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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-867598

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish a colloidal gold technique assay for the rapid detection of immunoglobulin(Ig)M and IgG antibodies against 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) and to evaluate its clinical performance.Methods:A total of 278 patients who were respectively treated at Wuhan Hankou Hospital and the People′s Hospital of Honghu from February 12, 2020 to February 20, 2020 were collected. According to the diagnostic criteria, 89 patients were confirmed with positive 2019-nCoV nucleic acid, and 189 were 2019-nCoV nucleic acid-negative suspected patients. A total of 273 medical examiners from Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University from 2015 to 2018 were selected as controls. The serum samples of patients were collected. 2019-nCoV nucleic proteins were obtained from prokaryotic expression vectors. Indirect IgM and IgG colloidal gold techniques were established by using recombinant nuclear protein. 2019-nCoV nucleic acid detection by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used as control. Serum specimens were tested for 2019-nCoV IgM and IgG. The specificity and sensitivity of colloidal gold assay were analyzed.Results:The positive rates of IgM and IgG with the colloidal gold detection in confirmed patients with positive 2019-nCoV nucleic acid were 78.7%(70/89) and 73.0%(65/89), respectively. The positive rates of IgM and IgG in medical examiners were 1.8%(5/273) and 0.7%(2/273), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of IgM detection reagents were 78.7% and 98.2%, respectively, those of IgG detection reagents were 73.0% and 99.3%, respectively, and those of IgM combined with IgG detection were 87.6% and 98.2%, respectively. For suspected patients with negative 2019-nCoV nucleic acid, the positive rates of IgM and IgG were 59.8%(113/189) and 52.9%(100/189), respectively, and the positive rate of IgM combined with IgG detection was 66.1%(125/189).Conclusion:This reagent of 2019-nCoV antibodies detection (colloidal gold technique) fulfills the requirement for clinical application with high specificity and sensitivity, which can be served as a supplementary detection method for 2019-nCoV nucleic acid detection by RT-PCR.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811505

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To establish a colloidal gold technique assay for the rapid detection of immunoglobulin(Ig) M and IgG antibodies against 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) and to evaluate its clinical performance.@*Methods@#A total of 278 patients who were treated at Wuhan Hankou Hospital and the People's Hospital of Honghu from February 12, 2020 to February 20, 2020 were collected. According to the diagnostic criteria, 89 patients were confirmed with 2019-nCoV nucleic acid positive diagnosis, and 189 were 2019-nCoV nucleic acid-negative suspected patients. A total of 273 medical examiners from Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University from 2015 to 2018 were selected as controls. The serum samples of patients were collected. 2019-nCoV nucleic proteins were obtained from prokaryotic expression vectors. Indirect IgM and IgG colloidal gold techniques were established by using recombinant N protein. 2019-nCoV nucleic acid detection by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used as control. Serum specimens were tested for 2019-nCoV IgM and IgG. The specificity and sensitivity of colloidal gold assay were analyzed.@*Results@#The sensitivity and specificity of IgM detection reagents were 78.7% and 98.2%, respectively, those of IgG detection reagents were 73.0% and 99.3%, respectively, and those of IgM combined with IgG detection were 87.6% and 98.2%, respectively. For suspected patients with negative 2019-nCoV nucleic acid, the positive rates of IgM and IgG were 59.8% (113/189) and 52.9% (100/189), respectively, and the positive rate of IgM combined with IgG detection was 66.1% (125/189).@*Conclusion@#This reagent of 2019-nCoV antibodies detection (colloidal gold technique) fulfills the requirement for clinical application with high specificity and sensitivity, which can be served as a supplementary detection method for 2019-nCoV nucleic acid detection by RT-PCR.

