tests was significantly higher than that of the single test, with statistically significant differences ( Z=1.115, P=0.046; Z=1.992, P=0.026). Conclusion:The CD4/CD8 ratio and total B lymphocytes in the RP group are lower than those in the non-RP group. The CD4/CD8 ratio and total B lymphocytes in the serum are of great significance in predicting the occurrence of RP in patients with malignant tumors receiving chest radiotherapy.

3.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 416-424, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-871925

ABSTRACT

Objective:To monitor the susceptibility of common used antimicrobial agents against nosocomial Gram-negative bacilli in 2018 across China.Methods:Prospective collection of Gram-negative bacilli from 13 teaching hospitals nationwide from January to December 2018. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs) of antibiotics such as meropenem was determined by agar dilution methods and broth microdilution methods. Interpretation of results using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute(CLSI) 2019 M100S (29th Edition) standard. Data were analyzed by using WHONET-5.6 software.Results:A total of 1 214 non-repetitive Gram-negative bacilli were collected, accounting for 96.7% (1 174/1 214) of blood and sterile body fluid samples. The activity of antimicrobial agents against 871 strains of Enterobacteriaceae was as follows in descending order of susceptible rate: amikacin (93.2%, 812/871), meropenem (92.0%, 801/871), ertapenem (88.9%, 774/871), imipenem (88.4%, 770/871), piperacillin-tazobactam (84.0%, 732/871), cefoperazone-sulbactam (83.1%, 724/871), cefepime (71.4%, 622/871), minocyline (68.9%, 600/871), ceftazidime (66.9%, 583/871), levofloxacin (54.4%, 474/871).The resistance rates of Escherichia coli to the third generation cephalosporins were 61.5% (155/252) (ceftriaxone) and 60.7% (153/252) (cefotaxime), respectively. The resistance rates of Klebsiella pneumoniae to the third generation cephalosporins were 56.6% (126/222) (ceftriaxone) and 57.9% (129/222) (cefotaxime), respectively. The incidence of extended-spectrum β lactamase (ESBLs) positive E. coli and K. pneumoniae was 50.2% (127/252) and 18.2% (40/222), respectively. Over 95% of all the ESBLs positive strains were susceptible to imipenem and meropenem. The incidence of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was 2.8% (7/252) and 20.4% (45/222), respectively. For Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella aerogenes, Citrobacter freundii, the most susceptible agent were tigecycline (96.3%-100%), followed by amikacin (94.9%-97.1%), meropenem (89.8%-96.6%)and imipenem (89.8%-94.9%).The susceptibility of Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii and Serratia marcescens to meropenem and amikacin was over 90%.A total of 67 strains of carbapenems resistant enterobacteriaceae(CRE) were detected. Modified carbapenem inactivation method showed, 45 strains were serine carbapenemase and 20 were metalloenzymes. The susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to meropenem and imipenem were 73.2% (112/153) and 66.0% (101/153), respectively. Acinobacter baumannii has the highest sensitivity to colistin (100%, 163/163), followed by tigecycline (87.1%, 142/163).Compared with other sources of infection, specimens of bloodstream infections were less resistant to Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.6%, 27/153 vs 21.7%, 15/69) and Acinetobacter baumannii (68.3%, 71/104 vs 71.2%, 42/59). Escherichia coli (2.5%,4/198 vs 0%,0/54) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (37%, 33/89 vs 18.8%, 12/64) have a high proportion of carbapenem resistance. Conclusions:Carbapenems still maintain high antibacterial activity against Enterobacteriaceae bacteria, especially strains producing only ESBLs. Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae should be given sufficient attention. Carbapenemase is the most important drug resistance mechanism of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in China.

