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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928126

ABSTRACT

Physical attributes of Chinese herbal extracts are determined by their chemical components, and the physical and chemical attributes jointly affect the preparation process performance and the final product quality. Therefore, in order to improve the quality control of Chinese herbal extracts, we should comprehensively study the batch-to-batch consistency of physical and chemical attributes as well as the correlations between them. This paper first explored the physical attributes affecting the preparation process performance of the compound Danshen extract and developed a method for characterizing the texture attributes. With such main chemical components as water, phenolic acids, saponins, and saccharides and texture, rheology, and other physical attributes taken into consideration, the batch-to-batch quality fluctuation of products from different production lines and time was analyzed by principal components analysis(PCA). Finally, the correlation and partial least squares(PLS) analysis was conducted, and the regression equation was established. The fitting result of the PLS model for dynamic viscosity was satisfying(R~2Y=0.857, Q~2=0.793), suggesting that the chemical components could be adjusted by the component transfer rate in the extraction process, the impurity removal rate in the alcohol precipitation process, and the water retention rate of the concentration process to meet the control of the extract dynamic viscosity. This study clarified the correlations between physical and chemical attributes of the compound Danshen extract and established a method for controlling its physical attributes based on process regulation, which would provide reference for improving the quality control of Chinese herbal extracts.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Quality Control , Salvia miltiorrhiza/chemistry , Water
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927845

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the clinical characteristics and treatment of Pseudomonas peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis(PsP). Methods The data of patients receiving peritoneal dialysis in four tertiary hospitals in Jilin province from 2015 to 2019 were retrospectively analyzed.According to the etiological classification,the patients with peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis(PDAP)were classified into PsP group and non-PsP group.The incidence of PsP was calculated,and the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of the two groups were compared.Kaplan-Meier method was used to draw the survival curve,and Cox regression was performed to analyze the risk factors affecting the technical failure of PsP.The treatment options of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-caused PDAP and the drug sensitivity of PsP were summarized. Results A total of 1530 peritoneal dialysis patients with complete data were included in this study,among which 439 patients had 664 times of PDAP.The incidence of PsP was 0.007 episodes/patient-year.PsP group had higher proportion of refractory peritonitis(41.38% vs.19.69%,P=0.005),lower cure rate(55.17% vs.80.79%, P=0.001),and higher extubation rate(24.14% vs.7.09%,P=0.003)than non-PsP group.The technical survival rate of PsP group was lower than that of non-PsP group(P<0.001).Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was an independent risk factor for technical failure in patients with PsP(HR=9.020,95%CI=1.141-71.279,P=0.037).Pseudomonas was highly sensitive to amikacin,meropenem,and piperacillin-tazobactam while highly resistant to compound sulfamethoxazole,cefazolin,and ampicillin. Conclusion The treatment outcome of PsP is worse than that of non-PsP,and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an independent risk factor for technical failure of PsP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peritoneal Dialysis/adverse effects , Peritonitis/etiology , Pseudomonas , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927643

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To establish a sensitive, simple and rapid detection method for African swine fever virus (ASFV) B646L gene.@*METHODS@#A recombinase-aided amplification-lateral flow dipstick (RAA-LFD) assay was developed in this study. Recombinase-aided amplification (RAA) is used to amplify template DNA, and lateral flow dipstick (LFD) is used to interpret the results after the amplification is completed. The lower limits of detection and specificity of the RAA assay were verified using recombinant plasmid and pathogenic nucleic acid. In addition, 30 clinical samples were tested to evaluate the performance of the RAA assay.@*RESULTS@#The RAA-LFD assay was completed within 15 min at 37 °C, including 10 min for nucleic acid amplification and 5 minutes for LFD reading results. The detection limit of this assay was found to be 200 copies per reaction. And there was no cross-reactivity with other swine viruses.@*CONCLUSION@#A highly sensitive, specific, and simple RAA-LFD method was developed for the rapid detection of the ASFV.


