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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 716-723, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922896

ABSTRACT

This study identified the exact molecular mechanisms of baicalein on neuroinflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 cells. Bioinformatics methods and molecular docking were integrated for predicting the potential targets and mechanisms of baicalein. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blot were used to analyze the predicted key targets [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)], the expression level of protein related to signal transducer and activator of transcription 1/nuclear factor kappa-B (STAT1/NF-‍κB) signaling pathway and its upstream regulator NADPH oxidase-2 (NOX2), and then the mechanism of baicalein in alleviating neuroinflammation was explored. The results showed that iNOS and COX-2 were predicted as the key targets and NF-κB signaling pathway was one of the important pathways by bioinformatics methods and molecular docking. Experimental verification showed that baicalein could significantly reduce the expression of iNOS and COX-2, inhibit the phosphorylation of NF-κB and STAT1 and the production of NOX2 in LPS-induced BV-2 cells. To sum up, baicalein could effectively inhibit the inflammatory reaction in LPS-induced BV-2 cells through regulating NOX2 (gp91phox/p47phox)/STAT1/NF-κB pathway.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 783-792, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922891

ABSTRACT

Molecular mass distribution of Astragalus polysaccharides is wide. Astragalus polysaccharides prepared by conventional water extraction and alcohol precipitation are mostly mixture of macromolecules. Although studies have shown that Astragalus polysaccharides have two-sided immunomodulation, the relationship between anti-inflammatory components and molecular mass distribution of Astragalus polysaccharides is not clear. Therefore, Astragalus polysaccharides were extracted by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. The relative molecular weight of them was determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC). Astragalus polysaccharides with different molecular weights were separated and prepared by membrane separation. RAW 264.7 cells were induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to establish an inflammatory cell model in vitro and the anti-inflammatory polysaccharide were screened. The anti-inflammatory regulation mechanism of Astragalus polysaccharides was analyzed by the LC-MS/MS metabonomics technology. The results showed that APS was composed of APS-Ⅰ ( > 2 000 kDa) and APS-Ⅱ (10 kDa). APS-Ⅰ was composed of mannose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, arabinose and the molar ratios of these monosaccharide of APS-I were 0.54∶0.26∶12.24∶17.24∶8.46∶1. APS-II was composed of rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, arabinose and the molar ratios of these monosaccharide of APS-II were 0.26∶0.14∶24.04∶0.62∶1. APS-Ⅰ and APS-Ⅱ had no cell toxicity to RAW 264.7 macrophage in the range of 0-100 μg·mL-1. Compared with the model group, APS-I at a concentration of 0-100 μg·mL-1could significantly inhibit the secretion of NO and TNF-α by RAW 264.7, and can significantly promote the secretion of IL-10. APS-I had better anti-inflammatory activity than APS-II in vitro. The metabolomics results showed that 32 different metabolites were found between the model group and blank group; APS-I group can significantly callback 18 different metabolites; mainly related to arginine biosynthesis, arginine and proline metabolism, pyrimidine metabolism, citric acid cycle (TCA cycle), cysteine and methionine acid metabolism, tryptophan metabolism. This study found that APS-I had better anti-inflammatory activity than APS-II in vitro, and its mechanism may be closely related to amino acid metabolism and energy metabolism, which indicated the direction for further clarifying the pharmacodynamic material basis of Astragalus polysaccharides.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 528-537, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873761

ABSTRACT

The antidepressant effect of Xiaoyaosan has been demonstrated. It is of value to explore the biological mechanism of Xiaoyaosan in the treatment of depression from the perspective of functional modules by using the method of functional module division of the metabolic network. The differential metabolites and related enzymes and proteins regulated by Xiaoyaosan were identified in the database. Pathway enrichment analysis and crosstalk pathway analysis of Xiaoyaosan regulated metabolites was carried out. A network of differentially regulated metabolites and their enzymes and proteins was constructed by using the STRING tool. The CNM decomposition algorithm was used to extract the functional modules of the network and enrichment analysis of functional modules was carried out. The results show that Xiaoyaosan regulates 97 differential metabolites, 234 related enzymes and 258 depression-related proteins. The pathways crosstalk analysis was divided into two sub-networks, one of which is related to the neural system and cell signal transduction, the other is related to the endocrine system and metabolic pathways. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of the network and 9 functional modules extracted by the CNM algorithm shows that module 1 and module 3 belong to the pathways that can be enriched into more pathways with fewer proteins. The corresponding functions of these pathways include the endocrine system, amino acid metabolism, the nervous system and signal transduction. In this study, pathway crosstalk analysis and metabolic network module division strategies were used to explain the biological mechanism of Xiaoyaosan in the treatment of depression, providing ideas and methods for in-depth study of the pharmacological mechanism of this traditional Chinese medicine from the perspective of metabolic regulation.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909608

