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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879039


The growth years of traditional Chinese medicinal materials are closely related to their quality, which directly affects the efficacy and safety of clinical medication. Therefore, it is particularly important to establish an identification method for the growth years of traditional Chinese medicinal materials. In this review, the identification methods for the growth years of traditional Chinese medicinal materials were summarized systematically, and were divided into four types according to the identification principles and methods: traditional identification, molecular identification, physical/chemical identification, and integrated identification. Relying on rich experience, objective molecular markers, various physical/chemical methods and integrated identification techniques(including infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, bionic identification technology and their tandem technologies, etc.), the differences of characters or chemical fingerprints were compared in depth. The growth years of traditional Chinese medicinal materials were quickly identified or predicted by the appearance and characters, the whole fingerprint information or the content of specific chemical markers, and their content ratios. Through the case analysis of mature varieties, we intend to promote the establishment of a perfect technology system for the identification of the growth years of traditional Chinese medicinal materials, and to provide a reference for other perennial herbal materials, finally resulting in the accurate and precise quality control of traditional Chinese medicinal materials.

China , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1511-1520, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828793


Development of rapid analytical methods and establishment of toxic component limitation standards are of great importance in quality control of traditional Chinese medicine. Herein, an on-line extraction electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (oEESI-MS) coupled with a novel whole process integral quantification strategy was developed and applied to direct determination of nine key aconitine-type alkaloids in 20 proprietary Chinese medicines (APCMs). Multi-type dosage forms (, tablets, capsules, pills, granules, and liquid preparation) of APCM could be determined directly with excellent versatility. The strategy has the characteristics of high throughput, good tolerance of matrix interference, small amount of sample (∼0.5 mg) and reagent (∼240 μL) consumption, and short analysis time for single sample (<15 min). The results were proved to be credible by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, respectively. Moreover, the limitation standard for the toxic aconitines in 20 APCMs was established based on the holistic weight toxicity (HWT) evaluation and the severally, and turned out that HWT-based toxicity evaluation results were closer to the real clinical applications. Hence, a more accurate and reliable APCM toxicity limitation was established and expected to play an important guiding role in clinics. The current study extended the power of ambient MS as a method for the direct quantification of molecules in complex samples, which is commonly required in pharmaceutical analysis, food safety control, public security, and many other disciplines.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878871


Dao-di herbs, which are widely recognized as medicinal materials with a high quality and good efficacy in clinic, are now facing the dilemma of absence of standard. This study focused on a pivotal scientific problem of design and application of quality standard of Dao-di herbs, and systematically illustrated the general rules for the quality standard of Dao-di herbs involving "four rules, six core contents, and three key methods". The quality standard of Dao-di herbs shall be fully based on literatures as well as habitat, planting/breeding, processing, characters, chemical-pharmacological/toxic data. The common requirements for the quality standard of Dao-di herbs contain "clear source, explicit origin, rational indicator, gradable quality, and multiple detection methods". Notably, traditional experiences and modern techniques, quality tracing management system, "quality determination by distinguishing characters" method, rapid detection technology, effective/toxic substances control method, were comprehensively applied in this standard to purse the objectification, automation, and intellectualization of detection technology. Appearance characters, chemical components, and bioactive parameters, unified effective/toxic indicators, quality markers, and pharmacopeial control indicators and reasonable ranges were included in rigorous quality standards for Dao-di herbs. Besides, simple grading method shall be developed to guide the implementation of "high quality-high price" policy. Eventually, the new quality standards for Dao-di herbs will lead international standards and promote the high-quality development of Dao-di herbs.

Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal , Reference Standards , Technology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872900


Qizhu, the dried rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala in Compositae family, is the representative wild variety of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (Baizhu) with modern excellent quality. Through textual research of materia medica works and modern studies, the medication methods between Qizhu and ancient Baizhu were systematically compared. Focusing on seven key issues, this paper systematically summarized the medicinal history, characters, cultivation and other related contents of Qizhu, in order to provide a basis of Qizhu in the recovery and development of its own Daodi-status, and further serve the industrial development of this herb. The name, harvesting time, processing method and other issues had undergone a relatively complicated evolution process. At present, acknowledged points are as following:①The distribution areas of Qizhu include southern areas of the Yangtze River in Anhui province and its surrounding regions. ②Harvesting time is late October. ③Qizhu can be dried in the shade or micro-hot dried after being wrapped with absorbent paper, later it can be divided into two commercial specifications. ④In addition to cutting, there is still a lack of other processing methods. ⑤The superior characters of Qizhu contain white, less oil, fragrant smell and sweet taste and so on. ⑥The history of Qizhu as a genuine medicinal material can be traced back to the Ming dynasty.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773664


Aconitums,represented by Aconite Radix,Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and Aconiti Kusnezoffh Folium,is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine with a long medicinal history in China. They possess the significant toxicity and therapeutic effects simultaneously. Their potent effects of rescuing from dying,curing rheumatism,anti-inflammation,and analgesia make Aconitums highly regarded by physicians and pharmacists of various dynasties. However,countless poisoning cases caused by an irrational use of Aconitums were reported. In case of improper application and exceeding the therapeutic window,the acute cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity would be caused,seriously threatening health and even life of the users. Therefore,the clinical application of Aconitums is limited to some extent. To avoid its toxicity and ensure the safety of medicinal use,Aconitums is usually used in a form of its processed products instead of the crude herbs,or combined with some other traditional Chinese medicines in a normal prescription. A proper processing and compatibility method can detoxicate its severe toxicity,reduce the adverse reactions,and also significantly broaden the indications and application range of Aconitums. This provides a guarantee for the secondary exploitation and utilization of Aconitums. In this paper,the traditional processing methods of Aconitums,along with the modern advancement were reviewed,and the mechanisms of detoxification by processing and compatibility were also illuminated. The physical detoxification mode and chemical detoxification mode were found as two main detoxification ways for Aconitums. In particular,the detoxification by hydrolysis,ion-pair,and saponification were three main means. The mechanisms illustrated in this paper can be a reference to the development of modern processing method and a guidance for appropriate use of Aconitums in clinical application.

Aconitum , Chemistry , Toxicity , China , Drug Compounding , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Toxicity , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Plant Roots , Chemistry