4.
Chinese Journal of Radiation Oncology ; (6): 495-498, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-755058

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the short-term clinical efficacy and adverse reactions of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) in the treatment of locally recurrent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).Methods Clinical data of 120 cases of recurrent NSCLC after radiotherapy admitted to our hospital from October 2009 to October 2015 were retrospectively analyzed.SRT was adopted for further radiotherapy.The prescription dose was 50% dose curve surrounding the target area.The total dose was 40-50 Gy,with a single dose of 4-5 Gy for 8-12 times.The chest CT was re-examined every 2 months after radiotherapy.The short-term clinical efficacy and adverse reactions were evaluated.The changes of Karnofsky performance score (KPS) and quality of life (QOL) were recorded before and after radiotherapy.Results One patient terminated the radiotherapy due to grade 3 acute radiation-induced pneumonia,25 patients (21.0%) obtained complete remission (CR),61 cases (51.3%) of partial remission (PR),19 cases (16.0%) of stable disease (SD),14 cases (11.8%) of progress disease (PD),86 cases (72.3%) of objective remission rate (CR+PR),and 105 cases (88.2%) of disease control (CR+PR+SD),respectively.Thirty-one patients experienced radiation-induced pneumonia,23 cases of radiation-induced myelosuppression and 1 case of acute radiation-induced heart injury.All these adverse reactions were mitigated after symptomatic treatment.The KPS was significantly increased from 68.16±15.22 before SRT to 78.39± 11.50 after SRT (P<0.05).The QOL was considerably elevated from 27.58±5.37 prior to SRT to 38.16±8.39 following SRT (P<0.01).Conclusion SRT is an efficacious and safe treatment of locally recurrent NSCLC,which yields controllable and tolerable adverse reactions and enhances the QOL of patients.

5.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 651-657, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-712188

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the spectrum and antimicrobial resistance of major pathogens causing nosocomial infections in China, 2016. Methods Non-duplicated nosocomial cases as well as pathogens causing bloodstream infections ( BSI) , hospital-acquired pneumonia ( HAP) and intra-abdominal infections ( IAI ) from 12 teaching hospitals across China were collected. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of important clinical common strains were determined by agar dilution method or broth microdilution method. The CLSI M100-S27 criteria was used for interpretation. Data were analyzed by using WHONET-5. 6 software. Results A total of 2060 cases were collected, including 894 cases from BSI, 630 cases from HAP and 536 cases from IAI. The MICs of 1896 important clinical common strains were determined. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most prevalent pathogens causing BSI and IAI, while Acinetobacter baumanii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were dominated in HAP. All Staphylococcus aureus were susceptible to tigecycline, linezolid, daptomycin and glycopeptides. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus accounted for 44. 4% ( 75/169 ) of all the S. aureus. The rate of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci was 80. 9% ( 72/89 ) . No Enterococcus strains were found resistant to tigecycline, linezolid or daptomycin. Vacomycin resistant enterococcus was found in Enterococcus faecium, accounting for 1. 8% ( 2/111 ) of all E. faecium strains. Tigecycline, meropenem, amikacin, imipenem, and polymyxin B exhibited high potency against Enterobacteriaceae and the susceptibility rates were 96. 6%(865/895), 94. 3% (859/911), 94. 2% (858/911), 94. 1% (857/911), and 91. 6% (820/895), respectively. The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase was 58. 4% ( 263/450 ) in E. coli and 28. 6% ( 84/294 ) in K. pneumonia. The rate of carbapenem resistant K. pneumonia and E. coli was 15. 3% ( 45/294 ) and 1. 8% ( 8/450 ) , respectively. The percentage of polymyxin B resistant K. pneumonia and E. coli was 4. 1% ( 12/294 ) and 4. 4% ( 20/450 ) , respectively. The rate of tigecycline resistant K. pneumonia and E. coli was 2. 4% ( 7/294 ) and 0. 2% ( 1/450 ) , respectively. A. baumanii showed low susceptibility to the antimicrobial agents except tigecycline ( 91. 4%, 235/257 ) and polymyxin B (100%, 257/257). The rate of carbapenem resistant A. baumanii was 80. 5% (207/257). The rate of carbapenem resistant P. aeruginosa was 31. 7% ( 59/186 ) . Polymyxin B and amikacin demonstrated high antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa with susceptility rate of 100% ( 186/186 ) and 90. 9% ( 169/186), respectively. Conclusions Nosocomial pathogens showed high susceptibilities against tigecycline and polymyxin B. Antimicrobial resistance in A. baumannii is a serious problem. The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and polymyxin B resistant Enterobacteriaceae has increased, which should be monitored continuously in China.

6.
China Pharmacist ; (12): 1872-1873,1891, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-705731

ABSTRACT

Objective: To predict the optimal single-batch production and annual production batches for five oral solutions in order to support equipment upgrade and control reasonable cost as well as provide reference for optimizing production management of new preparation room. Methods: The clinical use of the five oral solutions in four consecutive validity periods was retrospectively analyzed. Decision analysis was used to predict the optimal single-batch production and annual production batches for the five oral solutions. The weight coefficient was adjusted according to the clinical characteristics of each preparation. Results: The optimal single-batch produc-tion for the five oral solutions was five to seven times larger than the current scale while the annual production batches were greatly re-duced. In particular, compound ammonium chloride and glycyrrhiza oral solution ( formerly known as brown mixture) were reduced from 95 batches to 13 batches per year. Conclusion: The optimal prediction can provide reference for the appropriate adjustment of production scale of hospital preparations to lower the cost of single packaging production. At the same time, it is also beneficial to the overall management of production equipment selection and future scale design for new preparation room.