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To explore the pathogenesis of depression according to the LC-MS/MS-based metabolo?mics in the mouse model which exhibits social avoidance state induced by the chronic social defeat stress model (CSDS). METHODS Twenty male C57BL/6N mice were randomly divided into control group and model group suffering CSDS, and the ICR retired breeder mice were used to attack the model group for 14 d of chronic social defeated stress. The open field test and source preference test were both used to observe depression-like behavior. Besides, the social inter?action test is used to observe the social interaction state, especially. After the stress, the serum samples of mice were collected, and the changes of endogenous metabolites were analyzed by LC-MS metabolomics technology, and the pathway analysis of the differential metabolites was performed to explore the pathogenesis of the CSDS induced depres?sive-like mouse model. RESULTS After the stress of CSDS was completed, the mice in the model group showed a significant slowdown in body weight growth, a reduction in the source preference rate, and a significant reduction in the total distance and the number of rearing in the open field test. Distinctively, the social interaction rate is remarkably decreasing. There are 24 differential metabolites found in the serum of CSDS model mice. CONCLUSION The mouse who suffered CSDS stress would show depressive-like behavior. Based on the LC-MS/MS metabolomics, 24 differential metabolites were found in the serum of CSDS model mice. The amino acid metabolism might be significant to the patho?genesis of the CSDS induced depressive-like mouse model.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888085

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the mechanism of Xiaoyao San(XYS) in the treatment of three diseases of liver depression and spleen deficiency, ie, depression, breast hyperplasia, and functional dyspepsia, and to provide a theoretical basis for the interpretation of the scientific connotation of "treating different diseases with the same method" of traditional Chinese medicines. Traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform(TCMSP) was used to screen the active components of XYS which underwent principal component analysis(PCA) with the available drugs for these three diseases to determine the corresponding biological activities. The targets of XYS on depression, breast hyperplasia, and functional dyspepsia were obtained from GeneCards, TTD, CTD, and DrugBank databases. Cytoscape was used to plot the "individual herbal medicine-active components-potential targets" network. The resulting key targets were subjected to Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes(KEGG) pathway analysis and gene ontology(GO) enrichment analysis. A total of 121 active components of XYS and 38 common targets in the treatment of depression, breast hyperplasia, and functional dyspepsia were collected. The key biological pathways were identified, including advanced glycation and products(AGEs)-receptor for advanced glycation and products(RAGE) signaling pathway in diabetic complications, HIF-1 signaling pathway, and cancer-related pathways. The key targets of XYS in the treatment of depression, breast hyperplasia, and functional dyspepsia included IL6, IL4, and TNF, and the key components were kaempferol, quercetin, aloe-emodin, etc. As revealed by the molecular docking, a strong affinity was observed between the key components and the key targets, which confirmed the results. The therapeutic efficacy of XYS in the treatment of diseases of liver depression and spleen deficiency was presumedly achieved by reducing the inflammatory reactions. The current findings are expected to provide novel research ideas and approaches to classify the scientific connotation of "treating different diseases with the same method" of Chinese medicines, as well as a theoretical basis for understanding the mechanism of XYS and exploring its clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Depression/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Dyspepsia/drug therapy , Humans , Hyperplasia/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887973

ABSTRACT

Circadian rhythm disorder is a common society issue caused by jet lag,shift work,sleep disruption and changes in food consumption. Light is the major factor affecting the circadian rhythm system. Disruption of the circadian rhythm system can cause damage to the body,leading to some diseases. Maintaining a normal circadian system is of great importance for good health. Ideal therapeutic effect can not only alleviate symptoms of the diseases,but also recovery the disturbed circadian rhythm to normal. The paper summarizes the modeling methods of animal circadian rhythm disorder,diseases of circadian rhythm abnormality,regulation of circadian clock genes and medicine which are related to circadian rhythm to diseases of circadian rhythm disorder.


