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1.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 354-359, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-804879

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of foodborne Yersinia (Y.) enterocolitica in Pudong New District of Shanghai.@*Methods@#Four kinds of raw food samples were collected in retail circulation sites in Pudong from 2012 to 2016. Cold enrichment method was used to isolate Y. enterocolitica and further detection of biotype, serotype, virulent genes, antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were conducted.@*Results@#A total of 3 900 raw food samples were collected during this period, including poultry product (n=590), livestock product (n=1 074), aquatic product (n=1 488), vegetable (n=748), in which 111 (2.8%) were contaminated by Y. enterocolitica. The detection rates of Y. enterocolitica in poultry product samples (5.3%, 31/590) and livestock product samples (4.5%, 48/1 074) were higher than those in aquatic product samples (1.6%, 24/1 488) and vegetable samples (1.1%, 8/748). The predominant biotype was 1A (95.5%) and predominant serotype was O∶8 (42.3%). All the strains lacked ail, ystA, yadA and virF genes, which encoded pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. Seventy six (68.5%) strains harbored ystB gene, in which 35 (31.5%) belonged to 1A/O∶8/ystB pattern. Most strains were resistant to ampicillin (74.8%) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (70.3%), and non-sensitive rate to Cefoxitin was over 50.0%. No third generation cephalosporin or fluoroquinolone resistant strains were detected, but 38.7% (43/111) strains were multidrug resistant (MDR). Serotype O∶8 and O∶5 strains had 44 and 18 PFGE patterns, respectively.@*Conclusions@#The main foodborne exposure sources of Y. enterocolitica in raw food were poultry and livestock products in Pudong New District. 1A/O∶8/ystB was the predominant pattern with potential pathogenicity despite lacks of typical pathogenic virulent genes. The antimicrobial resistant rates of Y. enterocolitica were at a low level, but MDR strains still existed. Molecular types of the isolates showed highly genetic diversity.

2.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1403-1408, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801156

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the molecular characterization of adult diarrhea cases caused by enterotoxic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and explore the practical model of epidemiology for laboratory technique and data needs based on the surveillance network.@*Methods@#Epidemiological design and sampling targeted adult cases ETEC caused diarrhea in epidemic season. The enterotoxin type, serogroup, resistance, colonization factor and molecular type of ETEC were identified. Multiple dynamic phenotypic characteristics of ETEC were indicated by multidimensional and multivariable data.@*Results@#From 2016 to 2018, 84 eligible ETEC strains were detected. The dominant serums/toxins were O∶6 (STh), O∶25 (LT), O∶159 (STh), O∶153 (STh). O∶6 (STh+CS21), which replaced O∶25 and O∶159 as the popular clones in 2018. Six cases of O∶153 (STh+CFA/I+CS8+PT34) in outbreak in 2017 were imported ones. The resistance rates of ETEC strains detected in adults to sulfasoxazole, naproxinic acid, ampicillin and azithromycin were more than 30%, multidrug resistance (MDR) reached 58.3%. Serum/toxin types suggested that attenuated strains were more likely to become MDR. Molecular typing confirmed that the genetic similarity of the dominant clone of O∶6 serogroup (PT20-24) was higher than O∶25 and O∶159. There was a high correlation between the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of azithromycin and the resistant gene mphA (87.5%, 28/32). O∶6 (STh+CS21+mphA) resistant clone was first detected in 2016.@*Conclusion@#A new epidemic clone in adult ETEC diarrhea cases in Shanghai was O∶6 (STh+CS21+mphA). For the first time the association between azithromycin resistance gene mphA and a serum group of ETEC was observed. Multidimensional and multivariate analysis techniques based on epidemiology can help reveal the potential transmission pattern of ETEC for the accurate surveillance and early warning of outbreaks.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-796599