7.
International Journal of Cerebrovascular Diseases ; (12): 660-665, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-693050

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the correlation between blood pressure variability (BPV) and early neurological deterioration (END) in patients with acute anterior circulation large artery atherosclerotic (LAA)stroke. Methods From January 2015 to June 2018, consecutive patients with anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke admitted to the Department of Neurology, the Affiliated Hospital of Yangzhou University were enrolled prospectively. According to the etiological classification, they were divided into LAA group and non-LAA group. By monitoring the blood pressure within 72 h of hospitalization, the mean, maximum (max)and minimum (min) values, and the difference between max and min (max-min), standard deviation (SD),and coefficient of variation (CV; CV = SD × 100/mean) were calculated. END was defined as the highest score of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) within 72 h of admission increased by ≥2than the baseline. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the correlation between BPV parameters and END. Results A total of 271 patients with anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke were enrolled, including 101 females (37. 3%) and 170 males (62. 7%), with an average age of 64. 99 ± 11. 51 years. There were 95 patients (35. 1%) with LAA and 176 (64. 9%) with non-LAA. In the LAA group and non-LAA group, 36 patients (37.9%) and 50 patients (28.4%) developed END respectively. The comparison between END patients and non-END patients in the LAA group showed that there were significant differences in age, sex, diabetes mellitus, baseline NIHSS score and C-reactive protein, as well as SBPmax , SBPmax-min , SBPSD , SBPCV, DBPmax , DBPmax-min , DBPSD , and DBPCV in BPV indices (all P < 0. 05).Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that many BPV indices were the independent risk factors for END, including SBPmax (odds ratio [OR] 1. 027, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1. 003-1. 052; P = 0. 027),SBPmax-min (OR 1. 041, 95%CI 1. 015-1. 068; P = 0. 002), SBPSD (OR 1. 177, 95% CI 1. 048-1. 322; P =0. 006), SBPCV (OR 1. 226, 95% CI 1. 036-1.451; P = 0. 018), DBPmax (OR 1. 073, 95% CI 1. 017-1. 133;P = 0. 010), DBPmax-min (OR 1. 107, 95%CI 1. 044-1. 174; P = 0. 001), DBPSD (OR 1. 693, 95%CI 1. 268- 2. 260; P < 0. 001), and DBPCV(OR 1. 726, 95%CI 1. 311-2. 271; P < 0. 001). In the non-LAA group, there were no significant association between all BPV parameters and the occurrence of END. Conclusion BPV was significantly correlated with END in patients with anterior circulation LAA.

8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1205-1217, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687696

