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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-865659

ABSTRACT

Ziziphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS), a traditional Chinese medicine, is used in clinics for the treatment ofinsomnia in China and other Asian countries. Herein, we described for the first time a comparative pharmacokinetics study of the six major compounds of ZSS in normal control (NC) and para-chlor-ophenylalanine (PCPA)-induced insomnia model (IM) rats that were orally administered the aqueous extract of ZSS. An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole orbitrap mass (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of coclaurine, magnoflorine, spinosin, 6'''-feruloylspinosin, jujuboside A (JuA), and jujuboside B (JuB) in ZSS in rat plasma. The established approach was successfully applied to a comparative pharmacokinetic study. The systemic exposures of spinosin and 6'''-feruloylspinosin were decreased in the IM group compared to the NC group, while plasma clearance (CL) was significantly increased. The Tmax values of JuA and JuB in IM rats were significantly lower than those in NC rats. The T1/2 of JuA in the IM group was significantly accelerated. The pharmacokinetic parameters of coclaurine and magnoflorine were not evidently affected between the two groups. These results indicate that the pathological state of insomnia altered the plasma pharmacokinetics of spinosin, 6'''-feruloylspinosin, JuA, and JuB in the ZSS aqueous extract, providing an experimental basis for the role of ZSS in insomnia treatment. The comparative pharmacokinetics-based UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS using full-scan mode can therefore provide a reliable and suitable means for the screening of potentially effective substances applied as quality markers of ZSS.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827371

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) brought psychological stress to the public, especially to patients. This study aims to investigate the mental health of patients with COVID-19 in Changsha.@*METHODS@#We took cross-section investigation for the mental health of 112 patients with COVID-19 via questionnaires. Mann-Whitney test, Chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test were performed to compare general and clinical data between the slight-ordinary patients and severe patients. Single sample -tests were used to compare the difference between the factor scores of the Symptom Check-List 90 (SCL-90) in COVID-19 patients with the norm of 2015 and factor scores of SCL-90 in patients with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).@*RESULTS@#The obsessive-compulsive, depression, sleep and eating disorders had the highest frequency among the positive symptoms of SCL-90 in patients with COVID-19 in Changsha. The factor scores of somatization, depression, anxiety, phobia anxiety, sleep and eating disorders in patients with COVID-19 were higher than those of the norm (≤0.001 or 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The levels of somatization, depression, anxiety, phobia anxiety, sleep and eating disorders in patients with COVID-19 in Changsha are higher than those of the norm. However, the mental health of slight-ordinary patients with COVID-19 is better than that of patients with SARS. It needs to provide targeting psychological interventions depending on the severity of patients.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Betacoronavirus , China , Coronavirus Infections , Psychology , Depression , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Health Status , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Psychology , Sleep Wake Disorders , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-613829

ABSTRACT

Caenorhabditis elegans is a very important model organism in life sciences. C. elegans has been widely used in research on life sciences, especially in drug screening and the mechanism of drugs, thanks to some of their prominent characteristics, including a short life,short generation cycle, and easy culture and observation. Aging is a complex process, which is the result of multiple factors. There are mainly three types of anti-aging signal pathways in C. elegans, including insulin-insulin-like growth factor-1 signal pathway, diet-restricted signaling pathway and mitochondrial respiratory chain/ATP synthesis pathway. In this paper, we reviewed the aging models based on the above three signaling pathways and the progress in anti-aging drugs based on the above aging models. In addition, a number of C. elegans models of aging-related neurodegenerative diseases can be obtained by using transgenic or chemical mutagenesis. Thus, this paper reviewed the transgenic models of C. elegans associated with neurodegenerative diseases, including theα-synuclein transgenic model of Parkinson disease, theβ-amyloid deposition model of Alzheimer disease, and the polyQ of Huntington disease, and summa?rized the effective drugs based on the above disease models. This review will provide reference for the study of C. elegans in the future screening of anti-aging drugs and drug screening for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-515200