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the contamination status of Salmonella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Staphylococcus aureus and bacterial resistance in retail meat products in Taiyuan, Shanxi Province.@*Methods@#In the epidemic season of diarrhea in 2017, poultry and meat product specimens were randomly collected from the farmer′s markets and supermarkets of 10 districts and counties of Taiyuan. Salmonella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated form these specimens. Serotypes of Salmonella strains were analyzed. ELSIA was used to detect Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin (A-E). Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates were tested for the virulence genes encoding direct hemolysin (tdh) and indirect hemolysin (trh). Antibiotic resistance of the three food-borne pathogens were analyzed using microdilution methods.@*Results@#A total of 38 food-borne pathogens were isolated from 123 poultry and livestock meat product specimens with a positive rate of 30.9%, of which mainly were Salmonella (26 strains, 21.1%), followed by Vibrio parahaemolyticus (8 strains, 6.5%) and Staphylococcus aureus (4 strains, 3.3%). The 26 strains of Salmonella belonged to 10 serotypes. The Salmonella strains isolated from pork specimens had diverse serotypes. Salmonella serovar Derby, Salmonella serovar Gold-coast and Salmonella serovar Liverpool were isolated from raw and cooked pork food for the first time in Taiyuan. All Salmonella strains isolated form chicken products were Salmonella enteritis. The enterotoxin types of the four Staphylococcus aureus strains were three E-type and one complex type (A/E). All Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates were negative for tdh or trh gene. Ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines (ACSSuT) resistance was prevalent in multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella strains, but there was high sensitivity to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins. MDR Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 75%. No third-generation cephalosporin- or fluoroquinolone-resistant or MDR Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains were isolated.@*Conclusions@#There were food-borne multi-pathogenic bacteria contamination in retail raw and cooked meat products in Taiyuan. Salmonella strains had diverse serotypes and high MDR rate. It was suggested that the regulatory authorities should strengthen the management of antibiotic use in aquaculture and specialized laboratory-based monitoring of meat supply chain.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-792030

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the contamination status of Salmonella, Vibrio parahaemo-lyticus and Staphylococcus aureus and bacterial resistance in retail meat products in Taiyuan, Shanxi Prov-ince. Methods In the epidemic season of diarrhea in 2017, poultry and meat product specimens were ran-domly collected from the farmer's markets and supermarkets of 10 districts and counties of Taiyuan. Salmo-nella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated form these specimens. Serotypes of Salmonella strains were analyzed. ELSIA was used to detect Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin (A-E). Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates were tested for the virulence genes encoding direct hemolysin (tdh) and indirect hemolysin (trh). Antibiotic resistance of the three food-borne pathogens were analyzed using microdilution methods. Results A total of 38 food-borne pathogens were isolated from 123 poultry and livestock meat product specimens with a positive rate of 30. 9% , of which mainly were Salmonella (26 strains, 21. 1% ), followed by Vibrio parahaemolyticus (8 strains, 6. 5% ) and Staphylococcus aureus (4 strains, 3. 3% ). The 26 strains of Salmonella belonged to 10 serotypes. The Salmonella strains isolated from pork specimens had diverse serotypes. Salmonella serovar Derby, Salmonella serovar Gold-coast and Salmonella serovar Liver-pool were isolated from raw and cooked pork food for the first time in Taiyuan. All Salmonella strains isolated form chicken products were Salmonella enteritis. The enterotoxin types of the four Staphylococcus aureus strains were three E-type and one complex type (A/ E). All Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates were negative for tdh or trh gene. Ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines (ACSSuT) resistance was prevalent in multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella strains, but there was high sensitivity to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins. MDR Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 75% . No third-generation cephalosporin- or fluoroquinolone-resistant or MDR Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains were isolated. Conclu-sions There were food-borne multi-pathogenic bacteria contamination in retail raw and cooked meat prod-ucts in Taiyuan. Salmonella strains had diverse serotypes and high MDR rate. It was suggested that the regu-latory authorities should strengthen the management of antibiotic use in aquaculture and specialized laborato-ry-based monitoring of meat supply chain.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-707228

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the regional epidemiology and antibiotic resistance pattern of diarrheagenic E .coli infection in children ,and to clarify the pathogenic association between diarrheagenic E .coli infection and childhood diarrhea .Methods Totally 680 diarrheal children in the outpatient setting and 680 non-diarrheal control children were enrolled prospectively .The stool samples were collected and the potential enteric pathogens were detected .Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) method was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility for diarrheagenic E .coli isolates .Results The isolation rates of diarrheagenic E .coli in diarrhea group and control group were 15 .6% and 13 .1% ,respecitvely ,and diarrheagenic E .coli was the most commonly detected enteric bacteria .Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age suggested no clinical association between diarrhea and infection with enteropathogenic E .coli (EPEC) (aOR=1 .2 ,95% CI:0 .8-1 .8) ,enteroadhesive E .coli (EAEC) (aOR=1 .1 ,95% CI:0 .7 -1 .6) and enterotoxigenic E .coli (ETEC) (aOR= 1 .8 ,95% CI:0 .5 -6 .2) . Among 199 diarrheagenic E .coli strains ,the rates of resistance to ampicillin ,tetracycline ,trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole ,azithromycin ,and ceftriaxone were 63 .8% ,55 .8% ,48 .2% ,34 .2% and 26 .6% , respectively ,while the rates of resistance to ciprofloxacin , amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefoxitin were 4 .5% ,1 .5% and 0 .5% ,respectively .Conclusions Diarrheagenic E .coli is the most common enteric bacteria detected in the stool samples from children with and without diarrhea in this study . The pathogenic role of infections with EPEC ,EAEC and ETEC in childhood diarrhea is not determined .EHEC and EIEC are rarely detected and further studies are needed to clarify the pathogenic association between infection with EHEC ,EIEC and childhood diarrhea .

