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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-338205

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to identify Daphne genkwa and its adulterants, Wikstroemia chamaedaphne, according to the morphological and microstructure characteristics of their stem and foliage. The root of D.genkwa was studied simultaneously. The results indicated that the crude drug and processed pieces of Genkwa Ramulus were mainly composed of stems and branches where obvious opposite petiole scars and branch marks were able to be seen on their nodes. Otherwise, foliage or peduncles generally couldn't be found. Moreover, the fine silver flocculent fibers could be observed in the bark of fracture surface. The adulterants were the plant segments which were composed of stems, foliage and peduncles with spikelet-pedicel scars. There existed microstructures differences between Genkwa Ramulus and its adulterants. In the former, single thick lignified phloem fibers were interspersed in the stem phloem of the transverse section with very thick wall and unicellular non-glandular hairs could be observed on the lower epidermis of foliage. Nevertheless, in the latter, there was no thick lignified phloem fibers in cross section of stem phloem, the outer wall of epidermal cells of foliage hadthick cuticles and no non-glandular hairs in lower epidermis of foliage. The results can be used for the identification and the quality standard of the crude drug and processed pieces of D.genkwa.The characteristics of the microstructures and the transverse section can be used to identify the radix D.genkwa.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-246111

ABSTRACT

Microscopic identification and NIRS methods were applied to identify Clematidis Radix et Rhizoma of two different origins. The results showed that both methods could identify the samples. NIRS could identify the two samples nondestructively, and provides a basis for establishment of a standard herbs radix clematidis NIRS fingerprint in the future.


Subject(s)
China , Clematis , Chemistry , Classification , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Rhizome , Chemistry , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Methods
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351246

ABSTRACT

To establish quality standards of Euonymus fortunei, and supply scientific evidence for the quality control of Euonymus fortunei. Empirical and microscopic identification methods were adopted to observe morphological and histological characters. The contents of water, total ash, acid-insoluble ash and alcohol-soluble extractive were analysed according to the methods of Chinese Pharmaco- poeia (2010). Dulcitol and reference herbs were used to identify materia medica of Euonymus fortunei by TLC method. The total flavonol glycosides contents were analysed by HPLC method, using quercetin and kaempferol as reference substances. Quercetin and kaempferol were separated on a C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm) with methanol-0.1% formic acid(51:49) as the mobile phase and detected at 366 nm. The flavonoid aglycones content was then multiplied by a conversion coefficient, and the result was the total flavonol glycosides content. The macroscopical identification, microscopic features and TLC methods were proper. The average contents of water, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, alcohol-soluble extractive and total flavonol glycosides were 8.76%, 6.48%, 0.31%, 17.48% and 0.211% , respectively. The quality standards established on the basis of the research results were suitable for the quality evaluation of Euonymus fortunei.


Subject(s)
China , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Reference Standards , Euonymus , Chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Quality Control
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-264863

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To do some comparative study on chemical composition between the cultivated and wild samples of Radix Scutellariae.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Thirty three samples of Radix Scutellariae were collected from different habitats. An HPLC method for fingerprint identification and simultaneous determination of baicalin, baicalein and wogonin was established, and the content of ethanolic extractive was measured according to the method in Chinese Pharmacopoeia.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The number of chromatographic peaks in fingerprint of wild sample was more than that of cultivated sample in Hebei and Inner Mongolia. In 95% confidence intervals, the contents of baicalin, baicalein and wogonin were (15.89 +/- 1.52)%, (1.04 +/- 0.26)% and (0.27 +/- 0.07)%, respectively in the cultivated samples and (11.93 +/- 1.62)%, (1.03 +/- 0.26)% and (0.27 +/- 0.06)%, respectively in wild samples. The content of ethanolic extractive was 52.07 +/- 3.05% in the cultivated and (41.21 +/- 2.86)% in the wild within 95% confidence interval.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Slight difference between the fingerprint of the cultivated and wild samples was found, and the contents of baicalin and ethanolic extraction in the cultivated were higher than those in the wild.</p>


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Flavanones , Flavonoids , Reproducibility of Results , Scutellaria baicalensis , Chemistry , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284428

ABSTRACT

<p><b>UNLABELLED</b>To explore the dynamic change of paeoniflorin content in root of Paeonia lactiflora.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The samples were collected and paeoniflorin content was determined by HPLC.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The results showed that the average content of paeoniflorin was the lowest at 3.05% in the roots collected in May, and during the fruit time it was rather high in August at 4.72%, and in September at 4.58%. The average content showed no significant differences during June to October.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Wild plant of P. lactiflora might be collected for medical use during blooming stage until wilting stage.</p>


Subject(s)
Benzoates , Chemistry , Bridged-Ring Compounds , Chemistry , China , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Glucosides , Chemistry , Monoterpenes , Paeonia , Chemistry , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Reproducibility of Results
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284378

ABSTRACT

Making textual research on Bencao and documents, this article inquires to the origin and development of genuine medicinal herbs of Shanyao (Rhizoma Dioscoreae) on the points of change of the growing areas and the development of cultivating and processing techniques and clinical uses. The study indicates that the medicinal use of Dioscorea oposita went through several periods: the period of the use of wild D. oposita before Tang dynasty, the period of the mixed use of wild and cultivating D. oposita from Song to the middle of Qing dynasty, and the period of the main use of cultivating D. oposita after the latter stage of Qing dynasty (18th century). It considers that the growing area of genuine medicinal herbs of Shanyao appeared in Ming dynasty and finally formed "Huaishanyao" on the early of 20th century. The acknowledgement of Huaishanyao as genuine medicinal herbs is related closely to its cultivating and processing techniques and clinical uses. The development of cultivating techniques provided the resource of Shanyao, the invention of processing techniques improved its appearance and quality, and the clinical uses and practices by modern and contemporary famous medical men played an important role to the social approval and development of Huaishanyao.