ABSTRACT

To dynamically investigate the distribution and antimicrobial resistance profiles of bacteremia pathogens isolated from different regions in China in 2011, 2013 and 2016. Non-repetitive isolates from nosocomial bloodstream infections were retrospectively collected and detected for antimicrobial susceptibility tests (AST) by agar dilution or microbroth dilution methods. Whonet 5.6 was used to analyze the AST data. Among 2 248 isolates, 1 657 (73.7%) were Gram-negative bacilli and 591 (26.3%) were Gram-positive cocci. The top five bacteremia pathogens were as follows, Escherichia coli (32.6%, 733/2 248), Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.5%, 327/2 248), Staphylococcus aureus (10.0%, 225/2 248), Acinetobacter baumannii (8.7%, 196/2 248) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.2%, 140/2 248). Colistin (96.5%, 1 525/1 581, excluding innate resistant organisms), tigecycline (95.6%, 1 375/1 438, excluding innate resistant organisms), ceftazidine/clavulanate acid (89.2%, 1 112 /1 246), amikacin (86.4%, 1 382/1 599) and meropenem (85.7%, 1 376/1 605) showed relatively high susceptibility against Gram-negative bacilli. While tigecycline, teicoplanin and daptomycin (the susceptibility rates were 100.0%), vancomycin and linezolid (the susceptibility rates were 99.7%) demonstrated high susceptibility against Gram-positive cocci. The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs)-producing Enterobacteriaceae were 50.6% (206/407), 49.8% (136/273) and 38.9% (167/429) in 2011, 2013 and 2016 respectively; carbapenem-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae were 2.2% (9/408), 4.0% (16/402) and 3.9% (17/439) in 2011, 2013 and 2016 respectively; The prevalence of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDRA) was 76.4% (55/72) in 2011, 82.7% (43/52) in 2013 and 87.5% (63/72) in 2016, respectively. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa (MDRP) was 9.8% (5/51) in 2011, 20.0% (7/35) in 2013 and 13.0% (7/54) in 2016, respectively. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was 51.9% (41/79) in 2011, 29.7% (19/64) in 2013 and 31.7% (26/82) in 2016, respectively. The prevalence of high level gentamicin resistance (HLGR) of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis were 43.2% (48/111) and 40.9% (27/66), respectively. The predominant organism of carbapenem-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae was K. pneumoniae with its proportion of 57.1% (24/42). Among 30 tigecycline-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae, K. pneumoniae was the most popular organism with 76.7% (23/30). Among 39 colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, Enterobacter cloacae and K. pneumoniae were constituted with the percent of 43.6 (17/39), 35.9 (14/39) and 15.4 (6/39), respectively. The Gram-negative bacilli (E. coli and K. pneumoniae were the major organisms) were the major pathogens of nosocomial bacteremia, to which tigecycline, colistin and carbapenems kept with highly in vitro susceptibility. Whereas, among the Gram-positive cocci, S. aureus was the top 1 isolated organism, followed by E. faecium, to which tigecycline, daptomycin, linezolid, vancomycin and teicoplanin kept with highly in vitro susceptibility. Isolation of colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, tigecycline-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae, linezolid- or vancomycin-non-susceptible Gram-positive cocci suggests more attention should be paid to these resistant organisms and dynamic surveillance was essential.

9.
Chinese Journal of Infection Control ; (4): 99-103, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-507612

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the molecular epidemiological characteristics and homology of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)isolated from patients in intensive care units (ICUs)of a hospital,so as to provide laboratory basis for the effective control of healthcare-associated infection(HAI). Methods 62 S. aureus strains isolated from various specimens from ICU patients with infection in March-August 2013 were collected,7 housekeeping genes were amplified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR),the amplified products were sequenced,ST typing of strains was performed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST ), phylogenetic analysis of ST typing was conducted. Results 62S. aureus strains were amplified specific product of 7 housekeeping genes;there were 10 ST genotypes, in which 2 ST genotypes(STn1and STn2)were first discovered,1 ST genotype(ST675)was first discovered domes-tically. ST239 was the main ST type of S. aureus from ICU patients in this hospital,accounting for 74.20% ,which distributed in 6 ICUs,ST5 distributed in 3 ICUs. 62 strains formed 7 main branches in the phylogenetic tree,55 (88.71% )MRSA strains were detected. Conclusion S. aureus isolated from hospital ICUs has some homology, and the small number of types showed the trend of concentrated distribution.

10.
Chinese Journal of Infection Control ; (4): 121-125, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-507518

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand antimicrobial resistance of Enterobacteriaceae strains and distribution charac-teristics of carbapenemase-resistant Enterobacteriaceae(CRE)in Xijing Hospital in 2015,so as to provide basis for rational use of antimicrobial agents in clinic. Methods Specimens from infected inpatients and outpatients in Xijing Hospital in January-December 2015 were performed pathogenic culture,isolation and identification. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed with Kirby-Bauer method,carbapenemase confirmatory test was conducted with modified Hodge test,antimicrobial resistance of Enterobacteriaceae was statistically analyzed. Results A total of 4166 pathogenic strains were isolated in 2015,1554 (37.30% )of which were Enterobacteriaceae strains,the top 5 isolated pathogens were Escherichiacoli(E. coli),Klebsiella pneumoniae(K. pneumoniae),Enterobactercloacae (E. cloacae),Proteusmirabilis,and Enterobacteraerogenes. Of 787 E. coli strains,581(73.82% )were extend-ed-spectrumβ-lactamases(ESBLs)-producing strains;of 367 K. pneumoniae strains,182 (49.59% )were ESBLs-producing strains. E. coli and K. pneumoniae had the highest resistance rates to cefazolin,which were 93.14% and 78.48% respectively. A total of 81 (5.21% )CRE were detected,K. pneumoniae,E. cloacae,and E. coli were 41 ,27,and 13 strains respectively;strains were mainly isolated from patients in departments of neurosurgery(n=42),gastroenterology(n= 9),and neurology(n= 8). 1.02% (8/787)of E. coli and 3.27% (12/367)of K. pneu-moniae were multidrug-resistant. Conclusion Enterobacteriaceae accounted for a higher proportion of pathogenic bacteria causing HAI,the detection rate of ESBLs-producing strains remains high,the isolation rate of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is higher than that of last year,especially K. pneumoniae.