Subject(s)
Animals , Circadian Rhythm/genetics , Humans , Jet Lag Syndrome/genetics , Sleep , Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm
7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1286-1292, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887093

ABSTRACT

With the rapid development of high sensitivity detection techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry, stable isotope-resolved metabolomics has been widely used in elucidating the regulatory mechanism of metabolic pathways and metabolic flow analysis, and some breakthroughs have been made. In this paper the application of stable isotope-resolved metabolomics in glucose catabolic regulation, metabolic flow analysis and functional interpretation of key metabolic pathways is reviewed, providing references for the wider use and application of this technology.

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2266-2275, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887054

ABSTRACT

We previously reported that active Astragalus polysaccharides APS-Ⅱ generate strong immune activity. Here we establish the optimal method for APS-II acid degradation. After preliminary structural studies and separation and preparation of the degradation products, the oligosaccharide active center with the strongest immune activity was identified by in vitro immune cell culture experiments. The optimum acid degradation conditions for APS-II were determined by a single factor experiment and an orthogonal experiment. Astragalus oligosaccharides prepared under the optimal conditions were subjected to structural analysis by hydrophilic interaction chromatography - electrospray ionization source - high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The products were separated and oligosaccharide fragments with different degrees of polymerization were isolated by preparative purification chromatography. Finally, fragments of the immunologically active centers were identified by in vitro immune cell cultures from multiple perspectives. The results show that the optimal acid hydrolysis conditions for APS-Ⅱ are hydrolysis temperature 80 ℃, trifluoroacetic acid concentration 1.0 mol·L-1, hydrolysis time 1 h. The degradation conditions have good repeatability. The degradation product is a six-carbon aldehyde glycan structure with the main chain 1→4 connected. The immune activity screening experiment for six oligosaccharide fragments showed that larger molecular weight oligosaccharides have stronger immune-promoting effects. It is speculated that the immunologically active center of Astragalus oligosaccharide is located in the sugar chain of DP9-DP19. The animal welfare and the experimental process in this study follow the requirements of the Animal Ethics Committee of Shanxi University. This result suggests a foundation for the structural characterization and structure-activity relationship research of Astragalus oligosaccharides, and may promote the development of Astragalus oligosaccharide drugs.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1865-1871, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887011

ABSTRACT

The incidence rate of depression is increasing, but its pathological mechanism is still unknown. More evidence shows that the occurrence and development of depression is closely related to the changes of gut microbiome. However, due to the huge differences in bacterial composition among individuals caused by different environmental factors, researchers usually need a large number of samples to get reliable results. Experimental animal models play an important role in the pathogenesis of diseases and the mechanism of drug action because of their highly consistent background, controllable experimental environment, and the characteristics of artificial intervention. Therefore, the selection of appropriate experimental animal models can not only simulate the clinical symptoms of human depression, but also reveal the causal relationship between clinical characteristics and gut microbiome changes. In this review, the development and application of fecal microbiota transplantation technology, the close relationship between flora and depression, the application of humanized fecal microbiota transplantation experimental animal model in the study of depression, as well as the preparation methods and key technologies of humanized fecal microbiota were summarized, which provided a reference for the research on the pathogenesis of depression and the mechanism of antidepressant drugs of humanized fecal microbiota transplantation experimental animal model. This review provides a reference for the reasonable application of this aspect.

