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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906130

ABSTRACT

Under the guidance of the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), charcoal drugs are widely used in clinical treatment of various bleeding syndromes, in addition, they also have the effect in anti-diarrhea and anti-ulcer, but charcoal drugs are especially effective in stopping bleeding. According to the changes in the properties after processing, the hemostatic effect of charcoal drugs can be roughly divided into two categories. One is not used for hemostasis itself, but used for hemostasis after processing. The other is used for hemostasis itself, and the drug properties are changed or the hemostatic ability is enhanced after processing. By summarizing researches on historical evolution, processing mechanism and pharmacological effects of the commonly used hemostatic charcoal drugs, the author found that preservation or increase of active substances after processing was closely related to the hemostatic effect of charcoal drugs. The hemostatic mechanism mainly involves the influence of coagulation system and platelet function, etc. At the same time, combined with the theory of Qi chromatograph of TCM supramolecular, this paper puts forward the supramolecular research strategy on hemostatic mechanism of charcoal drugs, in order to provide reference for revealing the scientific connotation of charcoal drugs for hemostasis.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906089

ABSTRACT

Objective:To construct the targeting evaluation method of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations based on supramolecular Qi chromatography theory, and to study the liver targeting effect of Bupleuri Radix on Pien Tze Huang. Method:The molecular connectivity index (MCI) was used to analyze the characteristics of imprinted template and liver targeting tendency of TCM mainly attributed to liver meridian and components of Pien Tze Huang, and combined with target dynamics and total statistical moment principle, aimed at the independent action characteristics of multi-component imprinted template of TCM, a method for evaluating the targeting of TCM preparations was established. Hepatoma rats in Pien Tze Huang group, Bupleuri Radix<italic> </italic>group, Pien Tze Huang+Bupleuri Radix group and blank group were tested and verified. Result:After the average value of MCI of TCM mainly attributed to liver meridian was deducted, the MCI similarity between Pien Tze Huang group and Bupleuri Radix group was 0.376 8, Pien Tze Huang+Bupleuri Radix group and Bupleuri Radix group was 0.988 2, so it was predicted that Bupleuri Radix could enhance the liver targeting of Pien Tze Huang. A system for evaluating the targeting of TCM compounds was established, including relative total uptake efficiency (RUE<sub>T</sub>), relative total concentration (RC<sub>T</sub>), relative imprinted tendency (RIT<sub>T</sub>) and relative imprinted variance (RIV<sub>T</sub>). The RUE<sub>T</sub> and RC<sub>T</sub> of liver were the highest in all tissues (RUE<sub>T</sub>=1.88>1,RC<sub>T</sub><italic>=</italic>2.30>1), and the corresponding values of other tissues were all <1, indicating that Pien Tze Huang combined with Bupleuri Radix could increase its distribution in liver and enhance liver targeting. Except for plasma, the RIT<sub>T</sub> and RIV<sub>T</sub> of other tissues fluctuated around 1.0, indicating that targeted modification did not change imprinted tendency of Pien Tze Huang and had no significant effect on the types of components. Conclusion:Under the guidance of supramolecular Qi chromatography theory, a targeting evaluation parameter system can be established to characterize the multi-component imprinted effect of TCM preparations by MCI and total statistical moment parameters, so as to realize the evaluation of targeting of TCM preparations. The addition of Bupleuri Radix can increase the liver targeting of Pien Tze Huang.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905982