Subject(s)
Dioscorea , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Phytotherapy , Methods
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-293650

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a quantitative method of determination of carvacrol and thymol in Mosla chinensis.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The sample was extracted with 95% ethanol, ODS column was used with methanol-water-acetic acid (60:40:2) as mobile phase. The detection wavelength was set at 274 nm.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The linearities of carvacrol and thymol were respectively in the range of 0.23-2.15 microg (r = 0.9999) and 0.39-2.36 microg (r = 0.9999); the average recoveries were 99.9% (RSD 1.4%) and 98.6% (RSD 1.3%); the RSD of repeatability were 1.1% and 1.6%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The method is reliable, and can be used for quality control of M. chinensis.</p>


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Lamiaceae , Chemistry , Monoterpenes , Plant Components, Aerial , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Quality Control , Thymol
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272768

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To test whether the raphides in Tian Nanxing (Pinellia pedatisecta Schott) caused irritation.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Scan Electron Microscope and Microscope Oberservation; Animal experimental study.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Through the comparision of unprocessed Tian Nanxing to processed ones which included 36 h, 72 h, 120 h processed samples, the great modifications in the structure of raphides, especially for the ones with barbs in the processed samples was observed with time course study. A further animal experimental study went to show that the rate of change for raphides with barbs existed a dose-reponse relationship to irritation.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Investigations of the causes of these reactions showed that raphides of calcium oxalate are, at least in part, responsible for the Tian Nanxing's irritation.</p>


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Alum Compounds , Animals , Calcium Oxalate , Chemistry , Toxicity , Conjunctival Diseases , Crystallization , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Edema , Hot Temperature , Pinellia , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Rabbits , Rhizome , Chemistry , Technology, Pharmaceutical , Methods
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-274991

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To describe the difference between native and nonative herbs by determining contents of seven kinds of flavone for twenty-five samples from seventeen areas.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>HPLC. Fluid phase: MEOH-H2O-CH3COOH(ICE) (41:59:0.2) and (50:50:0.2). Detection wavelength: 275.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The contents of baicalin are 6%-9%, wogenin are 2%-8%, baicalein are 0.1%-1.6%, neobaicalein are 0.01%-0.2%, wogonin are 0.01%-0.3%, visidulin and oroxylin are trace amounts or undetected.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The native and nonative herbs have no distinct differce in absolute component ratio. The ratio of baicalin and wogenin is under three. The ratio of baicalin and baicalein, baicalin and wogonin is between twenty and fifty.</p>


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flavanones , Flavonoids , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Quality Control , Scutellaria baicalensis , Chemistry
10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 383-388, 2002.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-274804

ABSTRACT

<p><b>AIM</b>To discuss the genetic differentiation between wild and cultivated populations of Paeonia lactiflora Pall., and to find the reason for forming the genuineness of Radix Paeoniae rubra (Chishao) and Radix Paeoniae alba (Baishao).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty three representative samples of P. lactiflora from 11 localities were analyzed by RAPD method with 21 random primers. According to RAPD results, the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of P. lactiflora were detected by the percentage of polymorphic sites (PPB), the coefficient of gene differentiation (GST) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) At species level, the PPB of P. lactiflora was 85.26%, the Nei's gene diversity (Ht) was 0.166. The PPB in wild population (WP) was 77.61%, which was more than that (54.96%) in cultivated population for medicine (MP), and that (61.76%) in cultivated population for ornament (OP). (2) AMOVA showed that 29.50% of the genetic diversity resulted from differentiation among populations. Pairwise Phist distance (0.3632) between WP and MP was furthest, while that (0.0973) between MP and OP was closest, indicating population differentiation was significant (P < 0.001). (3) In general, cluster analysis revealed that the samples of P. lactiflora were divided in wild and cultivated groups (except for 39). In WP, individuals of Duolun were separated from those of other localities. In MP, the clusters of samples corresponded well with their own habitats.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>In addition to environmental factor, genetic differentiation should be the main cause for the genuineness of "Chishao" and "Baishao". Because of over collection and worse habitat, P. lactiflora in Duolun, whose root is the famous Chinese Geo-herbal--"Duolun Chishao", is progresively rare. So, it should become the endangered germplasm resource to protect.</p>


Subject(s)
DNA, Plant , Genetic Variation , Paeonia , Classification , Genetics , Plant Roots , Genetics , Plants, Medicinal , Genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Species Specificity
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-263652

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To provide basis for environmental factors of genuine crude Chinese angelica.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>On-the-spot investigation and indoor chemical analysis were made to study the physicochemical properties of cultivated soil of Chinese angelica.</p><p><b>RESULT AND CONCLUSION</b>The physical properties and the organic matte and mineral nutrition of cultivated soil of Chinese angelica are best in Min County, Gansu Province. The ecological environment is the leading factor in forming genuine crude Chinese angelica.</p>


Subject(s)
Angelica sinensis , Ecology , Phosphorus , Potassium , Quality Control , Soil , Zinc
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