10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1936-1944, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887009

ABSTRACT

italic>Astragalus polysaccharides are the main immunomodulatory substances in Astragali Radix. The structure of polysaccharides is difficult to accurately determine, which limits the in-depth study of the molecular mechanism of Astragalus polysaccharides in vivo. "Polysaccharide receptor theory" believes that there are one or more oligosaccharide fragment "active centers" in immunologically active polysaccharide molecules. Therefore, the degradation of Astragalus polysaccharides into oligosaccharides and the study of the active centers of polysaccharides at the oligosaccharide level provide new ideas in the study of the structure and mechanism of Astragalus polysaccharides. This article adopts endo-α-1,4-glucanase enzymatic hydrolysis, and determines the best degradation conditions through single factor test and orthogonal test to degrade the immunologically active polysaccharide APS-Ⅱ (10 kDa component) into oligomers with different degrees of polymerization. Then through the preparation of polyacrylamide gel chromatography and specific immune and non-specific immune cell tests, the immune activity screening of different oligosaccharide components is carried out. The animal welfare and the experimental process in this study follow the requirements of the Animal Ethics Committee of Shanxi University. The results showed that compared with the immunologically active polysaccharide APS-Ⅱ, different oligosaccharide components have obvious differences in different immunological activities. This paper studies the different immunological activities of Astragalus polysaccharides at the level of oligosaccharides, laying a foundation for further elucidating the structure and function of Astragalus polysaccharides, enriching the theory of polysaccharide receptors, and providing new ideas for the development of Astragalus polysaccharides.

11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2464-2471, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886942

ABSTRACT

Depression was a complex and difficult to regulate disease, which was closely related to purinergic system and purine metabolism disorder. Although there had been studies to improve depression by regulating purinergic system, the mechanism of action was complex and needed to be sorted out. Recently, a large number of studies had found that the addition of exogenous purine metabolites adenosine, inosine and guanosine had a significant antidepressant effect, indicating that regulating the level of purine substances in purine metabolism could also improve depression, which was of great significance to the further study of the pathogenesis and treatment of depression. In view of this, this study reviewed the relationship between purinergic system or purine metabolism and depression, in order to provide a reference for the further study of the pathogenesis of depression.

12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 771-777, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876509

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the mechanism by which baicalein protected PC12 cells from Aβ25-35-induced injury. PC12 cells were treated with Aβ25-35 (20 μmol·L-1) and the ability of baicalein to prevent apoptosis was investigated by monitoring changes in cell morphology, Hoechst 33342 staining, and measurement of inflammatory factors. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of the apoptosis-related proteins cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-3 (caspase-3), cleaved cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-3 (cleaved caspase-3), proteins involved in the Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (JAK2/STAT1) pathway, and downstream inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The results show that baicalein (80 μmol·L-1) can significantly inhibit apoptosis and the release of inflammatory factor IL-8 and TNF-α in Aβ25-35-treated PC12 cells. Western blotting results showed that baicalein can inhibit the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT1 and decrease the expression of downstream iNOS and COX-2, thereby inhibiting the JAK2/STAT1 signaling pathway and preventing Aβ25-35-induced PC12 cell damage.

13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 74-82, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780578

ABSTRACT

@#In this study a <italic>D</italic>-galactose-induced aging rat model combined with <sup>1</sup>H NMR of serum and liver metabolomics were used to explore the anti-aging effect and the potential metabolic regulatory mechanism of <italic>Scutellaria baicalensis</italic> Georgi leaves. All procedures involving animal treatment were approved according to the Committee on the Ethics of Animal Experiments of Shanxi University. The results of physical characteristics, an open field test and serum biochemical indexes indicated that <italic>Scutellaria baicalensis</italic> Georgi leaves had an anti-aging effect that could ameliorate the characteristics of aging rats such as acquired hair loss and slow response, improve the spontaneous activity of aging rats, and decrease lipid peroxidation and glycosylation damage induced by <italic>D</italic>-galactose. Serum and liver metabolomics further revealed that <italic>Scutellaria baicalensis</italic> Georgi leaves could decrease serum and liver metabolism disturbances in aging rats, mainly through different metabolites and metabolic pathways. Specifically, 12 differential metabolites including glutamine and glutamate, 11 metabolic pathways including <italic>D</italic>-glutamine and <italic>D</italic>-glutamate metabolism and alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism in serum were significantly altered after the treatment. Simultaneously, five differential metabolites such as <italic>α</italic>-glucose and <italic>β</italic>-glucose, two metabolic pathways that are glycolysis or gluconeogenesis, and starch and sucrose metabolism in the liver were markedly altered.