11.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 614-622, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-611674

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate antimicrobial resistance among nosocomial gram-negative bacilli in 2016 across China.Methods About 1 394 consecutive and non-repetitive gram-negative bacilli were isolated from 14 teaching hospitals from March to August in 2016 across China.All of these isolates were sent to the central laboratory for reidentification and susceptibility testing.The minimal inhibitory concentration(MICs)of meropenem and other antibacterial agents were determined by agar dilution method.The data were analyzed by using WHONET-5.6 software.Results The activity of antimicrobial agents against Enterobacteriaceae was as follows in descending order of susceptible rate: meropenem (95.2%,891/936), amikacin (94.6%,885/936), ertapenem (92.1%,862/936), piperacillin/tazobactam (88.1%,825/936), imipenem (88.0%,823/936), cefoperazone-sulbactam (83.1%,778/936), cefepime (72.2%,676/936), cefiazidime (72.2%,676/936), levofloxacin(68.8%,644/936), ciprofloxacin (63.2%,592/936), minocyline (62.9%,589/936), cefiriaxone (54.9%,514/936), cefotaxime (54.0%,505/936), cefoxitin (44.3%,415/936).The sensitivities of E.coli to carbapenems, amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, polymyxin B and cefoperazone-sulbactam were over 80%.The more sensitive antibiotic to Klebsiella pneumoniae was polymyxin B (99.0%), followed by amikacin (84.9%), meropenem (84.4%) and imipenem (82.0%).The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase was 62.8%(137/218)in Escherichia coli and 28.3%(58/205)in Klebsiella pneumonia.The activity of antimicrobial agents against E.cloacae, E.aerogenes and Citrobacter freundii was as follows in descending order of susceptible rate: meropenem (97.0%-98.5%), amikacin (95.8%-98.3%), imipenem (94.5%-97.5%), polymyxin B (96.4%-100%), cefoperazone-sulbactam (76.5%-90.0%), ertapenem (73.3%-90.1%), piperacillin/tazobactam (82.4%-88.3%).The most active agents against Pseudomonas aeruginosa were polymyxinB (100%), followed by amikacin (89.3%) and ciprofloxacin (82.4%).The most active agents against Acinetobacter baumannii were polymyxinB (100%).The sensitivities of Acinetobacter baumannii to meropenem, imipenem, minocycline and cefoperazone-sulbactam were 20.3%(39/202), 19.3%(41/202), 66.3%(134/202) and 24.8%(50/202), respectively.Conclusions Carbapenems remain high sensitive against Enterobacteriaceae.Controlling carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae is urgent.Drug antimicrobial resistance in A.baumanni is a still serious problem.

12.
International Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 1198-1200, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-615921

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the sensitivity of four kinds of drug susceptibility test method in detecting sensitivity of tigecycline against Acinetobacter baumannii.Methods The susceptibility of 72 clinically isolated strains of carbapenemase-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii(CRAB) to tigecycline in vitro was detected with disk diffusion method,VITEK 2 Compact system,E-test and MIC test strip(MTS) test strip respectively,according to FDA standards,and the differences of four kinds of drug susceptibility test methods were compared.Results The susceptibility rates of 72 strains of CRAB to tigecycline by disk diffusion method,VITEK 2 Compact system,E-test and MIC test strip were 50.00%,69.44%,36.11% and 98.61% respectively,the intermediate rates were 48.61%,29.17%,26.39% and 1.39% respectively,the resistant rates were 1.39%,1.39%,37.50% and 0.00% respectively.Compared with MTS,the classification consistency rates of E-test,disk diffusion method and VITEK 2 Compact system were 36.11%,51.39% and 70.83% respectively.Conclusion There is difference among four kinds of method for conducting the drug susceptibility testing of tigecycline against CRAB,the consistency of disk diffusion method,VITEK 2 Compact system and E-test is lower.Detecting mediation or drug resistant strains of CRAB by disk diffusion method,VITEK 2 Compact system and E-test needs to be verified by MTS or Broth dilution method.