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint and multi-component determination for the substance benchmark of Yiweitang, and to evaluate its quality in combination with chemical pattern recognition method. Method:Fifteen batches of substance benchmark of Yiweitang were prepared, the "Chinese medicine chromatographic fingerprint similarity evaluation system" (2012 edition) was used to calculate similarity. Cluster analysis, principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis were employed to handle the common peaks for evaluating the quality difference among 15 batches of the substance benchmark. The contents of catalpol, verbascoside and methylophiopogonanone A were determined with mobile phase system of acetonitrile-phosphoric acid solution at detection wavelengths of 210 nm and 334 nm. Result:There were 22 common peaks in HPLC fingerprint of the substance benchmark, among them, peaks 1, 9, 12, 14-17, 19 and 20 belonged to Rehmanniae Radix, peaks 3, 4, 6, 7 and 21 belonged to Glehniae Radix, peaks 5 and 22 belonged to Ophiopogonis Radix, peaks 2 and 18 belonged to Polygonati Odorati Rhiaoma, peak 8 was the common peak of Ophiopogonis Radix and Rehmanniae Radix, peak 10 was shared by Ophiopogonis Radix, Polygonati Odorati Rhiaoma<italic> </italic>and<italic> </italic>Rehmanniae Radix, peak 11 was the common peak of these four herbs, and peak 13 was shared by Polygonati Odorati Rhiaoma and Rehmanniae Radix. The similarities between HPLC fingerprints of 15 batches of the substance benchmark and the control fingerprint were all >0.90, the samples could be divided into four categories by three chemical pattern recognition methods. Quantitative analysis showed that the contents of catalpol, verbascoside and methylophiopogonanone A among 15 batches of samples ranged from 0.37% to 1.14%, 0.002% to 0.054% and 0.016% to 0.079%, respectively. Conclusion:The established fingerprint and determination for the substance benchmark of Yiweitang have good separation and high accuracy, which reflect the overall chemical composition characteristics of Yiweitang, and can provide experimental basis for the further development and quality control of the compound preparations of this famous classical formula.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905976

ABSTRACT

The application of modern scientific theories and technologies to explore the mechanism of Chinese medicine and its compounds is one of the key issues in realizing the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research. Chinese medicine and its compounds produce comprehensive pharmacodynamics through multiple components acting on multiple targets, the core of clarifying the mechanism is to solve the key scientific problems of static correlation and dynamic integration verification between the components and the target network topology. At present, the effective method to clarify the mechanism of Chinese medicine and its compounds is to statically correlate the topological network of in vitro components and targets through network pharmacology. Although there are also component-target verification studies, they often learn from research idea of single component-single target, it is urgent to establish a quantitative integration and overall verification method that conforms to the characteristics of TCM. According to supramolecular Qi chromatography theory of TCM, the microscopic mechanism of interaction between Chinese medicine and human body is actually the two supramolecular host and object groups (the active ingredient group of Chinese medicine and the target group of human body) based on imprinted template, which shows the macroscopic properties and pharmacodynamics. Based on this, the author proposes to use supramolecular Qi chromatography theory as the guidance, combined with supramolecular chemistry, network dynamics, quantitative pharmacology and other methods to quantitatively integrate and verify the compositions and the target groups with imprinted template as the core predicted by network pharmacology, looking for the optimal quality markers, greatly reducing the difficulty of multi-component-multi-target experimental verification of Chinese medicine and its compounds.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883527

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography (CEH-EUS) for pancreatic cystic lesions.Methods:Endoscopic and clinical follow-up data of patients with pancreatic cystic lesions diagnosed by EUS in Department of Gastroenterology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Naval Medical University with CEH-EUS video from March 2013 to April 2020 was retrospectively analyzed.Results:A total of 36 patients were included. There were 16 cases of serous cystadenomas (SCA), 10 cases of mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN), 5 cases of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN, 3 with complex type, 2 with main pancreatic duct type) and 5 cases of pancreatic pseudocyst (PPC). 87.5%(14/16) of SCA and 86.7%(13/15) of MCN+ IPMN had hyperenhanced cystic wall with obvious peak and similar washout as surrounding tissue, whereas only 20%(1/5) PPC had hyperenhanced cystic wall. The hyperenhancing effect of PPC was significantly lower than that of SCA and MCN+ IPMN ( P=0.0035 and P=0.0048, respectively ). Mural nodules were detected in 17 cases of pancreatic cystic lesions by EUS, of which 3 cases had hyperenhanced mural modules and 14 cases had hypoenhanced mural nodules by CEH-EUS. Patients showing hyperenhanced mural modules were all finally diagnosed as pancreatic malignancy (1 IPMN, 2 MCN), and the accuracy was 100%. Conclusions:CEH-EUS can have a obvious advantage of differentiating pseudocyst and other pancreatic cystic lesions, while not very useful for differentiating SCA and MCN. Pancreatic cystic lesions showing hyperenhanced mural nodules under CEH-EUS may imply malignancy potential.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873343