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-513644

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the molecular characteristics of human-derived non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coil (STEC) strains circulating in five regions of China.Methods Twenty-seven non-O157 STEC strains isolated in five geographic regions were investigated by serotyping, stx1/stx2 subtyping and PCR screening for adhesion and other virulence genes.A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme provided by E.coil MLST database were performed to amplify and sequence seven housekeeping genes (adk, icd, fumC, rgyrB, purA, mdh and recA) in those strains.Results Twenty-seven non-O157 STEC strains were typed into 16 O∶H serotypes.Among those strains, 11 harbored stx1a, 12 harbored stx1c, two harbored stx2e and the other three strains respectively harbored stx1a+stx2b, stx2d and stx2g.Positive rates of eae, efa1, saa, paa, toxB, astA and ehxA genes were 18.5%, 18.5%, 29.6%, 22.2%, 11.1%, 11.1% and 25.9%, respectively.The 27 strains were typed into 16 different sequence types (STs) based upon MLST.Conclusion Human-derived non-O157 STEC strains circulating in five regions of China are heterogeneous in their serotypes, stx1/stx2 subtypes and virulence gene profiles.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-491202

ABSTRACT

Objective To monitor the clinical epidemiology and etiology of acute diarrhea in children in the outpatient setting in Shanghai .Methods An active surveillance study in Children′s Hospital of Fudan University between August 2013 and July 2014 was conducted .Outpatient children with acute diarrhea were enrolled in this study and stool samples were collected .Pathogens including norovirus ,diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) , nontyphoidal Salmonella spp .(NTS),Campylobacter,Shigella,pathogenic vibrio and Yersinia enterocolitica were identified and typed .The χ2 test was used for statistical analysis .Results Of the 881 stool samples from enrolled children , the pathogens included into the target detection were identified in 246 (27 .92% ) cases . Norovirus ,DEC ,NTS ,Campylobacter and Shigella were detected in 98 (11 .12% ) cases ,74 (8 .40% ) cases , 61 (6 .92% ) cases ,34 (3 .86% ) cases and 2 (0 .23% ) cases ,respectively .Neither pathogenic vibrio nor Yersinia enterocolitica was identified .Children younger than 36 months old (3 .27% ,26/794) had a lower risk (χ2=7 .41 ,P=0 .006) of Campylobacter infection compared with older children (9 .20% ,8/87) .Vomiting (37 .76% ) and watery diarrhea (21 .34% ) were more commonly seen in children with norovirus infection;fever and mucous stool were commonly seen in diarrheal children with NTS infection (40 .98% and 21 .31% ,respectively) and Campylobacter infection (29 .41% and 26 .47% ,respectively) .Conclusion Enteric pathogens play a major role in childhood acute diarrhea in Shanghai .Continuous monitoring of enteric pathogens will be helpful for reasonable treatment and prevention of acute diarrhea in children .

8.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 402-405, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237533

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the infection status and virulent genes of Aeromonas in patients with acute diarrhea in Pudong New Area, Shanghai.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In 2012, stool samples were collected from diarrhea patients in 12 sentinel hospitals in Pudong for the detections of 13 pathogens causing diarrhea, and the detections of 5 diarrhea related virulent genes were conducted for Aeromonas isolates.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 101 patients were infected with Aeromonas in 2533 patients (4.0%). A total of 101 Aeromonas strains were isolated, including 17 Aeromonas hydrophila strains (18.8%), 44 Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria strains (52.5%) and 12 Aeromonas caviae strains (29.7%). And 44 coinfections with other pathogens were detected. Aeromonas infection mainly occurred in summer and in people aged ≥20 years. Among the patients infected with Aeromonas, 71 (70.3%) had watery diarrhea, 20 (19.8%) had vomiting and 11 (10.9%) had fever. Virulent genes detection showed that 95.0% of the Aeromonas. strains carried virulent genes, and the detection rates of hlyA, aerA, act, alt, and ast genes were 5.9%, 6.9%, 67.3%, 42.6% and 13.9%, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>High incidence of Aeromonas infection was found in the patients with acute diarrhea in Pudong, and a high proportion of coinfections with other pathogens was detected too. Most Aeromonas strains carried virulent genes, and the distribution varied.</p>