ABSTRACT

AIM To investigate the effects of ethyl acetate extract from Huangqi Injection (HQIEACE) on leucopenia mice.METHODS An experimental mouse model of leucopenia was induced by cyclophosphamide.NMR based metabolomic profiling technique coupled with multivariate statistical method was used for performing metabolomic analysis.RESULTS HQIEACE could elevate the levels of white blood cell,monocytes,neutrophils and lymphocyte in modeled mice.The levels of ten potential endogenous metabolites (lipid,leucine,3-D-hydroxybutyrate,lactate,alanine,pyruvate,creatine,scyllo-inositol,betaine and glucose) were reversed.CONCLUSION The metabolic pathways related to the pharmacological effects of HQIEACE on leucopenia are probably involved in body energy metabolism,amino acid metabolism,oxidative stress and choline metabolism.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-615413

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To investigate the dynamic changes in urine metabolic profiles in rats induced by D-galactose (D-Gal),and to study the correlations between the differential metabolites and behavior indicators using the proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR)-based metabonomics.METHODS Subcutaneous injection of D-Gal 100 mg· kg-1 for 10 weeks was adopted in the model group.The sample of urine was collected at day 0 (dO),d14,d28,d42,d56 and d70.NMR metabonomics technique was used for acquisition of data,which was analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis.The ability of learning and memory were measured by Morris water maze test from d70.After the behavioral test,the rats were sacrificed and the hippocampus was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining.RESULTS Principal component analysis (PCA) results revealed that there was considerable difference between the model group and the normal control group at d70.According to the varible importance plot (VIP) calculation and S-plot scores,a total of 12 metabolites were screened and identified as potential biomarkers at d70.The differences of metabolites and Morris water maze test were subjected to correlation analysis,and the results showed that the levels of choline,lactate and dimethylglycine in the model group were significantly increased and negatively correlated with the times of crossing the platform (r =-0.90,-0.50 and-0.52;n=10).Formate was significantly negatively correlated with the time spent in the target area (r =-0.51,n=10),but choline and formate were significantly positively correlated with the escape latency (r =0.72 and 0.53;n=10).However,the levels of creatine and taurine decreased in the model group,which was significantly positively correlated to the times of acrossing platforms (r =0.89 and 0.71;n=10),while alanine was significantly positively correlated to the time spent in the target area(r =0.74,n=10).Taurine,alanine and creatine were significantly negatively correlated with the escape latency (r =-0.66,-0.50 and-0.85;n=10).The correlations between the differential metabolites and the behavioral indicators were further proved.CONCLUSION The metabolic profile changes in urine from D-Gal induced aging model rats are significantly correlated with impairement of ability in learning and memory.1H-NMR metabonomics in urinary metabolic profile changes may be used as an evaluation index in the D-Gal induced aging rats model.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-615409

ABSTRACT

Psychological suboptimal health status is an intermediate state between mental health and mental disease.Without timely intervention,psychological suboptimal health may develop into serious diseases that pose a threat to human physical and mental health,such as depression,anxiety disorders and high blood pressure.This review summarizes the scientific concepts,diagnostic Criteria,intervention and pharmacological research of psychological suboptimal health from the perspective of both modern medicine and traditional Chinese medicine and proposes possible solutions to existing problems in order to contribute to the identification,diagnosis,prevention and treatment of psychological suboptimal health.