13.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 442-447, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-494744

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the diagnostic performance of Xpert MTB/RIF for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM).Methods This was a prospective, single center clinical trial.A total of 116 consecutive patients with suspected meningitis who were admitted to Xijing Hospital from October 2013 to June 2015 were recruited.Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( MTB) and rifampicin ( RIF) resistance mutations in 1 ml cerebrospinal fluid ( CSF) were detected with Xpert MTB/RIF and the remaining sample was tested by Ziehl-Neelsen staining , MGIT960 liquid culture and other laboratory tests .And the enrolled patients were grouped according to the 2010 South African expert consensus .The diagnostic performance of Xpert MTB/RIF was evaluated by comparing against clinical score >5 points and MGIT960 liquid culture as reference standards respectively .The comparison was performed using a χ2 test or Fisher′s exact test for categorical variables and a nonparametric rank sum test for continuous variables .Results Among the enrolled 116 subjects, 23 subjects were diagnosed as definite-TBM by MGIT960 liquid culture, 16 subjects were classified as probable TBM , 27 subjects were classified as possible TBM , and 50 subjects were classified as non-TBM.When clinical score >5 points was used as a reference standard , the sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF (39.4%) was comparable with that of MGIT960 liquid culture (34.8%) (χ2 =0.292, P=0.589), and significantly better than that of Ziehl-Neelsen staining (9.9%) (χ2 =16.500, 12.771, P<0.001). No significant differences were found among the specificities of Xpert MTB /RIF, MGIT960 liquid culture and Ziehl-Neelsen staining ( 98.0%, 100.0% vs 98.0%, χ2 =1.014, P=0.602 ) .When tested against MGIT960 liquid culture as a reference standard , the sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF was 91.3%. Conclusions Xpert MTB/RIF is a rapid and specific method to detect MTB and RIF resistance in CSF .It exhibits a good rule in value for the diagnosis of TBM and a comparable sensitivity with MGIT 960 liquid culture, thus it can be used as the initial method for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis .

14.
International Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 294-296, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-483449

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the distribution of clinically isolated pathogenic bacteria in Xi′an area during 2014 and their drug resistant characteristics in order to provide the data of pathogenic bacterial drug resistance for medical pharmaceutical adminis ‐tration departments and clinical rational use of antibacterial drugs .Methods The pathogenic bacteria of nosocomial infections were cultured and isolated by using the routine method .The bacterial species was identified by using the semi‐automatic or full‐automatic bacterial identification and analysis systems .The drug susceptibility test was conducted according to CLSI standards .The data sta‐tistics and analysis were performed by using the WHONET 5 .6 software .Results 31 013 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isola‐ted in 2014 ,including 20 029 strains (64 .58% ) of Gram‐negative bacilli ,9 888 strains (31 .88% ) of Gram‐positive cocci and 1 096 strains (3 .54% ) of fungi ;the top bacteria was E .coli(20 .29% ) ,vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was not be found ;the resistance rates of Enterococcus faecium and faecalis against Vancomycin were 3 .00% ,1 .00% ,which against to linezolid was 1 .00% ;the generation rates of extended‐spectrum beta‐lactamase(ESBLs) in E .coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were 65 .0% and 56 .0% respectively .Conclusion The important pathogenic bacteria ,including MRSA ,vancomycin resistant enterococcus ,carbapen‐em resistant Enterobacteriaceae bacteria ,pan‐drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii ,in nosocomial infection should be performed the intensive monitoring and the communication with clinic should be strengthened in order to make the detection results serve the clinic well .

