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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927981


Obvious epigenetic differentiation occurred on Lycium barbarum in different cultivation areas in China. To investigate the difference and change rule of DNA methylation level and pattern of L. barbarum from different cultivation areas in China, the present study employed fluorescence-assisted methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism(MSAP) to analyze the methylation level and polymorphism of 53 genomic DNA samples from Yinchuan Plain in Ningxia, Bayannur city in Inner Mongolia, Jingyuan county and Yumen city in Gansu, Delingha city in Qinghai, and Jinghe county in Xinjiang. The MSAP technical system suitable for the methylation analysis of L. barbarum genomic DNA was established and ten pairs of selective primers were selected. Among amplified 5'-CCGG-3' methylated sites, there were 35.85% full-methylated sites and 39.88% hemi-methylated sites, showing a high degree of epigenetic differentiation. Stoichiometric analysis showed that the ecological environment was the main factor affecting the epigenetic characteristics of L. barbarum, followed by cultivated varieties. Precipitation, air temperature, and soil pH were the main ecological factors affecting DNA methylation in different areas. This study provided a theoretical basis for the analysis of the epigenetic mechanism of L. barbarum to adapt to the diffe-rent ecological environments and research ideas for the introduction, cultivation, and germplasm traceability of L. barbarum.

China , DNA Methylation , DNA Primers , Epigenesis, Genetic , Lycium/genetics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-230961


To provide a scientific basis for the selection and optimization of the modern drying processing method for Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR). Three phenolic acids (esters), 6 phthalides were determined by using UPLC-PDA while polysaccharides were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Then the effects of drying methods on the inner qualities of ASR were evaluated through principle components analysis (PCA) combined with the appearance properties after drying. Results showed that the contents of chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid in samples obtained with controlled temperature and humidity drying (CTHD), medium and shortwave infrared drying (MSID) and microwave vacuum drying (MVD) methods were significantly higher than those with primary drying processing(PDP) method and the fresh samples. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that samples processed with CTHD had more similar general chemical properties with those processed with PDP, suggesting that CTHD was appropriate for the modern primary drying processing of ASR. With samples processed with traditional PDP method as reference, the CTHD method was further optimized in the processing parameters for ASR by orthogonal experiment design. Considering the consumption of drying power and time and other parameters, the modern drying parameters for the primary drying processing of ASR were finally optimized as follows: controlled temperature and humidity drying at 40-45 ℃, relative humidity below 25% and target moisture content about 50% in the first stage of drying process, tempering for 12-24 h, and then drying under the conditions of temperature at 50-60 ℃, relative humidity below 20% and fan frequency at 30-40 Hz in the second stage. The study provided the scientific evidence for the selection of appropriate drying method and suitable parameters for the modern primary drying processing of ASR, as well as the beneficial exploration and practice on the formation of technical standard of primary drying processing for roots and rhizomes types herbal medicines.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-258428


To establish the suitable modern drying processing parameters for Scrophulariae Radix (SR). With reference to the traditional drying processing method of SR and the characteristics of modern drying equipment, the drying process for SR was simulated as the following three stages: temperature-controlled drying-tempering-temperature-controlled drying. Eighteen batches of SR samples were obtained by the drying methods after the orthogonal design experiment with seven factors namely temperature, wind speed, and target moisture for the first stage, tempering time and temperature, as well as temperature and wind speed for the second stage. UPLC-TQ-MS was applied for determination of nine target compounds including catalpol, harpagide, verbascoside, ferulic acid, angroside-C, aucubin, harpagoside, cinnamic acid and ursolic acid in those dried samples and another 19 batches of SR samples collected from genuine producing area. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed, and total energy consumption was also taken into consideration for analysis and evaluation. Results showed that the optimal drying processing method for SR was as follows: drying temperature of 60 ℃, drying wind speed of 50 Hz, and 50% for target moisture in the first stage; 24 h for tempering time and temperature of 20 ℃ in the second stage; drying temperature of 60 ℃, and drying wind speed of 30 Hz in the third stage. The medicinal materials with optimized modern drying processing method were extremely similar to those collected from genuine producing area in the aspect of both external properties and target compounds, and they were in line with the 2015 version of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" requirements. In addition, they could help to shorten the drying time and increase the efficiency of primary processing, and thus promote the normalization and standardization of primary drying processing for SR.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337974