14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 8-14, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780565

ABSTRACT

The senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) is a generic term for the secretion of a series of cytokines such as pro-inflammatory factors, chemokines and proteases, and is a key feature of senescent cells. SASP is a double-edged sword that can resist a harmful environment in normal cells, but with the decline of body function, the massive secretion of cytokines, chemokines and proteases accelerates aging while inducing inflammation, leading to the development of various aging-related diseases. This article reviews the composition and physiological functions of SASP, the changes in SASP during aging, the regulatory pathways associated with SASP, and the anti-aging drugs that regulate SASP. This article aims to present a more comprehensive understanding of SASP and lay the foundation for SASP-based anti-aging research and the discovery of new targets for anti-SASP drugs.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827224

ABSTRACT

The quality of Astragali Radix (AR) was closely related to the growth period. However, the current commodity grades of AR were only divided by diameter but not directly related to the growth period, which leads to the contradiction between the grade standard and the quality evaluation index. Therefore, solving this problem will be the key for the quality evaluation of AR. The present study established a potential quality evaluation approach for the absolute growth years' wild Astragali Radix (WAR) and transplanted Astragali Radix (TAR) based on the chemical components and anti-heart failure efficacy through adopting a bare-handed sections approach to rapidly identify the growth years of WAR. In this study, the absolute growth years of WAR were obtained by identifying the growth rings of 1-6 growth years root through the methods. The contents of flavonoids and saponins in 2-6 growth years' WAR were determined by HPLC-UV-ELSD. The contents of 12 chemical components and the anti-fatigue failure effects of WAR (4-year-old) and TAR were compared on rat models of heart failure induced by doxorubicin. Meanwhile, NMR-based untargeted metabolomics studies were performed to investigate the regulative effects of WAR and TAR. The result shows that the numbers of growth rings were consistent with the actual growth periods of AR. The HPLC-UV-ELSD determination indicated that the content of total flavonoids in WAR was significantly higher than that in TAR. Pharmacodynamics analysis revealed that the effects of WAR on cardiac function parameters (EF, FS and LVIDs), contents of serum CK and BNP were superior to those of TAR. 13 metabolites of heart were identified that had a higher rate of change in WAR group than TAR. Overall, a rapid identification method for the growth years of WAR was established, and the fact that WAR were significantly better than TAR in the heart failure rats was first proved in the paper. This study provided a scientific basis for establishing a novel commodity specification and grade of AR for clinical rational drug use.

16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 195-200, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-789022

ABSTRACT

Depression is a common mental illness with mood disorders as the main clinical feature. In recent years numerous studies have shown that mitochondrial function and structure are abnormal in patients with depression, and changes in mitochondrial ultrastructure can lead to energy metabolism disorders in the body. It is suggested that 'mitochondrial energy metabolism disorder' may be the pathogenesis of depression. This paper reviews the intrinsic association of mitochondrial energy metabolism with depression and notes potential mechanisms from the standpoint of mitochondrial structure and function on the molecular level. We provide a reference for understanding the pathogenesis of depression and identifying the possible targets of antidepressant drugs.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 315-322, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-789021

ABSTRACT

This work investigates the effects of Guilingji (GLJ) on D-galactose-induced aging and changes in serum metabolites by UHPLC-Q exactive orbitrap-MS in rats. The rat model of aging by subcutaneous injection of D-galactose (300 mg·kg-1) was used to analyze the effect of different concentrations of GLJ (37.5, 75, 150 mg·kg-1) on an open field test in aging rats. Rat serum was collected after 8 weeks and subjected to LC-MS to analyze the anti-aging effect of GLJ. Animal experimentation was approved according to the Committee on the Ethics of Animal Experiments of Shanxi University (SXULL2014032). GLJ significantly improved the autonomous activity of rats. Compared with the control group, 23 metabolites in the treated group changed significantly, involving three main pathways. The group that was given GLJ had altered regulation of 4 serum metabolites in two pathways. Our results indicate that GLJ can delay aging behavior in rats; the mechanism of this anti-ageing effect remains to be determined.