Subject(s)
African Swine Fever/virology , African Swine Fever Virus/isolation & purification , Animals , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Recombinases/chemistry , Sensitivity and Specificity , Swine , Viral Proteins/genetics
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940488

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the differences in response to bakuchiol-induced hepatotoxicity between Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice and Kunming (KM) mice. MethodThe objective manifestations of bakuchiol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice were confirmed by acute and subacute toxicity animal experiments, and enrichment pathways of differential genes between normal ICR mice and KM mice were compared by transcriptomics. The real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR) assay was used to verify the mRNA expression of key genes in the related pathways to confirm the species differences of bakuchiol-induced liver injury. ResultIn the subacute toxicity experiment, compared with the normal mice, the ICR mice showed increased serum content of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and 5′-nucleotidase (5′-NT), without significant difference, and no manifest change was observed in KM mice. Pathological results showed that hepatocyte hypertrophy was the main pathological feature in ICR mice and hepatocyte steatosis in KM mice. In the acute toxicity experiment, KM mice showed erect hair, mental malaise, and near-death 3 days after administration. The levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in KM mice (400 mg·kg-1) significantly increased(P<0.01), and the activity of total reactive oxygen species (SOD) in liver significantly decreased(P<0.01)compared with those in normal mice, while the serum content of 5′-NT and cholinesterase (CHE) in ICR mice (400 mg·kg-1) were significantly elevated (P<0.01). The liver/brain ratio in ICR mice increased by 20.34% and that in KM mice increased by 29.14% (P<0.01). The main pathological manifestation of the liver in ICR mice was hepatocyte hypertrophy, while those in KM mice were focal inflammation, hepatocyte hypertrophy, and hepatocyte steatosis. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG)and Reactome pathway enrichment analyses showed that the differential gene expression between ICR mice and KM mice was mainly involved in oxidative phosphorylation, bile secretion, bile acid and bile salts synthesis, and metabolism pathway. CYP7A1 was up-regulated in all groups with drug intervention (P<0.01) and MRP2 was reduced in all groups with drug intervention of KM mice (P<0.01) and elevated in all groups with drug intervention of ICR mice (P<0.01) compared with those in the normal group. The expression of BSEP was lowered in ICR mice with acute liver injury (400 mg·kg-1) (P<0.05). SHP1 was highly expressed in KM mice with acute liver injury (400 mg·kg-1). The expression of FXR was diminished in ICR mice with subacute liver injury (200 mg·kg-1) (P<0.01). SOD1, CAT, and NFR2 significantly decreased in KM mice with acute liver injury (400 mg·kg-1), and CAT dwindled in KM mice with subacute liver injury (200 mg·kg-1) (P<0.01). GSTA1 and GPX1 significantly increased in KM mice with acute liver injury (400 mg·kg-1) (P<0.01) and SOD1, CAT, NRF2, and GSTA1 significantly increased in ICR mice with subacute liver injury (200 mg·kg-1) (P<0.01). CAT and NRF2 significantly increased in ICR mice with acute liver injury (400 mg·kg-1) (P<0.01). ConclusionWith the increase in the dosage of bakuchiol, the liver injury induced by oxidative stress in KM mice was gradually aggravated, and ICR mice showed stronger antioxidant capacity. The comparison of responses to bakuchiol-induced hepatotoxicity between ICR mice and KM mice reveals that ICR mice are more suitable for the investigation of the mechanisms related to bile secretion and bile acid metabolism in the research on bakuchiol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. KM mice are more prone to liver injury caused by oxidative stress.

5.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 411-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934759

ABSTRACT

The shortage of donors restricts the development of organ transplantation. Xenotransplantation might act as an effective approach to resolve this problem. With the advancement of genome editing technologies as well as research and development of novel immunosuppressant, lots of breakthroughs have been achieved in the field of xenotransplantation. Nevertheless, a majority of researches are still in the preclinical stage. Recently, the success of the world's first genetically engineered pig-to-human heart transplantation has greatly inspired researchers. However, clinical xenotransplantation still faces an array of problems, including counteracting rejection, controlling inflammation, regulating coagulation disorder, improving physiological compatibility of xenografts, paying attention to the risk of interspecific infection, optimizing immunosuppressive regimen, screening donor genome editing types, selecting suitable recipients, modifying xenotransplantation guidelines, and awareness of public recognition, etc. In this article, these 10 problems were summarized, aiming to provide reference for promoting the clinical application of xenotransplantation.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933464

ABSTRACT

Relapsing polychondritis is an immune mediated systemic inflammatory disease, involving the cartilaginous and proteoglycan rich structures. The characteristic manifestations were inflammation and deformity of ear and nasal cartilage. Here, Chinese Rheumatology Association summarized manifestations, diagnosis and disease activity index evaluation of relapsing polychondritis, standardized treatment regimens, to improve disease prognosis.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932388