ABSTRACT

In this paper, based on the supramolecular "Qi chromatography" of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), combined with the characteristics of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the historical origin and characteristics of theoretical research on the treatment of epidemic diseases by TCM were analyzed retrospectively, and the key scientific problems for achieving its modernization were proposed, and the countermeasures were illustrated. In fact, the emergence and development history of TCM epidemic theory is a comprehensive and scientific understanding of biomolecular chemistry for epidemic caused by pathogen. From the exploration of the cause of abnormal Qi to the epidemic pathogenic factor, from the treatment based on syndrome differentiation by six meridians to by the defensive Qi and nutrient blood and the triple energizer, which is gradually close to the modern theoretical system of infectious diseases and immunology, all of which are stamped with brand of TCM supramolecular "Qi chromatography" theory. In the long history of biological evolution in nature, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as epidemic pathogenic factor in TCM, human body and Chinese materia medica are biological supramolecules at a specific stage of evolution in nature, which are controlled by the "imprinting templates" of molecular society in gradual biomolecules, with the unchanged laws of mutual advancement, mutation, suitability and mutual restriction. Based on the analysis of the law of supramolecular action hiding in the prevention and treatment of epidemic diseases dealt with TCM on procession of principle-method-recipe-medicines, this paper discusses the key scientific problems of its modernization and puts forward the solutions. It can not only clarify the scientific principle of the prevention and treatment with TCM, develop the multi-component Chinese medicine, accelerate the control of the epidemic situation, but also promote the solution of original frontier key scientific problems such as the material basis of meridians, viscera and syndromes, and the compatibility law of the TCM prescription, in order to protect the existing medical resources and open up a new situation in the modernization of TCM research.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-865879

ABSTRACT

Ophthalmology is one of the important professional courses for clinical medical students. At present, these students are not interested and enthusiastic in learning this course, they have a poor concentration in class, which leads to higher requirements for clinical teachers of ophthalmology. In order to improve the quality of clinical ophthalmology course, the teachers can make use of "empathy", "profit-seeking thinking" and "case stories" in the preparation of teaching, and combine with multimedia tools to simplify, visualize and interest the key and difficulties in the course, thus improving the teaching effect and quality of clinical ophthalmology course.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-863890

ABSTRACT

The abnormality of pupil function in diabetic patients is the clinical manifestation of autonomic nervous system damage in diabetic patients, which seriously affects the examination and treatment of diabetic retinopathy. At present, it is still difficult to handle this disorder. This paper reviewed the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and treatment measures of pupil dysfunction in diabetic patients.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-850924

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the effect of hydroxysafflower yellow A (HSYA) on the apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells EA.hy926 induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation. Methods: MTT colorimetry method was used to detect the effects of different hypoxia time (8, 12 h) and different reoxygenation time (4, 8, 12 h) on the cell viability. And after the cell had been in the status of hypoxia for 12 h and reoxygenation for 8 h, this method was adapted once again to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of HSYA (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 μmol/L) on cell viability in different time stages. After the cell had been in the status of hypoxia for 12 h, reoxygenation for 8 h, Western blotting was used to test its effects on the expressions of the following proteins in different time stages, which contained Bcl-2, Bax, cleaved Caspase-3, and activated cleaved Caspase-9. This method was also used to detect whether it had an improvement effect on the above proteins after the pr-treat the cells with HSYA. Real-time PCR was used to evaluate the mRNA expressions of Bax, Bcl-2 after the cell had been in the status of hypoxia for 12 h, reoxygenation for 8 h, and this method was also used to test the effect of HSYA on the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2 after the same time stages. Hoechest staining and flow cytometry were used to detect the apoptosis situation of the cell after it was in the status of hypoxia for 12 h and reoxygenation for 8 h. And this method was also adapted to detect the effect of HSYA on apoptosis of the cell after the same time stage. Results: Compared with the control group, the EA.hy926 cell viability decreased significantly after hypoxia for 8, 12 h, reoxygenation for 4, 8, and 12 h (P < 0.01). The cell viability decreased the most significantly after hypoxia for 12 h and reoxygenation for 8 h (P < 0.01), and during this period, the expression of Bax, cleaved Caspase-9, cleaved Caspase-3 protein increased significantly, and Bcl-2 protein was decreased significantly. Compared with the H/R group, HSYA (10 μmol/L) significantly increased the cell viability (P < 0.01) after hypoxia-reoxygenation, and significantly up-regulated the protein expression of Bcl-2, and down-regulated the protein expressions of Bax, cleaved Caspase-9, and cleaved Caspase-3. Conclusion: Hydroxysafflor yellow A can effectively inhibit the apoptosis of EA.hy926 induced by hypoxia and reoxygenation. The mechanism may be related to the down-regulation of Bax, cleaved Caspase-9, cleaved Caspase-3 protein as well as the up-regulation of Bcl-2 protein.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-850802