3.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 725-729, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-807594

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate and compare the sensitivities of early childhood caries detection by using international caries detection and assessment system (ICDAS)-Ⅱ and WHO criteria.@*Methods@#A total of 449 3-year-old children from four day care kindergartens in Beijing were enrolled in this study. Both ICDAS-Ⅱ and WHO criteria were used to assess the prevalence of caries in the given subjects. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) index scores were calculated. In ICDAS-Ⅱ system, four cut-off points (D1, D2, D3 and D4) were employed to differentiate sound and decayed teeth: D1 (score 0 as sound, scores 1-6 as caries); D2 (0-1 sound, 2-6 caries); D3 (0-2 sound, 3-6 caries) and D4 (0-3 sound, 4-6 caries). SPSS software was used to analyze the data to decide the significance of differences.@*Results@#The caries prevalence using ICDAS-Ⅱ were 76.6% (344/449), 71.3% (320/449), 52.8% (237/449) and 46.1% (207/449) for D1 to D4, respectively; the corresponding mean dmft scores were 4.95±4.85, 4.41±4.77, 2.54±3.69 and 1.97±3.10. The sites with highest caries prevalence were occlusal surface of mandibular molars in groups of D1 and D2 and proximal surface of maxillary anterior teeth in groups D3 and D4. In contrast, the caries prevalence was 48.8% (219/449) and the mean dmft was 2.27±3.54 when using WHO criteria, significantly lower than the detection rates by using ICDAS-Ⅱ (D1-D2) (P=0.00). This suggested that ICDAS-Ⅱ system was a more sensitive method in detecting early childhood caries.@*Conclusions@#ICDAS-Ⅱ system might be superior in detection of incipient caries and be of specific value in prevention of early childhood caries.

4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(2): e16087, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839493

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The discovery of arteannuin (qinghaosu) in the 20th Century was a major advance for medicine. Besides functioning as a malaria therapy, arteannuin is a pharmacological agent in a range of other diseases, but its mechanism of action remains obscure. In this study, the reverse docking server PharmMapper was used to identify potential targets of arteannuin. The results were checked using the chemical-protein interactome servers DRAR-CPI and DDI-CPI, and verified by AutoDock Vina. The results showed that neprilysin (also known as CD10), a common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia antigen, was the top disease-related target of arteannuin. The chemical-protein interactome and docking results agreed with those of PharmMapper, further implicating neprilysin as a potential target. Although experimental verification is required, this study provides guidance for future pharmacological investigations into novel clinical applications for arteannuin.


Subject(s)
Computer Simulation/classification , Neprilysin/pharmacology , Artemisinins/analysis , Drug Repositioning/statistics & numerical data
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-299335

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of an adenovirus vector containing murine interleukin-21 gene (Ad-GFP-mIL-21) in virus clearance and on the production of HBV-specific antibodies in mice with persistent HBV infection.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>ELISA and Western blot analysis were used to detect the expression of mIL-21 in the supernatant and cytoplasm of cultured HepG2.2.15 cells after infection by Ad-GFP-mIL-21. Mouse models of chronic HBV infection established by in vivo transduction with rAAV8-1.3HBV were divided into 3 groups for treatment 12 weeks later with injection of Ad-GFP-mIL-21, GFP recombinant adenovirus or PBS via the tail vein. Serum levels of HBsAg, HBsAb, HBcAb, and mIL-21 in the mice were detected using ELISA, and the expression of Ad-GFP-mIL-21 in the organs was observed by fluorescent microscopy at different time points after the injection.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Ad-GFP-mIL-21 was capable of infecting HepG2.2.15 cells in vitro, and the levels of mIL-21 in the supernatant were correlated with the titers of adenovirus administered and the infection time. In the mice with persistent HBV infection, green fluorescence expression was observed almost exclusively in the liver on day 4 after injection of Ad-GFP-mIL21, and serum levels of IL-21 increased significantly compared with the level before treatment (P<0.05). Although HBsAb was undetectable in both Ad-GFP-mIL21-injected and control mice on day 13, a significantly higher serum level of HBcAb was detected in the mice with Ad-GFP-mIL21 injection (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Ad-GFP-mIL-21 can efficiently express mIL-21 in mice with chronic HBV infection to downregulate serum levels of HBsAg and promote HBcAb production, suggesting its efficacy in controlling chronic HBV infection.</p>