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the value of 5G-based robotic remote ultrasound diagnosis system in musculoskeletal joint injuries.Methods:From March to December 2020, 58 volunteers at a training base who felt musculoskeletal pain or paresthesia were selected and performed both robotic remote ultrasound (remote ultrasound group) and conventional ultrasound (portable ultrasound group). The two types of examinations were compared, the consistency of the two diagnosis results was analyzed by the Kappa test, and the the difference of the diagnosis results was compared by McNemar test.Results:Among the 58 volunteers, 40 cases were positive by both methods and 11 volunteers had 2-3 positive results. There were 59 positive results in the remote ultrasound group and 64 positive results in the portable ultrasound group. The positive rate of the examination sites from high to low was knee joint>foot and ankle joint >hand and wrist joint >shoulder joint>elbow joint, calf and hip. The diagnosis results of the two groups were in good consistency (Kappa=0.782, P<0.001), and there was no statistically significant difference in the diagnosis results between the two groups (χ 2=3.2, P=0.063). Five more diseases with positive results were detected in the portable ultrasound group: 1 meniscus injury, 1 medial collateral ligament injury, 1 soft tissue injury around the metatarsal, 1 biceps tendinitis with effusion and 1 cubital ulnar nerve subluxation. Conclusions:The 5G-based robotic remote ultrasound system has good consistency with conventional ultrasound in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal injures. It can be applied to the ultrasound diagnosis of musculoskeletal joint injuries in remote areas.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931351

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the application of new teaching techniques and establish a new model for experimental teaching of Medical Statistics for undergraduate students of clinical medicine. Methods:We enrolled 2 classes of students from Xi'an Medical University as research objects, and they were randomized into study group ( n=62) and control group ( n=54). The study group received "traditional demonstration+ blended" learning, while the control group only received traditional teaching. On the premise of balanced comparability, the effects of the two teaching patterns were evaluated from such three aspects as satisfaction questionnaire, teacher's self-evaluation and achievement. SPSS 22.0 was performed for chi-square test, t test and rank sum test. Results:At the end of the semester, the value cognition of statistics in both groups was higher than before class, and the study group [93.5% (58/62)] was higher than that in the control group [68.5% (37/54)] ( χ2=12.20, P<0.001). The overall satisfaction ( Z=-7.05, P<0.001) and the satisfaction with teaching methods ( Z=-3.95, P<0.001) of the study group were significantly higher than those of the control group, with no statistical difference in satisfaction with teaching contents between the two groups ( Z=-0.27, P=0.784). More students in the study group thought that the experimental class deepened their understanding of statistical theory ( χ2=26.87, P<0.001). In the last four experimental classes, the post-test scores of both groups were higher than those of the pre-test, but the pre-test scores and post-test scores of the study group were higher than those of the control group. The performance of software operation in study group was higher than that in control group ( t=8.27 P<0.001). There was no statistical difference in the final test scores between the two groups ( t=0.29, P=0.773). Conclusion:The "traditional demonstration+ blended" learning is more in line with the students' learning pattern, and can better improve students' cognition and satisfaction of the statistics, especially can better cultivate students' team cooperation, expression and the SPSS analysis ability.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931336

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the application effect of scenario simulation teaching combined with mini-clinical evaluation exercise (Mini-CEX) in the standardized residency training of general surgery.Methods:The study included in 62 trainees who had standardized residency training in the Department of General Surgery of the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University From July 2019 to July 2020. The subjects were randomly divided into traditional teaching group (control group) and scenario simulation teaching combined with Mini-CEX teaching group (experimental group), with 31 students in each group. The scores of the entrance examination, Mini-CEX scores and the evaluation of teaching effect were compared between the two groups. SPSS 21.0 was used to perform t test on the test scores, Mini-CEX scores and teaching effective evaluation scores of the two groups. Results:①The theoretical scores of the experimental group [(82.48 ± 6.02) points] were significantly higher than those of the control group [(77.32±6.25) points], with significant differences ( t=3.31, P<0.01). The clinical practice scores of the experimental group [(88.96 ± 2.93) points] were significantly higher than those of the control group [(80.87±5.41) points], with significant differences ( t=7.33, P<0.01). ②Mini-CEX scores of the experimental group were higher than those of the control group ( P<0.01). ③Through the teaching questionnaire, the scores of the experimental group were higher than those of the control group ( P<0.01). Conclusion:Scenario simulation teaching combined with Mini-CEX has achieved good results in the standardized residency training of general surgery, which could be used as a new clinical teaching mode.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930098