7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 86-92, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-505095

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-aging effects and reveal the underlying mechanism of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi ethanol extract (SBG) in D-galactose-induced rats. Fifty rats were randomly divided into five groups: vehicle control group, D-galactose group, and D-galactose combined with 50, 100, 200 mg x kg(-1) SBG. A rat aging model was induced by injecting subcutaneously D-galactose (100 mg x kg(-1)) for ten weeks. At the tenth week, the locomotor activity (in open-field test) and the learning and memory abilities (in Morris water maze test) were examined respectively. The urine was collected using metabolic cages and analyzed by high-resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy combined with multivariate statistical analyses. The SBG at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg x kg(-1) treatments groups could significantly ameliorate aging process in rats' cognitive performance. The 50, 100, 200 mg x kg(-1) SBG regulated citrate, pyruvate, lactate, trimethylamine (TMA), pantothenate, β-hydroxybutyrate in urine favorably toward the control group. These biochemical changes are related to the disturbance in energy metabolism, glycometabolism and microbiome metabolism, which is helpful to further understanding the D-galactose induced aging rats and the therapeutic mechanism of SBG.

8.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 869-871, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-504330

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To provide reference for AIDS vaccine R&D in China through investigating AIDS vaccine patent ap-proval in America. METHODS:By combining keywords as HIV vaccine(s),AIDS vaccine(s) and Vaccine of HIV(AIDS) and classification number as A61K,A61P and C12P,related patents were retrieved from Thomson Innovation platform during Jan. 1981-Mar. 2015,and then analyzed in respects of patent data,patent approval trend,R&D ability,patent technology field distribu-tion,etc. RESULTS:A total of 1 272 patents were retrieved,including 405 valid patents. From 1985 to 2014,there were three stages for the change of AIDS vaccine application quantity,which were slow rise,fast rise and slow decline period;on the whole, the trend was on the rise. The main players were Duke University,United States Department of Health and Human Services,Pas-teur Institute,Connaught Laboratories Limited and Merck Group. AIDS vaccine R&D focused on pharmaceutical preparation,thera-peutic activity of medicinal preparations,microorganism,enzyme,etc. American scientific research institutions focused more on pharmaceutical preparation and peptide study. CONCLUSIONS:Though the AIDS vaccine field develops slowly,the future is still promising. In this field,America has stronger patent advantage and scientific research strength. AIDS vaccine R&D concentrates on pharmaceutical preparation,therapeutic activity of medicinal preparations and composition.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-490985

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate clinical value of MGFA classification and QMG score on pre-dicting late extubation after thymectomy for myasthenia gravis(MG).Methods Total of 61 patients with MG received extended thymectomy from January 2007 to February 2012 were enrolled.Patients were divided into two groups:normal extubation group contained the other 47 patients without pro-longed postoperative mechanical ventilation and delayed extubation group included 14 patients with prolonged postoperative mechanical ventilation.The following factors were evaluated:gender,age, weight,MGFA classification,QMG score,history of steroid hormones or anticholinesterase drugs be-fore operation,the function of liver and kidney before operation,preoperative electrolyte,preoperative hemoglobin content,etc.Receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC)was plotted,and the predictive value, sensitivity and specificity of preoperative MGFA clinical classification and QMG score predicting postoperative ventilation in MG were calculated.Results Fourteen patients(22.95%)de-veloped breathing support after the anaesthetic or endotracheal intubation again in 48 hours.the area under ROC curve(AUC)for preoperative MGFA clinical classification predicting postoperative ventila-tion was 0.723 in MG,it had the sensitivity of 78.5% and specificity of 63.8%.The AUC for QMG score predicting postoperative ventilation was 0.866,the QMG score threshold value of 8.5 had the sensitivity of 78.6% and specificity of 87.2%.Conclusion MGFA classification and QMG score can predict late extubation after thymectomy in patients with myasthenia gravis.