6.
China Pharmacist ; (12): 894-896, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-669752

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of Zhenzhu Mingmu eye drops according to the requirements de-scribed in Chinese pharmacopoeia (2010 edition). Methods:Totally 7 batches of Zhenzhu Mingmu eye drops from 7 enterprises were evaluated. All the samples were tested according to the requirements described in Chinese pharmacopoeia, and the testing points of 6h and 24h were added. Results:As for bacteria, the reduction value of staphylococcus aureus in 7 days treated with Zhenzhu Mingmu eye drops from enterprise e was 0. 61g, and that in 14 days was 1. 01g. That in 7 days treated with the eye drops from the other enter-prises was all above 1. 01g, that in 14 days was above 3. 01g, and that in 14-28 days kept stable. As for fungi, the number was stable from the beginning with the treatment of the eye drops from the seven enterprises. Conclusion:Although the type and content of bacte-riostatic agent in domastic Zhenzhu Mingmu eye drops are the same, there is difference in the antimicrobial effectiveness of the product from different enterprise. The eye drops from one enterprise can't meet the requirements for type I product described in Chinese pharma-copoeia,and the others meet the requirements.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-315790

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the changes in the threshold of auditory brainstem response (ABR) and [Ca(2+)]I and calmodulin (CaM) in cochlear nucleus of newborn mice infected by murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) in the brain.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sixty-nine newborn mice were randomized into model group and control group. The model group (54 mice) was established by intracranial injection with MCMV viral suspension 20 l and the same volume of 0.9% sodium chloride was injected in the control group (15 mice). After 1 month, the ABR was tested in a sound-electric screen environment and the threshold was recorded. Then intracellular free calcium [Ca(2+)]i and the mRNA level of CaM in the cochlear nucleus were assayed by flow cytometry and RT-PCR.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compare to the control group [(64.0 ± 1.3) dBSPL], the threshold of ABR in the model group [(84.5 ± 2.7) dBSPL] was increased (F = 2.789,P = 0.000). Moreover, in the model group the intracellular free calcium [Ca(2+)]i and the mRNA level of CaM in the cochlear nucleus were increased (F = 1.290, P = 0.000; F = 4.252, P = 0.023), and the differences were statistically significant.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The intracranial injection of MCMV can lead to abnormal changes in the threshold of ABR in mice, and the change of [Ca(2+) ]I/CaM in cochlear nucleus may be the important pathological basis of sensorineural hearing loss induced by MCMV infection.</p>


Subject(s)
3T3 Cells , Animals , Auditory Threshold , Calcium , Metabolism , Calmodulin , Metabolism , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases , Metabolism , Virology , Cochlear Nucleus , Metabolism , Cytomegalovirus , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Metabolism , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Female , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C
8.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 207-209, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-737353

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the long-term effect of plasma-derived HBV vaccine.Methods The effect of a plasma-derived HBV vaccine which was given to children born in 1986 in Huangpu district in Shanghai were followed up once every two years and testing for HBsAg,anti-HBs and anti-HBc was carried out.Compared to background results from cross-sectional survey of hepatitis B virus in 1984 and 1985 (as internal control) as well as finding of survey targeted in non-plasma-derived HBV vaccine of children born in the same time in the nearby area from results investigated in 1991 (as external control),positive rate was calculated to assess the effect of protection.Results The population immunized was followed up for 23 years and 5993 blood samples were collected.During the period of follow-up,the positive rate of anti-HBs decreased from 89.01% to 18.77% and the average level was 40.39%.The average positive rate of anti-HBc was 1.87%.The annual positive rate fluctuated around the average level.HBsAg positive rate remained less than 1.00% (0.46%-0.98%),with an average of 0.62% (37/5993).Ranges of positive efficacy were from 81.37% to 95.78% against background control and 72.76% against external control.Conclusion The plasma-derived HBV vaccine showed a good long-term protective effect and there was no need for boosting the immunization 23 years later.

9.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 207-209, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-735885

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the long-term effect of plasma-derived HBV vaccine.Methods The effect of a plasma-derived HBV vaccine which was given to children born in 1986 in Huangpu district in Shanghai were followed up once every two years and testing for HBsAg,anti-HBs and anti-HBc was carried out.Compared to background results from cross-sectional survey of hepatitis B virus in 1984 and 1985 (as internal control) as well as finding of survey targeted in non-plasma-derived HBV vaccine of children born in the same time in the nearby area from results investigated in 1991 (as external control),positive rate was calculated to assess the effect of protection.Results The population immunized was followed up for 23 years and 5993 blood samples were collected.During the period of follow-up,the positive rate of anti-HBs decreased from 89.01% to 18.77% and the average level was 40.39%.The average positive rate of anti-HBc was 1.87%.The annual positive rate fluctuated around the average level.HBsAg positive rate remained less than 1.00% (0.46%-0.98%),with an average of 0.62% (37/5993).Ranges of positive efficacy were from 81.37% to 95.78% against background control and 72.76% against external control.Conclusion The plasma-derived HBV vaccine showed a good long-term protective effect and there was no need for boosting the immunization 23 years later.