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effect of Rehmanniae Radix combined with Scrophulariae Radix on renal microinflammation in diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats. Methods:50 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were adaptively fed for 1 week, and then 10 rats were randomly selected as the blank control group, and the rest were treated with STZ intraperitoneal injection combined with high-fat diet to induce DN model. After 4 weeks, the successful modeled rats were randomly divided into model group, Rehmannia glutinosa Scrophularia group (5.25 g/kg) and metformin group (200 mg/kg), with 10 rats in each group. After 8 weeks of administration, fasting blood glucose was measured by blood glucose meter; microalbuminuria was measured by benzalkonium chloride turbidimetry; serum cystatin, TNF-α, IL-6 and hs-CRP levels were measured by ELISA kit; renal pathological changes were detected by HE staining, Masson staining and PAS staining; the expression of MCP-1, NF-κB (total) and p-NF-κB protein in renal tissue was detected by Western blot.Results:Compared with the model group, the body weight of rats in DHXS group was significantly decreased ( P<0.05). The content of fasting blood glucose[(18.06 ± 5.69) mmol/L vs. (29.42 ± 0.63)mmol/L], 24-hour urine protein [(11.02 ± 1.77)mg/d vs. (31.61 ± 0.65)mg/d], serum cystatin [(208.16 ± 12.07)ng/ml vs. (278.05 ± 19.33)ng/ml], TNF-α [(9.13 ± 1.46)pg/ml vs. (73.16 ± 8.30)pg/ml], IL-6[(4.27 ± 1.07)pg/ml], hs-CRP[(219.36 ± 22.02)ng/ml vs. (266.97 ± 15.80)ng/ml] in DHXS group were significantly decreased ( P<0.05), and the expression level of p-NF-κB (0.49 ± 0.07 vs. 0.84 ± 0.12) and MCP-1 (0.44 ± 0.02 vs. 0.64 ± 0.11) in renal tissue of rats in DHXS group were significantly reduced ( P<0.05). Conclusion:Rehmanniae Radix combined with Scrophulariae Radix can protect kidney by inhibiting the over activation of NF-κB, and reducing the expression of MCP-1 related protein to reduce renal micro inflammation.

11.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 644-647, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929519

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study explored the predictive effects of psychological stress in early and middle puberty on subsequent emotional and behavioral problems.@*Methods@#A cohort of 911 boys and girls from primary and secondary schools in Chongqing was studied. Psychological stress was measured in early and middle adolescence, and the levels of emotional and behavioral problems were determined in one year follow up. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the effects of psychological stress in early and middle adolescence on subsequent emotional and behavioral problems.@*Results@#The average psychological stress score in early and middle adolescence was (27.96±24.95), and the average scores of internalized and externalized behavioral problems and overall problems one year later were (8.21±8.46)(6.21±5.87) and (37.90±24.68) respectively. When grouped by gender, these scores, as well as the detection rate of anxiety and depression, withdrawal, physical discomfort, thinking problems, internalization problems and overall problems, were higher in girls than boys (t/Z=-6.38,-5.63,-6.06,-3.74,-6.80,-5.47, χ 2=15.88,12.01,3.92,6.64,24.67,15.88, P <0.05). Logistic regression showed that the psychological stress scale score was a risk factor for internalized and externalized behavioral problems and overall problems( P <0.05).@*Conclusion@#Psychological stress levels in early and middle puberty have a positive predictive effect on emotional and behavioral problems in the following year.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929247

ABSTRACT

The spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and exhausted drug leads render some infections untreatable now and in the future. To deal with these "new challenges", scientists tend to re-pick up "old antibiotics". Fusidane-type antibiotics have been known for nearly 80 years as potent antibacterial agents against gram-positive bacteria, especially Staphylococci, and represent the only triterpene-derived antibiotic class in clinical setting. These attractive characteristics have drawn renewed attention on fusidane-type antibiotics in recent decades. Isolation, characterization, biological evaluation, as well as chemical modifications of fusidane-type antibiotics are increasingly being reported. Combinatorial biosynthesis of this type of antibiotics has been successfully utilized not only for elucidating the biosynthetic pathways, but also for expanding their structural diversity. Some isolated and synthetic compounds exhibit comparable or even more potent biological activity than fusidic acid. This review provides an overview of progress on the studies of structure and biology of fusidane-type antibiotics from 1943 to April 2021. The informative structure-activity relationship is also highlighted.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria , Biology , Structure-Activity Relationship
13.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 644-647, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924268