ABSTRACT

The safety and effectiveness of Chinese materia medica (CMM) depend on its quality, and the modernization of CMM quality control system is an important prerequisite for the internationalization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Up to now, the quality research approach of CMM is the key technology for TCM industry. In recent years, with the development of modern life science, chemistry science, analytical science and technology, the quality research level of CMM has been greatly improved, but it still stays on the two evaluation models based on chemical composition and biological effect. For single compound, because the effect is proportional to the content of components, the chemical composition can be used for quality control. However, for multi-component system of CMM, how to establish the dose-effect relationship between effects and components and find the markers reflecting their quality has become the focus of the quality control of CMM for TCM industry. Based on the theory of supramolecular “imprinting template” and “Qi-xi” put forward earlier, this paper first analyzed the characteristics of supramolecular “imprinting template” for the quality of CMM, clarified the essence of quality control of CMM, and proposed the attributes of supramolecular “imprinting template” to reflect the main effect of CMM. The control strategy of quality markers of CMM represented by core index will provide a new and more accurate characterization and calculation model for quality control of CMM.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802331

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish a mathematical model of total statistical moment, information amount and one-time steady-state feeding quantity of HPLC fingerprint of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and their classical prescriptions, and to carry out experimental verification. Method:The total statistical moment principle, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium principle and one-time steady-state feeding quantity calculation method were used to study the total statistical moment parameters and one-time steady-state feeding quantity of 15 batches of original medicinal materials, decoction pieces and compound preparations of Taohong Siwutang, these original medicinal materials were from three producing areas. Result:In addition to the total first-order moment, RSD of total zero-order moment, total second-order moment, information entropy and information amount of each medicinal material, decoction piece and compound were all greater than 10%. In the case of single original medicinal material, except for Angelicae Sinensis Radix (142.34 kg), the one-time steady-state feeding quantity calculated according to the RSD change of the accumulated information amount of the whole prescription was the largest (59.10 kg), and according to ratio of the whole prescription, one-time steady-state feeding quantity was the largest (958.57 kg). In the case of processed products, the one-time steady-state feeding quantity of the whole prescription was the largest (73.18 kg) except for Carthami Flos processed with wine (83.28 kg), while according to the whole prescription, one-time steady-state feeding quantity of each processed products was the same as that of the original medicinal material. The one-time steady-state feeding quantity of the compound consisted of the original medicinal materials or processed products was often higher than that of the single medicinal material. Conclusion:The components of TCM are controlled by genetic polymorphism, the chromatographic characteristics (types of components) of Chinese medicine is similar and the intensity of action (content of components) is different. The stability of total first-order moment and information entropy indicates that the overall chemical structure of TCM multi-component system has a stable imprinting trend. The one-time steady-state feeding quantities of each medicinal material in Taohong Siwutang and this compound are far greater than the prescription amount, which can provide reference for the industrial production.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802015

ABSTRACT

The ancient famous classical formulas were developed based on the characteristics of excellent curative effect, small toxic and side effects, and wide clinical application. Its development will promote the development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with huge social and economic benefits. TCM and TCM compounds are multi-component systems, which are multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway effect on human body, their curative effect is the result of synergistic effect of multi-component. Because of its characteristics, its mechanism of action is still unclear and quality is difficult to control. Therefore, on the basis of biological properties of the multi-components of TCM, it is the key issue to study the preparation process of the medicinal materials-decoction pieces-preparations and the transferability, stability and homogeneity of the quality attributes. Moreover, the supramolecular theory can explain the basic theory of TCM from the macroscopic and microscopic aspects, the study of ancient famous classical formulas can use the supramolecular theory. Both TCM and human body are giant complex supramolecules, and their components are clustered objects reflecting the characteristics of the original imprinting template with genetic polymorphism. The quality attributes, processing, formulation preparation and quality attribute evaluation of TCM are all affected by supramolecular chemistry, which is finally reflected in the preparation of imprinting template and the transfer law of quality properties. Therefore, the application of supramolecular imprinting template theory to study the biogenetic polymorphism of TCM, processing, formulation preparation and quality attribute evaluation of medicinal materials can improve the availability rate of successful research and development of ancient famous classical formulas.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772779