Subject(s)
Aeromonas , Genetics , Aeromonas hydrophila , Genetics , China , Epidemiology , Diarrhea , Microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Epidemiology , Microbiology , Humans , Seasons , Virulence , Genetics , Young Adult
9.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1263-1268, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-248668

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To understand the distribution of diarrheagenic Escherichia (E.) coli in population in Shanghai and discuss the practice model of cooperation in enteric infectious disease prevention and control between public health institution and hospital.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sentinel hospitals were assigned, standard detection and identification of diarrheagenic E. coli were conducted, incidence curve of diarrheagenic E. coli infection was drawn and epidemiologic survey and laboratory detection were conducted for suspect diarrheagenic E. coli infection outbreaks.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 7 204 stool specimens were collected from diarrhea patients in 4 hospitals during 2012-2013, in which 712 (9.9% ) were diarrheagenic E. coli positive, including 351 enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains, 292 enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) strains, 32 enteroinvasive E. coli(EIEC) strains and 6 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC/EHEC) strains, as well as 31 mixed strains. EPEC infection mainly occurred in children aged 1-5 years; and all of these infections were caused by aEPEC. The incidence peak of ETEC infection was during August, the positive rate was >20%. The ETEC infection mainly occurred in infants aged 1-28 days in 2012 and in people aged 20-60 years in 2013 (P<0.05). ST was the major type (59.6%), followed by LT (27.8%) and ST/LT (12.6%). EIEC infection increased in children obviously in 2013 (P<0.01). No EHEC O157:H7 case was detected, but two EHEC O26:H11 (eae-hlyA-stx1a) cases in children were reported for the first time in Shanghai. The survey result indicated that the multidrug-resistant ETEC (STh-CS21-CFA/I-ClyA-EatA-ST2332-SHNL0005) strain causing outbreak in 15 newborns in Shanghai in 2012 was in the same clone as the strain detected in Zigong in Sichuan province.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Significant change has occurred in diarrheagenic E. coli distribution in Shanghai in recent years, ETEC has potential risk to cause outbreak of hospital acquired infection in neonates and food borne infection. The active surveillance on ETEC and other enteric pathogens by both public health institutions and hospitals need to be improved.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Child, Preschool , China , Epidemiology , Diarrhea , Microbiology , Disease Outbreaks , Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli , Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli Infections , Epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Sentinel Surveillance , Young Adult
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-466048

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the pathotypes,epidemiological characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in children with acute bacterial diarrhea in Shanghai.Methods A total of 2 071 outpatient children with probable acute bacterial diarrhea referred to the enteric clinic of Children's Hospital of Fudan University during June 2012 to June 2014 were enrolled in our study.The stool samples were processed for routine microbiologic and biochemistry tests to identify enteric bacteria,including enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC),enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC),enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC).Kirby-Bauer method was used to identify the antibiotic sensitivity.Difference of means between groups was compared by chi-square test.Results Of 2 071 enrolled children,DEC were identified in 145 (7.0 %)cases.148 strains were isolated with three of mix infection strains.All DEC isolates in this study included 106 (71.6%) EPEC,24 (16.2%) ETEC,16(10.8%) EIEC and 2(1.4%) EHEC.The median ages of diarrheal children with DEC infections were 14 months (range:3 months to 13 years) and 62.8% of them were <2 years.Among 125 DEC isolates tested for antimicrobial susceptibility,the rates of resistance to ampicillin,trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole,cefotaxime,cefepime,gentamicin,ceftazidime,amoxicillinclavulanate,ciprofloxacin,and ofloxacin in a descending order were 55.2%,35.2%,28.0%,27.2%,23.2%,8.8%,5.6%,4.0% and 4.0%,respectively.Resistance rates of EIEC to cefotaxime,cefepime and ceftazidime were 50.0%,43.8% and 25.0%,respectively,which were higher than those of EPEC,ETEC and EHEC.Conclusion DEC is the important enteric bacteria that causes bacterial diarrhea in children in this study.