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study explored the predictive effects of psychological stress in early and middle puberty on subsequent emotional and behavioral problems.@*Methods@#A cohort of 911 boys and girls from primary and secondary schools in Chongqing was studied. Psychological stress was measured in early and middle adolescence, and the levels of emotional and behavioral problems were determined in one year follow up. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the effects of psychological stress in early and middle adolescence on subsequent emotional and behavioral problems.@*Results@#The average psychological stress score in early and middle adolescence was (27.96±24.95), and the average scores of internalized and externalized behavioral problems and overall problems one year later were (8.21±8.46)(6.21±5.87) and (37.90±24.68) respectively. When grouped by gender, these scores, as well as the detection rate of anxiety and depression, withdrawal, physical discomfort, thinking problems, internalization problems and overall problems, were higher in girls than boys( t/Z =-6.38,-5.63,-6.06,-3.74,-6.80,-5.47, χ 2=15.88,12.01,3.92,6.64,24.67,15.88, P <0.05). Logistic regression showed that the psychological stress scale score was a risk factor for internalized and externalized behavioral problems and overall problems( P <0.05).@*Conclusion@#Psychological stress levels in early and middle puberty have a positive predictive effect on emotional and behavioral problems in the following year.

14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 507-513, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922927

ABSTRACT

The key factors for producing the best quality Chinese herbal medicines are high-quality germplasm, suitable cultivation area and the proper processing methods for herbal raw materials. Gentiana crassicaulis in Gentiana (Sect. Cruciata), Gentianaceae is one of the original plants of the Chinese herb Qinjiao (Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix), and its type specimen was collected in Lijiang, Yunnan. There is a long planting history of the herb in this area. In this study a sampling plot was designated in these traditional planting areas. G. crassicaulis was planted and herbal raw materials were harvested from the plot. The raw materials were prepared locally and at a pharmaceutical factory in Shanghai using processing methods such as "sweating" or "no sweating", "slicing" or "no slicing" (whole root), and "stoving" or "no stoving" (air drying). The quality of all processed samples was evaluated. In addition, molecular markers were determined for identifying cultivated and wild samples from Lijiang, Yunnan. The results are as follows: ① Samples from the sampling plot and the field are taxonomically identified as Gentiana crassicaulis. ② A total of 270 sequences of trnC-GCA-petN, atpB-rbcL, psbN, ndhB-rps7 and ycf1 were obtained, and three genotypes were determined from the cultivated samples; the type III was shared by both cultivated and wild plants. Based on the molecular markers, a DNA barcoding method to identify cultivated and wild samples of G. crassicaulis from Lijiang, Yunnan was established. ③ Total content of loganic acid and gentiopicroside in all samples was ≥ 2.5%, and above the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2020) limit. ④ In HPLC fingerprinting, 9 common peaks were assigned and similarity between all samples was > 0.999; and ⑤ In a PCA score plot all slice samples were clustered, while whole root samples were scattered. Therefore, our studies could provide basic data for optimizing the processing method, producing best quality Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix, and evaluating the quality of different ecotype varieties and the multiple origin of herbal medicines.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912787

ABSTRACT

Objective:To understand the changes in the practice environment from the perspective of doctors in 136 tertiary public hospitals, and to provide evidence for formulating strategies and measures to improve the practice environment of doctors.Methods:The data was collected from five rounds of China Healthcare Improvement Evaluation Survey from December 2015 to March 2021. The sample size was 17 945, 19 774, 20 786, 23 289, and 22 836, with a total of 104 630. The self-designed questionnaire on four dimensions of doctor-patient relationship, workload, administrative logistics support and professional identity was performed.Results:From the 1st to the 5th survey, the approval ratio of " the administrative and logistics department of this hospital is highly efficient" showed the characteristics of " U-shaped distribution" , and the approval ratio of " approve or encourage children to continue to engage in medical work" increased from 13.38% to 23.91%.From the 2nd to the 5th survey, the percentage of doctors who experienced doctor-patient disputes dropped from 28.96% to 23.20%, and the percentage of doctors agreeing that the relationship between doctors and patients in this hospital was improving continued to increase from 33.20% to 60.45%.From the 3rd to the 5th survey, the proportion of doctors experiencing medical troubles dropped from 15.10% to 14.19%, and the recognition rate of " the cafeteria of this hospital provided medical staff with nutritious and delicious meals" increased from 36.25% to 47.52%, and the approval proportion of " my current work load is heavy" dropped from 61.55% to 45.24%. The results of the 5th survey showed that there were significant differences in the approval ratios of each dimension in different genders, job titles and hospital types( P<0.001). Conclusions:From the perspective of doctor-patient relationship, workload, administrative logistics support, and professional identity, the improvement of doctors′ practice environment is still insufficient. Hospital administrators should continue to focus on the improvement of the doctor-patient relationship, and take necessary measures to reduce doctors′ workload and improve doctors′ professional identity.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912786