ABSTRACT

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common metabolic and endocrine disorder in women. However, there is no agreement concerning how to diagnose and treat PCOS worldwide. Three practice guidelines or consensuses, including consensus from the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE)/the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) in Rotterdam, diagnosis criteria and consensus in China, and clinical practice guideline from the Endocrine Society (ES) in the United States are widely recognized. The present paper may provide some guidance for clinical practice based on a comparative analysis of the above three practice guidelines or consensuses.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Consensus , Female , Humans , Hyperandrogenism , Infertility, Female , Insulin Resistance , Menstrual Cycle , Obesity , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , Diagnosis , Psychology , Therapeutics , Practice Guidelines as Topic
14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 648-656, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690561

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background:</b>Previous studies have found that schoolchildren with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) showed difficulties in neuropsychological function. This study aimed to assess neuropsychological function in Chinese preschoolers with ADHD using broad neuropsychological measures and rating scales and to test whether the pattern and severity of neuropsychological weakness differed among ADHD presentations in preschool children.</p><p><b>Methods:</b>The 226 preschoolers (163 with ADHD and 63 controls) with the age of 4-5 years were included and assessed using the Behavior Rating Scale of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) and a series of tests to investigate neuropsychological function.</p><p><b>Results</b>Preschoolers with ADHD showed higher scores in all domains of the BRIEF-P (inhibition: 30.64 ± 5.78 vs.20.69 ± 3.86, P < 0.001; shift: 13.40 ± 3.03 vs.12.41 ± 2.79, P = 0.039; emotional control:15.10 ± 3.53 vs.12.20 ± 2.46, P < 0.001; working memory: 28.41 ± 4.99 vs.20.95 ± 4.60, P < 0.001; plan/organize: 17.04 ± 3.30 vs.13.29 ± 2.40, P < 0.001) and lower scores of Statue (23.18 ± 7.84 vs.28.27 ± 3.18, P = 0.001), Word Generation (15.22 ± 6.52 vs.19.53 ± 7.69, P = 0.025), Comprehension of Instructions (14.00 ± 4.44 vs.17.02 ± 3.39, P = 0.016), Visuomotor Precision (P < 0.050), Toy delay (P = 0.048), and Matrices tasks (P = 0.011), compared with normal control. In terms of the differences among ADHD subtypes, all ADHD presentations had higher scores in several domains of the BRIEF-P (P < 0.001), and the ADHD-combined symptoms (ADHD-C) group had the poorest ratings on inhibition and the ability to Plan/Organize. For neuropsychological measures, the results suggested that the ADHD-C group had poorer performances than the ADHD-predominantly inattentive symptoms (ADHD-I) group on Statue tasks (F = 7.34, η = 0.12, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive symptoms group had significantly poorer performances compared to the ADHD-C group in the Block Construction task (F = 4.89, η = 0.067, P = 0.003). However, no significant group differences were found between the ADHD-I group and normal control.</p><p><b>Conclusion:</b>Based on the combined evaluation of performance-based neuropsychological tests and the BRIEF-P, preschoolers with ADHD show difficulties of neuropsychological function in many aspects.</p>


Subject(s)
Asians , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Behavior Rating Scale , Child, Preschool , Executive Function , Physiology , Female , Humans , Male , Neuropsychological Tests
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-191318

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Using a pulsating coronary artery phantom at high heart rate settings, we investigated the efficacy of a motion correction algorithm (MCA) to improve the image quality in dual-energy spectral coronary CT angiography (CCTA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Coronary flow phantoms were scanned at heart rates of 60–100 beats/min at 10-beats/min increments, using dual-energy spectral CT mode. Virtual monochromatic images were reconstructed from 50 to 90 keV at 10-keV increments. Two blinded observers assessed image quality using a 4-point Likert Scale (1 = non-diagnostic, 4 = excellent) and the fraction of interpretable segments using MCA versus conventional algorithm (CA). Comparison of variables was performed with the Wilcoxon rank sum test and McNemar test. RESULTS: At heart rates of 70, 80, 90, and 100 beats/min, images with MCA were rated as higher image scores compared to those with CA on monochromatic levels of 50, 60, and 70 keV (each p < 0.05). Meanwhile, at a heart rate of 90 beats/min, image interpretability was improved by MCA at a monochromatic level of 60 keV (p < 0.05) and 70 keV (p < 0.05). At a heart rate of 100 beats/min, image interpretability was improved by MCA at monochromatic levels of 50 keV (from 69.4% to 86.1%, p < 0.05), 60 keV (from 55.6% to 83.3%, p < 0.05) and 70 keV (from 33.3% to 69.3%, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Low-keV monochromatic images combined with MCA improves image quality and image interpretability in CCTAs at high heart rates.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Coronary Vessels , Heart Rate , Heart , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Chinese Journal of Pathophysiology ; (12): 2212-2221, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-663024