To establish the water dynamics model for drying process of Angelicae Sinensis Radix, the Weibull distribution model was applied to study the moisture ratio variation curves, and compared the drying rate and drying activation energy with the drying methods of temperature controllable air drying, infrared drying under different temperatures (50, 60, 70 degrees C). The Weibull distribution model could well describe the drying curves, for the moisture ratio vs. drying time profiled of the model showed high correlation (R2 = 0. 994-0. 999). The result proved that the drying process of Angelicae Sinensis Radix belonged to falling-rate drying period. For the drying process, the scale parameter (a) was related to the drying temperature, and decreased as the temperature increases. The shape parameter (β) for the same drying method, drying temperature had little impact on the shape parameter. The moisture diffusion coefficient increase along with temperature increasing from 0.425 x 10(-9) m2 x s(-1) to 2.260 x 10(-9) m2 x s(-1). The activation energy for moisture diffusion was 68.82, 29.60 kJ x mol(-1) by temperature controllable air drying and infrared drying, respectively. Therefore, the Weibull distribution model can be used to predict the moisture removal of Angelicae Sinensis Radix in the drying process, which is great significance for the drying process of prediction, control and process optimization. The results provide the technical basis for the use of modern drying technology for industrial drying of Angelicae Sinensis Radix.

Angelica sinensis , Chemistry , Desiccation , Methods , Models, Theoretical , Water
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279223


Modern drying technology was used to explore suitable drying process to provide scientific basis for improving drying processing methods of Scrophulariae Radix. Controlled temperature and humidity drying, vacuum drying apparatus, microwave vacuum drying apparatus, short infrared drying device were used to gain samples for analyzing. The character appearance, concentration of main components and power consumption indicators were chosen for preliminary judging. Six major components, including iridoids and phenylpropanoids were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS method. The contents of polysaccharides were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry. The character appearance with controlled temperature and humidity drying and short infrared drying meet the pharmacopoeia standard (Ch. p, edition 2015), while samples with vacuum and microwave vacuum drying apparatus didn't. Compared to fresh sample, concentrations of harpagide, harpagoside, aucubin and catalpol were lower in the dried samples. Angoroside-C showed no significant change before and after drying. Concentration of acteoside increased after drying. Samples with controlled temperature (70 degrees C) and humidity (15% - 10%) drying had high content and short drying time. The better drying process of Scrophulariae Radix was controlled temperature and humidity drying. The method will provide the reference for the drying technology standard of roots medicine.

Desiccation , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Quality Control , Scrophularia , Chemistry
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-236030


To provide a scientific basis for the selection of the appropriate drying method for Mentha Haplocalyx Herba (MHH), determine 2 monoterpenes, 4 phenolic acids and 5 flavonoids in MHH by GC-MS and UPLC-TQ-MS methods, and investigate the effects of the drying methods on the changes in contents of these analytes. The qualities of products obtained with different drying methods were evaluated by the multivariate statistical method of Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). Results showed that the drying methods had the greatest impact on menthol, caffeic acid, and rosemary acid, which were followed by chlorogenic acid and diosmetin-7-O-glucoside. The contents in these analytes processed with hot-air-drying method were higher than those with microwave-drying and infrared-drying methods at the same temperatures. The contents in these analytes processed under low temperature (40-45 °C) were higher than those under higher temperature (60-70 °C). Above all, the contents in phenolic acids processed with microwave fixation (exposed under microwave at 100 °C for several minutes) were obviously higher than those of not being processed, showing an inhibition of some enzymes in samples after fixation. The TOPSIS evaluation showed that the variable temperature drying method of 'Hot-Air 45-60 °C' was the most suitable approach for the primary drying processing of MHH. The results could provide the scientific basis for the selection of appropriate drying method for MHH, and helpful reference for the primary drying proces of herbs containing volatile chemical components.

Desiccation , Methods , Flavonoids , Hydroxybenzoates , Mentha , Chemistry , Monoterpenes