15.
Chinese Journal of Infection Control ; (4): 294-298, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-492421

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the characteristics of antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus (S .aureus)in the intensive care units(ICUs)of a hospital.Methods Clinical isolates of S .aureus collected from ICUs between January and December 2014 were identified and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing,then typed by staphylococcal protein A (spa)typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) methods.Results Of 160 isolates of S .aureus ,120 (75.00%)were methicillin-resistant S .aureus (MRSA). Resistance rates of MRSA to erythromycin,clindamycin,and levofloxacin were all > 80%;methicillin-sensitive S .aureus (MSSA)were sensitive to cefazolin,resistance rates to erythromycin,clindamycin,and levofloxacin were 62.50%,35.00%,and 10.00% respectively.spa typing and MLST results showed that the main types of 120 isolates of MRSA were ST239-t030,ST239-t037,and ST5-t2460,the major epidemic strains were ST239-t030 (n=105,87.50%),and were isolated from 8 ICUs;MSSA had more types,ST59-t437 were detected only from depart-ment of neurology(n =8)and department of digestive diseases(n =2),ST6-t701 ,ST398-t3625,ST398-t1793,and ST121-t2092 were isolated from departments of neurology(n=7),anesthesiology(n=5),neurosurgery(n=4),and cardiac surgery(n=4)respectively.Conclusion Isolation rate of MRSA in ICUs in this hospital is high,ST239-t030 is the main type,which prevailed in hospital;different types of MSSA have epidemic trends in various departments.

16.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 373-381, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-467481

ABSTRACT

Objective Toinvestigateantimicrobialresistanceamonggram-positivecocciinChinain 2013.Methods Retrospectivestudy.FromJune2013toDecember2013,1663consecutiveandnon-repetitive gram-positive cocci were collected from 15 teaching hospitals. The minimal inhibitory concentration ( MIC) of antibacterial agents was determined by agar dilution method. A retrospective study was conducted on rates of resistance to antimicrobial agents. The prevalence of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae ( PRSP) between children and adult patients and the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) between elder group and younger adult patients were compared using chi-square test. Results The prevalence of PRSP in children below 3 years old ( 72. 9%, 51/70 ) was higher than adult patients (55. 2%, 106/192) (χ2 =6. 653,P<0. 05). About 94. 9%(261/275) and (92. 7%,255/275) of S. pneumonia were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin. All S. pneumoniae strains were susceptible to teicoplanin, vancomycin, linezolid, tigecycline and daptomycin. Penicillin still showed very high activity against Streptococcus spp. β-Hemolytic group. More than 60% of Streptococcus spp.β-Hemolytic group were resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracyclines. The prevalence of MRSA and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci(MRCoNS) was 39. 7%(229/576) and 80. 6%(224/278), respectively. The MRSA prevalence ranged from 24. 2% to 70. 0% in different regions. About 52. 6%( 100/190 ) of Staphylococcus aureus from respiratory tract specimens, 38. 5%(40/104)of Staphylococcus aureus from blood samples, and 29. 7%(58/195) of Staphylococcus aureus from wound and pus were resistant to methicillin. The prevalence of MRSA in elder group ( 48. 6%, 84/173 ) was higher than that in younger adult patients (35. 7%, 144/403)(χ2 =8. 322,P <0. 05). The susceptibility rates of MRSA to chloramphenicol and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were 86. 4% ( 244/228 ) and 94. 7% ( 237/228 ) , respectively. Susceptibility rates to gentamycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracyclines, rifampicin and quinolones were ranged from 15. 8% to 59. 6%. All Staphylococci isolates were susceptible to teicoplanin, vancomycin, linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline. All Enterococcus isolates were susceptible to daptomycin and tigecycline. All E. faecalis ( 158/158 ) and 96. 4% ( 133/138 ) of E. faecium were susceptible to teicoplanin. About 98. 0% ( 150/153 ) of E. faecalis and 97. 1% ( 145/138 ) of E. faecium were susceptible to linezoild. About 45. 8% (70/153) of E. faecalis and 60. 9% (84/138) of E. faecium were resistant to gentamycin with a high concentration. The susceptibility of E. faecalis to all the antibiotics tested exceptchloramphenicolandtetracyclinewashigherthanthatofE.faecium.Conclusions Basedon different age groups and regions, the resistance rates of Gram-positive cocci are different. Teicoplanin, vancomycin, tigecycline, daptomycin, linezolid and tedizolid showed very high activity against Gram-positive cocci. (Chin J Lab Med,2015,38:373-381)

17.
Chinese Journal of Infection Control ; (4): 811-813, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-484026

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Objective To investigate the incidence of surgical site infection(SSI)following clean incision breast surgery under non-local anesthesia,and evaluate risk factors for SSI.Methods Clinical data of 3 327 patients who underwent clean incision breast surgery under non-local anesthesia in 22 hospitals in Fujian Province were surveyed retrospectively,SSI and risk factors were analyzed.Results Among 3 327 patients,1 502(45.19%)were with malignant tumors,the average dura-tion of surgery were (101.18 ±8.04)minutes;a total of 24 cases of SSI occurred,incidence of SSI was 0.72%;253 (7.60%)patients received pre-operative antimicrobial prophylaxis,62.66% used antimicrobial agents within 0.5-2 hours before surgery.The main pathogenic bacteria was Staphylococcus aureus .Univariate and logistic regression analysis re-vealed that malignant tumor,diabetes mellitus,and use of immunosuppressants were all risk factors for SSI (all P <0.05). Conclusion SSI following clean incision breast surgery under non-local anesthesia is well controlled,risk factors for SSI should be evaluated before operation,comprehensive preventive measures should be taken to reduce the incidence of SSI.