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate whether inactivation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 ( Erk1/2 ) will affect the function of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism .METHODS:Male db/db mice (8 weeks old) were treated with U0126 (an inhibitor of Erk1/2 kinase) for 1 week, and then treated with re-combinant human FGF21 protein and adenovirus-mediated FGF21 (Ad-FGF21).The profile changes of blood glucose and blood lipid were evaluated at 120 min or 4 weeks after FGF21 administration.Meanwhile, the molecular mechanism was ex-plored by in vitro study.RESULTS: Treatment of db/db mice with recombinant human FGF21 protein significantly re-duced blood glucose and triglyceride levels at 120 min after FGF21 administration , but these changes were comparable in U0126-treated mice .Furthermore , abnormal glucose and triglyceride levels , and glucose and insulin tolerance were strong-ly improved in db/db mice as accompanied with decreasing body fat content after 4 weeks of ad-FGF21 administration .In-terestingly, treatment with or without U0126 did not influence these effects of FGF21.Mechanically, treatment with Ad-FGF21 significantly upregulated the protein levels of p-Erk1/2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ( PPARγ) as well as the expression of adiponectin at mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissues .However , treatment with or without U0126 did not change the profiles .On the other hand , in vitro experiments also indicated that treatment of adipocytes with recombinant human FGF 21 protein significantly activated Erk 1/2 phosphorylation , and upregulated the expression levels of PPARγand adiponectin (P<0.05).However, pre-administration of U0126 did not affect the profiles.CONCLUSION:Pharmaceutical inactivation of Erk 1/2 by U0216 does not affect the biological function of FGF 21 to regulate blood glucose balance and improve abnormal blood lipids in vivo.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1155-1161, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-299153

ABSTRACT

Re-evaluation of bioequivalence of generic drugs is one of the key research focus currently. As a means to ensure consistency of the therapeutic effectiveness of drug products, clinical bioequivalence has been widely accepted as a gold standard test. In vitro dissolution testing based on the theory of the BCS is the best alternative to in vivo bioequivalence study. In this article, the conventional dissolution method and flow-through cell method were used to investigate the dissolution profiles of domestic amoxicillin capsules in different dissolution media, and the absorption behavior of the drugs with different release rates (t85% = 15-180 min) in the gastrointestinal tract was predicted by Gastro Plus. The flow-through cell method was thought better to reflect the release characteristics in vivo, and amoxicillin capsules with regard to the release rates up to 45 min (t85% = 45 min) were having a satisfied bioequivalence with the oral solution according to the C(max) and AUC. Although two different dissolution profiles of domestic amoxicillin capsules were found by flow-through cell methods, prediction results revealed that domestic capsules were probably bioequivalent to each other.


Subject(s)
Amoxicillin , Pharmacokinetics , Capsules , Computer Simulation , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Software , Solubility , Therapeutic Equivalency
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 4720-4723, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341751