10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 3266-3272, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-316525

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>The Fc receptor associated pathway might improve the immune responses against hepatitis B virus (HBV) as previously described by us. In addition, the Flt3 ligand (FL) has been reported to potentiate antigen presenting cells in vivo and may act as a potential adjuvant to boost antigen-specific immune responses. In this study, the immune efficacies of a set of fusion proteins of HBsAg and Fc and/or FL were evaluated in HBsAg transgenic mice.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The fusion proteins composed of HBsAg and the Fc domain of murine IgG1 (HBsAg-Fc) and/or the Flt3 ligand, and yeast-derived recombinant HBsAg were used as immunogen to immunize HBsAg transgenic mice, respectively. Serum and liver HBsAg levels, serum anti-HBsAg and cytokine profile, and the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT)/AST were investigated after immunization.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After six injections, the most pronounced decrease in serum and liver HBsAg levels was observed in the HBsAg-Fc immunized group. In addition, serum Th1 cytokines and ALT/AST activities were highest in this group, indicating an effective induction of a favorable cellular immune response. Interestingly, the fusion protein containing HBsAg-Fc and the Flt3 ligand stimulated an alternative Th1-type immune response featured with high level productions of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoabstractant protein 1 (MCP-1), causing a more severe cytotoxicity in hepatocytes while showed less effective in reducing serum HBsAg level.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>HBsAg-Fc is effective in eliciting both the humoral and cellular immune responses against HBsAg in HBsAg transgenic mice, which makes it a potential immunogen for the immunotherapy of chronic hepatitis B.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemokine CCL2 , Metabolism , Cytokines , Metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Immunity, Cellular , Allergy and Immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Allergy and Immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Receptors, Fc , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism
11.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 207-209, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-269187

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the long-term effect of plasma-derived HBV vaccine.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The effect of a plasma-derived HBV vaccine which was given to children born in 1986 in Huangpu district in Shanghai were followed up once every two years and testing for HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc was carried out. Compared to background results from cross-sectional survey of hepatitis B virus in 1984 and 1985 (as internal control) as well as finding of survey targeted in non-plasma-derived HBV vaccine of children born in the same time in the nearby area from results investigated in 1991 (as external control), positive rate was calculated to assess the effect of protection.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The population immunized was followed up for 23 years and 5993 blood samples were collected. During the period of follow-up, the positive rate of anti-HBs decreased from 89.01% to 18.77% and the average level was 40.39%. The average positive rate of anti-HBc was 1.87%. The annual positive rate fluctuated around the average level. HBsAg positive rate remained less than 1.00% (0.46% - 0.98%), with an average of 0.62% (37/5993). Ranges of positive efficacy were from 81.37% to 95.78% against background control and 72.76% against external control.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The plasma-derived HBV vaccine showed a good long-term protective effect and there was no need for boosting the immunization 23 years later.</p>


Subject(s)
China , Epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hepatitis B , Epidemiology , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Blood , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Allergy and Immunology , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Immunization Programs , Infant, Newborn , Male , Vaccination
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-325598

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the immunological effects of three doses of H2 strain live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine 8 years after the administration and to compare with that of one dose of the vaccine.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In a country area, 110 children of 1 to 7 years old susceptible to HAV were screened and administered with one dose of the vaccine, as group B; Group A were 42 children from one of the villages and administered with 3 doses of the vaccine according to 0, 2, 6 month schedule. Blood samples were taken for the children 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 12, 24, 36 and 96 months after the administrations respectively and detected for anti-HAV antibody.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>For group B, the sero conversion rate of anti-HAV and GMC reached peak at 92.2% and 126.2 mIU/ml respectively, and then, began to drop with time; For group A, after 2 dose of the vaccine, the sero-conversion rate reached 100%, and the GMC reached peak of 2 739 mIU/ml one month after the third dose at 7 months. So that, group A has a better short-term immunological effects than that of group B. During 36 through 96 months, the anti-HAV positive rate in group B was 75%-71% and 80-89 mIU/ml respectively, and comparatively in group A were 100% and 918.2-480.6 mIU/ml respectively. The differences between group A and B were significantly important.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>A 3-dose schedule administration of H2 strain live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine has better immunological effects than 1-dose schedule in 8years and further observations are needed.</p>