18.
International Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 3517-3519, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-483899

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the clindamycin resistance gene and molecular epidemic of Staphylococcus aureus in the pa‐tients with bloodstream infection in our hospital during 2014 .Methods The clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in clinical bloodstream infection were collected during 2014 .The phenotype of erythromycin to clindamycin induced resistance was assessed by D test .The erm gene was detected by PCR .The different erm types of the molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus were studied by spa and MLST typing .Results In 33 strains of Staphylococcus aureus ,the isolation rate of MRSA strains were 78 .79% ,moreover all of MRSA strains carried ermA gene .In 7 strains of methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus(MSSA) ,4 strains respectively carried ermB or ermC gene .The results of MLST and spa results showed that the main type of MRSA in our hospital was ST239‐t030 .But MSSA had more types ,such as ST59‐t437 ,ST398‐t3625 and so on .Conclusion MRSA has higher i‐solation rate in our hospital ,which is dominated by ST239‐t030 type .For the detection of gene erm ,ermA (86 .67% ) is the main type .The strains are obviously resistant to antibacterial drugs .The laboratory should strengthen the detection of clindamycin in‐duced resistance for guiding the clinical rational use of antibacterial drugs .

19.
International Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 3098-3100, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-480577

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Objective To investigate the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of multidrug‐resistant organisms(MDROs) . Methods The distribution and antimicrobial resistance of MDROs ,isolated from 2010 to 2014 ,were retrospectively analyzed . MDROs were identified according to international consensus .The WHONET5 .6 software was used to analyze data .Results A to‐tal of 5 709 strains of MDROs were isolated in five years ,in which 2 441 strains were Staphylococcus(42 .76% ) ,2 091 strains were non‐fermentive bacterial(36 .63% ) ,737 strains were Enterococcus(12 .90% ) ,440 strains were Enterobacter(7 .71% ) .Of the 5 709 MDROs isolates ,55 .04% were isolated from respiratory tract specimens .The resistant rate of multidrug‐resistant E .coli and K . pneumoniae against cefoperazone/sulbactam ,imipenem and meropenem was less than 30% .The resistance of multidrug‐resistant A . baumanii was higher than 90% ,except to minocycline and cefoperazone/sulbactam ,20 .2% and 50 .6% respectively .The resistant rate of multidrug‐resistant P .aeruginosa was 71 .4% -97 .0% against other antimicrobial agents ,except to polymyxin B .The resist‐ance of multidrug‐resistant E .faecium against the antimicrobials was higher than 90% ,except 13 .8% to minocycline and less than 3% to linezolid ,teicoplanin and vancomycin .Meanwhile ,1 linezolid resistant strain was identified in 1 914 methicillin resistant S .au‐reus(MRSA) strains and all MRSA strains were susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin .Conclusion MDROs could be predomi‐nated by A .bauman and MRSA in this hospital .Monitoring and control measures to healthcare‐associated infections should be in‐tensified to prevent the spread of MDROs .

20.
International Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 3366-3368, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-457711

ABSTRACT

Objective To express recombinant HBHAΔC and HBHAΔN protein,and compare the HBHA series protein activity with each other.It will be provide a experimental basis for the research on clinical diagnostic of HBHA.Methods The HBHAΔC and HBHAΔN gene fragments were cloned and expressed by transforming E.coli BL-21.Test the protein heparin binding ability by CL-6B column.And then added protein to the BCG 7H9 culture medium,to observe the induced BCG aggregation.Results nHB-HA,rHBHA and HBHAΔN protein have heparin binding ability.Meanwhile nHBHA,rHBHA and HBHA Δ C protein have in-duced BCG aggregation effect.Conclusion The HBHAΔC and HBHAΔN protein were successfully obtained.It was proved that the HBHA C-terminal could be combined with heparin and the N-terminal involved could induce the aggregation of BCG.This results provide a basis for further study on molecular mechanism of TB infection and clinical application.

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