18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 305-314, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-789018

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effect of the petroleum ether fraction of Xiaoyaosan (XY-A) in a rat depression model with consideration of an underlying mechanism based on gut microbiota and metabolomics. All procedures involving animal treatment were approved according to the Committee on the Ethics of Animal Experiments of Shanxi University. A rat model was established using the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) procedure and XY-A and venlafaxine (positive control) were used as intervention drugs. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene combined with LC-MS metabolomics was used to investigate the effects of XY-A on gut microbiota and metabolites in CUMS-induced depression, and Pearson correlation analysis was carried out on gut microbiota and metabolites. The results showed that XY-A significantly improved the depression-like behavior of CUMS rats and restored the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus. Gut microbiota analysis revealed that XY-A can increase the diversity of microbial species in CUMS rats and significantly restored the relative abundance of intestinal Rothia [Prevotella], with effects on intestinal inflammation and the production of short-chain fatty acids. Cecal content metabolomics identified twenty biomarkers that were altered by depression, whereas administration of XY-A ameliorated the changes in seventeen metabolites, with the most strongly affected metabolic pathways being linoleic acid metabolism, taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, primary bile acid biosynthesis, and arginine and proline metabolism. Correlation analysis further showed that there was a strong relationship between the gut microbiota and the cecal content metabolites. In summary, XY-A may exert antidepressant effects by regulating the composition of the gut microbiota and the metabolites and pathways of the cecum. The results provide a reference for the potential molecular mechanism of antidepressant action of XY-A.

19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2968-2975, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862275

ABSTRACT

Characterization of the polysaccharides and monosaccharides of Bupleurum chinense was undertaken to identify differences in the Bupleurum chinense's sugar profiles, so as to provide a basis for the identification of different varieties. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to generate chromatograms of the total polysaccharides of Bupleurum using an Evaporation Light Detector (ELSD), and a monosaccharide chromatogram was generated using a UV-detector (UV) following polysaccharide derivatization. The data were analyzed using SIMCA software and SPSS software to distinguish different varieties of Bupleurum. The results show that the yield of polysaccharides from Bupleurum falcatum is the highest, while the yield of polysaccharides from Bupleurum chinense is the lowest. The polysaccharide spectrum shows that the molecular weights of the polysaccharides in different Bupleurum differ, and their percentages of the total peak area are also different. The four Bupleurum polysaccharides are composed of mannose, glucuronic acid, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, and arabinose, but differ in length. The ratio of glucose to arabinose in Bupleurum chinense, Bupleurum scorzonerifolium, Bupleurum falcatum and Bupleurum marginatum var. stenophyllum is: 3.0-4.0, 5.5-7.0, 12.0-17.0, 9.0-12.0. In this study, a sugar profile technique was developed to provide a new method for the identification of different varieties of Bupleurum.

20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2702-2712, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837523

ABSTRACT

The effects of alcohol extracts from roots, stems, leaves, and flowers of Scutellaria Baicalensis Georgi (SBG) on endogenous metabolism in D-gal-induced aging-model rats were investigated by 1H NMR metabolomics. Results showed that 32 endogenous metabolites were identified in the urine. Combined with the VIP value and t-test, 14 different metabolites were found by multivariate statistical analysis of the spectrum. Compared with the control group, the content of α-ketoglutaric acid, hippuric acid and 3-hydroxybutyrate in the urine of rats in the model group was significantly decreased (P<0.05) and the content of trimethylamine oxide, glycine, alanine, lactic acid, dimethylglycine, acetate, pyruvate, taurine, allantoin, betaine, N-acetylated glycoprotein was significantly increased (P<0.05). The metabolites were mainly derived from taurine and hypo-taurine metabolism; glycine, serine and threonine metabolism; pyruvate metabolism; glycolysis/gluconeogenesis; glyoxylic acid and dicarboxylic acid metabolism; and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The content of differential metabolites in urine samples was altered by the alcohol extracts from the different parts of SBG. Leaves extracts of SBG had the greatest effect on urine metabolites, and mainly affected taurine and hypo-taurine metabolism; glycine, serine and threonine metabolism; and pyruvate metabolism. This study provides a reliable experimental basis for the future development of SBG. This animal experiment was approved by the Committee on the Ethics of Animal Experiments of Shanxi University (SXULL2016036).

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