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hepatitis A , Blood , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis A Antibodies , Blood , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis A Vaccines , Allergy and Immunology , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Immunization, Secondary , Infant , Male , Vaccines, Attenuated , Allergy and Immunology
13.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 46-49, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-312508

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the immunosuppressive effect of local transfection of Molluscum contagiosum virus 148 (MC148) gene to allogenous skin graft against rejection.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>MC148 gene was cloned from molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV), and was employed to construct recombinant adenovirus vector (Ad-MC148). The recombinant Ad-MC148 was then locally transfected into a part of the tail skin of eight Lewis rats, which served as skin donors for grafting. The wounds (1 cm x 1 cm) were produced on the tails of 16 Wistar rats, and they were then randomly divided into control (C, n=8, with grafting of skin from donor rats without transfection), and transfection (T, n=8, with grafting of skin from donor rats with transfection of the recombinant Ad-MC148) groups. The expression of MC148 mRNA gene in T group was detected on 6 post operation hour( POH) and 2, 3, 7 and 10 post operation day (POD), and the results were expressed by the ratio of absorption value (A) between MC148 gene and beta-actin. The survival time of skin grafts in both groups was compared. Gross examination of grafted skin was carried out from 7 POD on in both groups, and the pathomorphological changes were examined in both groups on 7 POD.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The MC148 gene expression in rat skin of T group could be identified in 6 POH, and it reached the peak on 3 POD (A(MC148 mRNA) / A(beta_actin) = 0.86), and then subsided thereafter, but it maintained for 10 days. The survival time of the grafts in T group was (15.0 +/- 2.0) days, and it was significantly longer than that in C group (8.5 +/- 3.4) days, (P < 0.01). Gross and microscopic examination showed that the tail skin of T group appeared ruddy on 7 POD, with little leukocytic infiltration in subcutaneous tissue; it began to turn black after 12 to 20 PODs. On the other hand, the tail skin of C group began to turn black and to shed off on 7 POD, with evident leukocytic infiltration in subcutaneous tissue and dermis.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Local transfection of MC148 gene may promote immunosuppression by inhibiting leukocytic infiltration after allogenous skin transplantation.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Genetics , Animals , Chemokines, CC , Genetics , Genetic Vectors , Graft Survival , Rats , Rats, Inbred Lew , Rats, Wistar , Skin Transplantation , Transfection , Transplantation, Homologous , Viral Proteins , Genetics
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-325288

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore a new immunotherapy against allergic rhinitis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The recombinant protein of CTLA4 extracellular domain was obtained through construction of CTLA4-yeast expression system. The allergic rhinitis in mice was induced by sensitizing and challenging with ovalbumin (OVA). The allergic rhinitis related symptoms and the morphological changes in nasal mucosa were compared between the allergic rhinitis group and the CTLA4 extracellular domain group treated with CTLA4 extracellular domain before each challenge by ways of intraperitoneal injection.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>CTLA4 extracellular domain with a molecular weight of 28 000, which was confirmed by Western blot, could be generated through CTLA4-yeast expression system. The purified CTLA4 extracellular domain could inhibit T cells proliferation in mixed lymphocyte reaction with a inhibitory rate of 95.4%. The mice in allergic rhinitis group appeared typical allergic rhinitis symptoms after OVA challenge, such as rhinorrhea and sneeze. Meanwhile the nasal pathological studies showed edema and congestion in mucosa tissue and local influx of inflammatory cells. Whereas in CTLA4 extracellular domain group, the nasal symptoms were rarely observed, and the pathological change in nasal mucosa was significantly abated.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The protein of CTLA4 extracellular domain could prevent the allergic rhinitis in mice. The underlying mechanism of which might be the inhibition of the T cell activation.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, CD , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Pharmacology , CTLA-4 Antigen , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nasal Mucosa , Pathology , Ovalbumin , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Recombinant Proteins , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology
15.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 2004 Sep; 22(3): 240-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-799