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>The extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves tablets, ginaton, is widely used in treating ischemic cerebrovascular disease in the clinic. This study aimed to investigate the expression of aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) in rat lung with ischemia/reperfusion injury after pretreatment with ginaton, and whether the pretreatment with ginaton reduces the acute lung injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion injury.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Adult Wistar rats were divided into two groups. Some rats were used as donors (n = 20), the others as recipients (n = 20). Left lungs of donor rats were used for the isolated lung reperfusion model, which perfused only with low potassium dextran (LPD) solution as group A (n = 10); the others were pretreated with ginaton before reperfusion as group C (n = 10). Right lung of donor rat without any treatment was used as a control group (group B and group D, n = 10 for each group). After the model was established, the expression of AQP-1 in the lung tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Immunohistochemical examination revealed that AQP-1 was expressed in endothelia. Immunoblotting demonstrated that the relative gray values of AQP-1 protein in groups A and C were 0.65±0.06, 0.88±0.11, respectively. The relative gray values of the mRNA expression in groups A and C were 0.30±0.08, 0.49±0.11, respectively. The expression of AQP-1 protein and mRNA in group C was significantly higher than in group A (P < 0. 05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The pretreatment with ginaton can reduce the acute lung injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Aquaporin 1 , Genetics , Metabolism , Ginkgo biloba , Chemistry , Immunohistochemistry , Lung , Metabolism , Plant Extracts , Therapeutic Uses , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Reperfusion Injury , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Tablets
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 300-305, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-333498

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Infusion phlebitis is the most common side effect of clinical intravenous drug therapy and several clinical studies have demonstrated that anisodamine can effectively prevent the occurrence of infusion phlebitis. This study was designed to investigate effects of anisodamine on the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in a rabbit model of infusion phlebitis and to analyze the mechanisms of anisodamine effect on the prevention and treatment of experimental infusion phlebitis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Twenty-four specific pathogen-free male Japanese white rabbits were randomly assigned to the control group, the model group, the magnesium sulfate group and the anisodamine group. The rabbit model of infusion phlebitis, induced by intravenous administration, was established and expressions of VEGF and ICAM-1 were determined and contrasted with the control group treated with normal saline. We evaluated expression by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting assay.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Pathohistological changes of the model group were observed, such as loss of venous endothelial cells, inflammatory cell infiltration, edema and thrombus. The magnesium sulfate group and the anisodamine group showed significant protective effects on vascular congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, proliferation, swelling of endothelium and perivascular hemorrhage. The model group showed the highest expressions of VEGF and ICAM-1 of the four groups (P < 0.01). On the contrary, anisodamine alleviated the inflammatory damage by significantly reducing the expressions of VEGF and ICAM-1 compared with the model group (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the expressions of VEGF and ICAM-1 between the magnesium sulfate group and the anisodamine group (P > 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Anisodamine alleviates inflammatory damage by significantly reducing the expressions of VEGF and ICAM-1, and shows significant protective effects in an animal model of infusion phlebitis.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Immunohistochemistry , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Metabolism , Male , Phlebitis , Drug Therapy , Rabbits , Random Allocation , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Solanaceous Alkaloids , Therapeutic Uses , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Metabolism
20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 746-750, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321426

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Chronic hepatic inflammation is characterized by the accumulation of lymphocytes as a consequence of increased recruitment from the blood and retention within the tissue at sites of infection. CXC chemokine ligand 16 (CXCL16) mRNA has been detected in both inflamed and normal liver tissues and is strongly upregulated in the injured liver tissues in a murine model. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cefodizime on CXCL16 mRNA of liver tissues in mice with immunological hepatic injury.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The murine model of immunological hepatic injury was induced by Bacillus Calmette Guerin and Lipoposaccharide. The mice with immunological hepatic injury were randomly assigned to the model group, the cefodizime group and the ceftriaxone group. The three groups were continuously given agents for seven days and CXCL16 mRNA of liver tissue was determined and contrasted with the control group treated by normal saline. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to assay CXCL16 mRNA levels in liver tissues.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The expressions of CXCL16 mRNA were significantly higher in the model group and the ceftriaxone group than in the control group and the cefodizime group (P < 0.05), indicating the mice in the model group and the ceftriaxone group were immunodeficient. There was no statistical difference in the expressions of CXCL16 mRNA between the control group and the cefodizime group. Similarly, no statistical difference in the expressions of CXCL16 mRNA between the model group and the ceftriaxone group was detected (P > 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Cefodizime effectively reduces the infiltration of lymphocytes into liver tissues and alleviates the liver damage by decreasing CXCL16 mRNA in liver tissues in mice with immunological hepatic injury.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cefotaxime , Therapeutic Uses , Chemokine CXCL16 , Chemokine CXCL6 , Genetics , Chemokines , Lipopolysaccharides , Toxicity , Liver , Metabolism , Microbiology , Mice , Mycobacterium bovis , Physiology , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
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