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the salary level, change trend and salary satisfaction of nurses in tertiary public hospitals in China.Methods:The data was derived from three round third-party evaluation of the China Healthcare Improvement Initiative at 136 tertiary public hospitals from December 2017 to January 2018, March 2019 and January to March 2021. The self-reported salary, expected salary and salary satisfaction rate of nurses were analyzed.Results:The sample sizes of the three evaluations were 27 575, 27 568 and 25 197, representing the salary situation in 2017, 2018 and 2020 respectively. In 2017, 2018 and 2020, the actual average annual salary of nurses was 81 600 yuan, 100 000 yuan and 110 000 yuan respectively, the expected average annual salary was 140 000 yuan, 160 000 yuan and 160 000 yuan respectively, and the ratio of expected salary to actual salary was 1.72, 1.60 and 1.45 respectively. In 2017, 2018 and 2020, the proportion of nurses satisfied with their current income was 34.0%, 33.7% and 43.6% respectively. In 2020, nurses in the eastern region, other specialized hospitals, senior professional titles and graduate degrees had highest annual salary.Conclusions:The salary level and satisfaction rate of nurses in tertiary public hospitals in China show a slow growth trend, and the gap between actual salary and expected salary is gradually narrowing.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912785

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the current level and dynamic change of the salary and income satisfaction rate of doctors in Chinese tertiary public hospitals in recent years.Methods:In January 2018, March 2019 and March 2021, the project team of " the third party evaluation of the China Healthcare Improvement Initiative" conducted a questionnaire survey among doctors of 136 tertiary public hospitals in 31 provinces. The first-line clinicians were investigated by stratified sampling method. The salary level and satisfaction of doctors were investigated by questionnaire. Chi square test was used for comparison between groups.Results:The sample size of the three surveys was 20 786, 23 289 and 22 836 respectively. The median value of doctors′ actual income after tax in 2017, 2018 and 2020 was 100 800 yuan, 120 000 yuan, 150 000 yuan respectively, and the median expected annual income after tax was 196 000 yuan, 250 000 yuan and 250 000 yuan. The proportion of doctors satisfied with the current income was 16.5%, 17.8% and 26.9% respectively. The salary and satisfaction rate of doctors had an upward trend, but the overall level was still low.Conclusions:In recent years, the salary of doctors in tertiary public hospitals in China has been improved to a certain extent, but on the whole, it is at a low level, and there is still much room for improvement. In the future, the government needs to improve the hospital salary system and increase the salary of doctors continuously, especially needs to pay attention to the doctors with high education level and intermediate titles.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910342

ABSTRACT

The quality evaluation of X-ray protective clothing at home and abroad is mainly intended for the quality inspection of lead protective clothing. There is no unified standard to be developed for the test of lead protective clothing during use. When lead protective clothing with defective quality is used many times, this phenomenon will pose a greater safety hazard to radiation workers and patients. Therefore, in order to protect the health of radiation workers and patients, the implementation of regular testing and quality evaluation of lead protective clothing and the development of a standardized management system are important. This review introduces the domestic and international inspection method of X-ray lead protective clothing, summarizes the inspection and evaluation method in use, including shield transmission coefficient, defect detection and uniformity test, puts forward relevant suggestions to provide reference for the managers and practitioners of relevant institutions.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907976