11.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 842-847, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-261617

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the epidemiological characteristics and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Pomona (S. Pomona).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Antimicrobial susceptible testing (AST) and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) methods were used to analyze on S. Pomona strains that were isolated from diarrhea cases through the diarrhea network monitoring program, environment and food samples in Shanghai as well as from reptiles in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>4 553 clinic Salmonella (S.) strains were isolated from the Shanghai network laboratories from 2005 to 2012. The top 10 serotypes would include 20 serotypes all belonged to A-F groups, while S. Pomona was next to S. Wandsworth, according to the non- A-F groups. Young children seemed to be susceptible to S. Pomona, and might cause bloody stools and super-infection. The top 10 serotypes from 1 805 foodborne Salmonella strains were significantly more extensive than those from the human S. Pomona strains, followed by those rare serotypes which were mostly isolated from turtle, sea-shellfish and reptiles. Antibiotic resistance of S. Pomona strains from other sources were significantly more severe than those from human samples, and belonged to A and B clones by means of PFGE. Clone A strains were non-epidemic strains which showed multi-drug resistance (MDR) to antimicrobials. Clone B was the main epidemic-causing strain that not resistant to drugs, which consisting B- I from young-age-groups and B-II were from the seniors. B-I strains were homologous to those from shellfish, tortoises and lizards, while B-II strains only showing homology to those from shellfish. One S. Pomona strain-MDR, isolated from human was homologous to 8 antimicrobials.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>S. Pomona was a quite common serotype among those rare serotypes, which showed higher pathogenicity to infants while genetic evolution might take place when comparing them with the strains isolated from the clinics in 2005. Surveillance programs should be intensified along with the early warnings systems on infections which were from seafood and reptiles.</p>


Subject(s)
China , Epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , Molecular Epidemiology , Salmonella Infections , Epidemiology , Microbiology , Salmonella enterica , Classification , Serogroup
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-459755

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the prevalence of Campylobacter in the children with acute bacterial diarrhea in Shanghai.Methods Epidemiological survey.Totally 6 641 children with acute bacterial infectious diarrhea from outpatients and inpatients in Children′s Hospital of Fudan University were submitted to the investigation during January 2011 to December 2012.The Campylobacter was isolated from stool samples collected from subjects in micro aerobic environment and identified by both multi-PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry ( MALDI-TOF MS ) .Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were assayed by disk-diffusion method according to EUCAST standard.The isolates molecular typing was done by PFGE.SPSS16.0 was used to analyze the results.Results A total number of 6 641 subjects were enrolled, among them, 305 patients were infected with Campylobacter.The prevalence rate was 4.6%(305/6 641).Among the infected patients, 240 patients were infected with Campylobacter jejuni and 65 patients were infected with Campylobacter coli, the infectious rates of these two pathogenic bacteria were 3.6%and 1.0%, respectively.The peak infectious rate in patients older than 1 year of age was 6.2%(209/3 385) which was higher than that in children under 1 year of age (2.9%, 96/3 256),χ2 =35.98,P<0.001.The infectious rate in winter and spring (6.8%, 138/2 040) was higher than that in the other seasons ( 3.6%, 167/4 601 ) ,χ2 =28.59, P <0.001.Antimicrobial susceptibility test results showed that 91.5%( 279/305 ) isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 11.8%( 36/305 ) isolates were resistant to erythromycin.A total of 9 genotypes of Campylobacter were found by PFGE cluster analysis.The similarity were ranged from 65.1%-100.0%for type A, 67.6%-100.0%for type B, 61.7%-100.0%for type C, 59.0%-100.0%for type D, 71.4%for type F, 80.0%for type H, 54.4%-90.9%for type I, and only one strain was classified as type E and G.Conclusions Campylobacter is a major pathogenic bacteria associated with acute bacterial infectious diarrhea in children especially in children older than 1 year of age in Shanghai.The prevalent pattern of this pathogen was sporadic and the sharp peak was in winter and spring.The isolates are highly resistant to ciprofloxacin but still sensitive to erythromycin.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-446533