ABSTRACT

Despite the availability of at least two licensed typhoid fever vaccines--injectable sub-unit Vi polysaccharide vaccine and live, oral Ty21a vaccine--for the last decade, these vaccines have not been widely introduced in public-health programmes in countries endemic for typhoid fever. The goal of the multidisciplinary DOMI (Diseases of the Most Impoverished) typhoid fever programme is to generate policy-relevant data to support public decision-making regarding the introduction of Vi polysaccharide typhoid fever immunization programmes in China, Viet Nam, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Indonesia. Through epidemiological studies, the DOMI Programme is generating these data and is offering a model for the accelerated, rational introduction of new vaccines into health programmes in low-income countries. Practical and specific examples of the role of epidemiology are described in this paper. These examples cover: (a) selection of available typhoid fever vaccines to be introduced in the programme, (b) generation of policy-relevant data, (c) providing the 'backbone' for the implementation of other multidisciplinary projects, and (d) generation of unexpected but useful information relevant for the introduction of vaccines. Epidemiological studies contribute to all stages of development of vaccine evaluation and introduction.


Subject(s)
Asia/epidemiology , Bacterial Vaccines , Cost of Illness , Developing Countries/economics , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/administration & dosage , Salmonella typhi/immunology , Typhoid Fever/economics , Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vaccines, Inactivated
16.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 2004 Jun; 22(2): 104-12
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-531

ABSTRACT

Passive surveillance on the burden of disease due to diarrhoea will underestimate the burden if families use healthcare providers outside the surveillance system. To study this issue, a community-based cluster survey was conducted during October 2001 in the catchment area for a passive surveillance study in Zhengding county, a rural area of northern China. Interviews were conducted at 7 randomly-selected households in each of 39 study villages. The respondents indicated where they sought initial care for cases of diarrhoea or dysentery among children or adults. In the absence of diarrhoea and dysentery cases in the household in the preceding four weeks, the respondents were asked about healthcare use for a hypothetical case. Overall, 80% (95% confidence interval [CI] 67-93%) would chose the village clinic, 11% village pharmacy (95% CI 1-22%), 4% township hospital (95% CI -1-10%), 4% self-treatment (95% CI 1-8%), and 1% county hospital (95% CI 0-2%). Approximately, 84% of patients would seek treatment for diarrhoea and dysentery at centres participating in passive surveillance, suggesting that passive surveillance will provide a relatively accurate assessment of burden of diarrhoea in Zhengding county.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Dysentery/epidemiology , Female , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Population Surveillance , Rural Population
17.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 333-335, 2004.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-303722

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the antibacterial effects of zirconium phosphate gauze loaded with silver on rat burn wounds seeded with commonly seen bacteria.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Wistar rats were employed in the study and were scalded and infected. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of zirconium phosphate loaded with silver were determined by double dilution in tubes. The effect on wound healing and the subeschar bacterial count of the rat burn wounds were observed after the wounds had been covered by gauze loaded with zirconium phosphate and silver, and also with the gauze which has been rinsed for 20 times.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The MIC of silver loaded zirconium phosphate on Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli were 8, 8 and 16 mg/L, respectively, while the MBC were 16, 8 and 32 mg/L, respectively. The subeschar bacterial count in the burn wounds with the gauze with silver loaded zirconium phosphate was ten times lower than that in those which were treated with gauze with SD-Ag and 100 times lower than that with ordinary gauze. But there was no difference in the bacterial count between the wounds which were treated with fresh gauze with silver loaded zirconium phosphate and that with the gauze which has been rinsed for 20 times (P > 0.05). Furthermore, wound healing seemed to be better with the gauze with silver loaded zirconium phosphate when compared with those by the other two kinds of gauze.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The silver loaded zirconium phosphate was found to be bacteriocidal against bacteria commonly seen in the burn wounds.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Bandages , Burns , Microbiology , Therapeutics , Colony Count, Microbial , Female , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Silver , Pharmacology , Wound Healing , Wound Infection , Microbiology , Therapeutics , Zirconium , Pharmacology
18.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 340-342, 2004.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-303720