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze clinical factors related to nosocomial infection in children with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation(ECMO)support.Methods:General data, infection data and relevant factors in children with ECMO support in Bayi Children′s Hospital, the 7 th Medical Center of People′s Liberation Army General Hospital and Henan Provincial People′s Hospital from September 2012 to February 2020 were reviewed.Relevant factors of nosocomial infection in them were analyzed. Results:Among 163 cases, 36(22.1%) children supported with ECMO had infections during the period of ECMO, and 72 pathogenic microorganisms were detected, including 67 bacteria (33 Acinetobacter baumannii, 21 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 6 Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and 5 fungi.Pathogens from the respiratory system, blood system, urinary tract and abdominal cavity were detected in 45 cases(62.5%), 25 cases (34.7%), 1 case (1.4%), and 1 case (1.4%), respectively.Drug sensitivity analysis of the Acinetobacter baumannii showed that it was the extensively resistant strain.Compared with uninfected children supported with ECMO, ECMO support time[(10.0±6.7) d], hospitalization[(34.0±25.3) d], hospitalization cost[(234 368±113 234) yuan], preoperative oxygenation index(52.8±23.0) and lactate value[(9.6±5.9) mmol/L]were significantly higher in nosocomial infection ones[(4.6±3.2) d, (24.3±19.8) d, (161 416±65 847) yuan, 35.6±10.4, (5.6±5.4) mmol/L] supported with ECMO (all P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the mortality between 2 groups ( P>0.05). In addition, lactate level (9.8 mmol/L) and oxygenation index (36.0±12.7) were significantly higher in died children(2.7 mmol/L, 22.1±10.4) with nosocomial infection during the period of ECMO support than those of survivors (all P<0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that ECMO support time( OR=7.054, 95% CI: 2.206-25.525) and preoperative lactate value( OR=2.250, 95% CI: 1.378-4.611) were independent risk factors of nosocomial infection. Conclusions:Correcting underlying diseases of ECMO supporting and shortening the duration of ECMO can reduce the incidence and mortality of nosocomial infection in children who are supported with ECMO.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904623

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the changes of mitochondrial metabolic functions of macrophages following Echinococcus multilocularis infections, so as to provide insights into the pathogenesis of alveolar echinococcosis. Methods Two groups were assigned according to different treatment methods. In the culture group, mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage RAW264.7 cells were cultured with 2 000 E. multilocularis at a ratio of 500∶1, while RAW264.7 cells in the control group were given no treatment. Then, both the culture and control groups were further divided into the 24 h and 72 h subgroups. Mitochondria were stained with MitoTracker® Deep Red FM and the mean fluorescence intensity of macrophage mitochondria was measured with the Cytation 5 Cell Imaging Multi-Mode Reader. The mitochondrial DNA copy number was quantified using the quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay, and the mitochondrial energy metabolism was monitored using the Seahorse XF assay. In addition, the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential were detected using flow cytometry. Results The mean fluorescence intensities of macrophage mitochondria were significantly lower in the 24 h (15 341 ± 2 532 vs. 17 823 ± 3 429; t = 6.379, P < 0.01) and 72 h (18 102 ± 3 505 vs. 21 511 ± 5 144; t = 17.680, P < 0.01) culture subgroups than in the corresponding control subgroups, and lower mitochondrial DNA copy numbers were measured in the 72 h culture subgroup than in the 72 h control group [(3.23 × 109 ± 1.78 × 107) vs. (4.39 × 109 ± 3.70 × 107); t = 8.85, P < 0.001]. The oxygen consumption rates were significantly greater in the 24 h [(241.70 ± 73.13) pmol/min vs. (69.05 ± 52.30) pmol/min; t = 7.89, P < 0.01] and 48 h culture groups [(249.50 ± 42.06) pmol/min vs. (60.28 ± 40.66) pmol/min; t = 8.64, P < 0.01] than in the corresponding control groups, and a higher extracellular acidification rate was seen in the 48 h culture group than in the 48 h control group ([ 111.6 ± 17.49) mpH/min vs. (35.05 ± 7.57) mpH/min; t = 16.90, P < 0.01]. In addition, flow cytometry detected higher mean fluorescence intensity of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (58 264 ± 10 087 vs. 4 307 ± 97; t = 12.930, P < 0.01) and lower mitochondrial membrane potential (9.833% ± 2.285% vs. 2.667% ± 0.208%; t = 6.645, P < 0.01) in the 72 h culture group than in the control group. Conclusions E. multilocularis infection may impair mitochondrial functions and inhibit oxidative phosphorylation of macrophages, resulting in increased macrophage glycolysis. It is speculated that the alteration of macrophage metabolic states may contribute to the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of alveolar echinococcosis.

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