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the distribution,epidemiologic features and antibiotic resistance of the enteric pathogens i-solated from children with diarrhea.Methods Enteric pathogens were isolated from children’s stool samples.The children with diarrhea were treated in the outpatient and inpatient of Shanghai Children’s Hospital between 2008 and 2013.Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted by disk diffusion method for Salmonella and Shigella with 6 antimicrobial agents.Results A total of 545 enteric pathogens were collected.Salmonella was the dominant pathogen,accounting for 67.2%,followed by Shigella (20.7%),S.aureus (4.6%),C.jejuni (3.7%),Aeromonas (2.4%),and enteropathogenic E.coli (0.9%).The main serotypes of Salmonella were S.typhimurium and S.enteritidis.Approximately 56.3% of the patients were boys.A-bout 72.7% of the patients were infants under 2 years.The prevalence of diarrhea peaked in summer and autumn (72.9%). The susceptibility of these isolates was only tested with seven antibiotics.Shigella showed higher level of resistance to ampicil-lin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than Salmonella (P<0.05).Significantly higher percentage of S.flexneri isolates were resistant to sulbactam-ampicillin,ceftriaxone,ciprofloxacin,and chloramphenicol than S.sonnei (P<0.001).Further-more,the prevalence of multidrug resistant strains in Shigella (68.3%)was much higher than that in Salmonella (44.7%,P<0.001).Conclusions A variety of diarrhea-causing enteric pathogens are isolated from the children in Shanghai Children’s Hospital.The isolates are predominantly Salmonella and Shigella species.The epidemiological features of Salmonella and Shigella species are different in terms of gender,age,season and geographical distribution.The resistance to antibiotics is a serious problem and varies with different types of pathogens. Intensive and ongoing surveillance of enteric pathogens and their changing resistant pattern is required to control diar-rhea in children.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-442527

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the clinical significance of four kinds of microalbuminuria detection in early diagnosis of iodinated contrast agent damage to kidney by studying four elements in the patients' urine:microalbumin (mAlb),immunoglobulin G (IgG),α1-microglobulin (α1-MG) and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG).Methods 106 patients who have received percutaneous coronary interventional therapy were chosen and divided into group A(angiography dose < 100ml,n =51) and group B (angiography dose ≥ 100ml,n =55) according to the amount of contrast agent used.Changes in the amount of mAlb,IgG,α1-MG and β2-MG levels,serum creatinine(Scr),endogenous creatinine clearance rate(eGFR) in the urine of the patients before and after the surgery were observed.Results Postoperative α1-MG and β2-MG levels in the urine of group A higher than before surgery (t =-6.748,-11.173,all P <0.0 5).2 4 hours after the surgery,mA1b,IgG,α1-MG and β2-MG levels in group B were elevated than before surgery,and the differences were significant(t =-6.223,-3.518,-11.532,-10.773,all P < 0.05).Two groups had significant differences in terms of mAlb,IgG,α1-MG and β2-MG levels after the surgery (F =27.306,4.704,5.118,19.011,all P < 0.05).Conclusion Four kinds of microalbuminuria detecting are conducive to early diagnosis of iodinated contrast agent damage to kidney and assessing the damage degree.The contrast agent damage to kidney first occurs as the renal tubular damage.When the contrast agent was used at a dosage of more than 100ml,glomerular damage occurred.

15.
Chinese Journal of Zoonoses ; (12): 969-972, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-433380

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to develop the real-time PCR assays to detect and qualify C. coli from stool specimen. The primers and probe were designed based on the specific sequence of ceuE gene in C. coli using Primer 5.0 and Vector NTI Suite 6.0 e. The PCR assay was optimized with the reference C. coli strains. The standard curve based on the dilutions of genomic DNA showed a linear relationship between log CFU/mL and threshold cycles. The detectable limitation was 5.62 CFU/mL by using purified DNA from bacteria culture. The reproducibility of this assay was assessed by calculating the variation of the threshold cycle value and the slope from test repeats for the same strains and different strains. Our results indicate that the developed assay has high sensitivity and specificity for identification of C. coli.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-427886

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the protective effect of low molecular dextran combined with salvia miltiorrhiza injection against kidney damage from contrast agent after percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) and the effect of preventing kidney damage.Methods120 patients who underwent PCI were randomly divided into two groups:the treatment group( low molecular dextran combined with salvia miltiorrhiza treatment) and the control group,each group 60 cases.The control group was given the conventional treatment,and the treatment group was treated with 250ml low molecular dextran and 16ml salvia miltiorrhiza injection for 7d on the basis of conventional treatment.The levels of blood urea nitrogen ( BUN ),serum creatinine ( SCR),β2 microglobulin ( β2-MG),24h urine protein were detected before and 1 d,6d after surgery.ResultsAt one day after application of contrast agent,the levels of BUN,SCR,β2-MG,24h urine protein were increased,and returned to baseline level at 6th day.The levels of BUN,SCR,β2-MG,24h urine protein of the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group at 6th day ( P < 0.05 ).ConclusionThe low molecular dextran combined with danshen injection treatment in the perioperative period could effectively reduce the kidney impairment from contrast agent and the incidence of renal insufficiency.

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