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the influence of local application of cytotoxic lymphocyte antigen 4-Ig (CTLA4-Ig) adenovirus on the burn wound with alloskin grafting upon the murine immune function.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sixty BALB/c mice were randomly divided into A (operation control), B (CTLA4-Ig transfection) and C (normal control) groups, with 20 mice in each group. Skin wounds (full-thickness loss) sized 1.5 cm x 1.5 cm were created on the backs of mice in A and B groups. Then the skin grafts of the same size obtained from C57BL mice were grafted into the skin wounds. 0.1 g of cross-linking polyacrylic resin (carbomer cream) without adenovirus was daubed onto the wounds in A group, and the same amount of carbomer cream with adenovirus in titers of 5 x 10(9)/L was daubed onto the wounds in B group, while no treatment was given in C group. 1 ml of 10% SRBC (sheep red blood cell) was injected intraperitoneally to all the mice of the three groups on the 1st post injury day (PID). Splenocytes from BALB/c, C57BL and Kunming mice were harvested for mixed lymphocyte culture on 7, 14, 21 and 28 PIDs. Agglutination assay was used in the same time to detect the SRBC antibody titers.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The reaction of murine splenocytes in B group to the donor (C57BL) splenocytes was suppressed in a specific way (P < 0.05) within 14 PIDs. There was no difference in the titers of anti-SRBC antibody among the 3 groups (P > 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Local application of CTLA4-Ig recombinant adenovirus exhibited no influence on the murine humoral immunity, but might induce systemic and specific T cell tolerance in immunity system.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Genetics , Animals , Antigens, CD , Allergy and Immunology , CTLA-4 Antigen , Immune Tolerance , Allergy and Immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Skin Transplantation , Allergy and Immunology , Transplantation, Homologous , Allergy and Immunology
19.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 516-519, 2003.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-348821

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Through introduction of principal theory and algorithm of propensity score to design SAS macro programs for binary data.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Propensity score method was used to compare the differences of character variables between two groups, and the association of DNR (Do Not Resuscitate) with the mortality of congestive heart failure was evaluated with different methods.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Significant differences among the character variables between two groups were effectively balanced with stratification or matching method. The odds ratios of DNR with the in-hospital mortality rate of congestive heart failure were estimated identical with different algorithms and to find that the association of DNR to in-hospital mortality was highly significant.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Propensity score was a good algorithm that could be used to analyze any kind of observational data for matching the effects among the character variables.</p>


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Bias , Heart Failure , Mortality , Humans , Models, Statistical
20.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 15-17, 2003.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-289149

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the role of indirect antigen presentation pathway on the immunogenecity of epidermal cells.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Human epidermal cells (HEC), allogeneic human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and mononuclear cells (PBM, including monocytes) were isolated and cultured in vitro. HECs were transfected by human-originated CTLA4Ig-adenovirus vector. The CTLA4Ig expression was observed. Allogeneic PBLs or PBMs were added to the transfected and non-transfected HECs with simple cultured PBLs and PBMs as the control. The proliferation of PBL and PBM was determined by (3)H-TdR incooperation.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>HECs could be successfully transfected by CTLA4Ig-adenovirus vector and expressed corresponding proteins. The non-transfected HECs could stimulate slight proliferation of allogeneic PBLs (P < 0.05) and stimulate remarkable proliferation of PBMs (including monocytes) (P < 0.05). The proliferation reaction of PBLs and PBMs decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after being stimulated by HEC which was modulated by CTLA4Ig genes.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Indirect antigen presentation pathway might play important roles in the HEC immunogenicity which could be evidently inhibited by CTLA4Ig.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Genetics , Antigen Presentation , Allergy and Immunology , Physiology , Antigens, CD , Antigens, Differentiation , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , CTLA-4 Antigen , Cell Division , Allergy and Immunology , Cells, Cultured , Coculture Techniques , Epidermis , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Genetic Vectors , Genetics , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology , Lymphocytes , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology , Signal Transduction , Transfection
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