10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1625-31, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-505075

ABSTRACT

Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and Hedysarum polybotrys belong to different genera, but have similar drug efficacy in traditional Chinese medicine theory, and H. polybotrys was used as the legal A. membranaceus var. mongholicus previously. In this study, similarities and differences between them were analyzed via their ITS/ITS2 fragments information. The ITS (internal transcribed spacer) regions were amplified using polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced in two-way. The alignment lengths of ITS regions were 616 bp, in which 508 loci were consistent, and 103 loci were different, accounting for 82.47% and 16.72% of the total ITS nucleotides in length, respectively. As genotype determines phenotype, 1HNMR-based metabolomic approach was further used to reveal the chemical similarities and differences between them. Thirty-four metabolites were identified in the 1H NMR spectra, and twenty-seven metabolites were the common components. Amino acids, carbohydrates and other primary metabolites were similar, while a large difference existed in the flavonoids and astragalosides. This study suggests that A. membranaceus var. mongholicus and H. polybotrys show similarities and differences from molecular and chemical perspectives, which has laid a foundation for elucidating the effective material basis of drug with similar efficacy and resources utilization.

11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1589-95, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-505069

ABSTRACT

The present study aims to predict the action targets of antidepressant active ingredients of Xiaoyaosan to understand the "multi-components, multi-targets and multi-pathways" mechanism. Using network pharmacology, the reported antidepressant active ingredients in Xiaoyaosan (saikosaponin A, saikosaponin C, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide II, atractylenolide III, paeoniflorin, albiflorin, liquiritin, glycyrrhizic acid and pachymic acid), were used to predict the targets of main active ingredients of Xiaoyaosan according to reversed pharmacophore matching method. The prediction was made via screening of the antidepressive drug targets approved by FDA in the DrugBank database and annotating the information of targets with the aid of MAS 3.0 biological molecular function software. The Cytoscape software was used to construct the Xiaoyaosan ingredients-targets-pathways network. The network analysis indicates that the active ingredients in Xiaoyaosan involve 25 targets in the energy metabolism-immune-signal transmutation relevant biological processes. The antidepressant effect of Xiaoyaosan reflects the features of traditional Chinese medicine in multi-components, multi-targets and multi-pathways. This research provides a scientific basis for elucidation of the antidepressant pharmacological mechanism of Xiaoyaosan.

12.
Chinese Journal of Pathophysiology ; (12): 1928-1932, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-479532

ABSTRACT

AIM:To study whether inhibition of forkhead box protein M1(FoxM1) sensitizes leukemia K562 cells to homoharringtonine ( HHT ) .METHODS: K562 cells were incubated with HHT at different concentrations ( 0μmol/L, 0.015 μmol/L, 0.030μmol/L and 0.045μmol/L) for different time (0 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h).The mRNA and protein levels of FoxM1 were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot.FoxM1 siRNA was transfected into K562 cells with 0.015μmol/L HHT after 6 h.After 72 h incubation, the cell proliferation was detected by cell counting and soft agar assay, and the proportion of apoptotic K562 cells was determined by flow cytometry.The expression of c-Myc and Sp1 were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot.RESULTS:FoxM1 expression was reduced time-dependently and dose-dependently, suggesting that HHT mediated the downregulation of FoxM1 in K562 cells.In K562 cells, treatment with FoxM1 siRNA and HHT inhibited the cell proliferation and promoted the apoptosis significantly.Therefore, inhibition of FoxM1 sensitized leukemia K562 cells to HHT.The expression of c-Myc and Sp1 was positively regulated by FoxM1. CONCLUSION:HHT inhibits Forkhead box protein M1 expression in K562 cells.Inhibition of FoxM1 sensitizes K562 cells to HHT.

13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 211-7, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-457293

ABSTRACT

To compare the chemical change of Paeoniae Radix Alba (PRA) after vinegar-baking processing, as well as the effect of vinegar types exerted on the processing, 1H NMR-based metabolomic approach combined with multivariate statistical analysis was used to investigate the different metabolites between the raw and two vinegar-baked PRA. More than thirty metabolites were identified in the 1H NMR spectrum of PRA, and the multivariate statistical analysis showed that raw and two vinegar-baked PRA could be separated obviously. After vinegar-baking, the contents of isoleucine, lactate, alanine, arginine, albiflorin, and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF) elevated, while those of sucrose, paeoniflorin and its analogues (calculated by benzoate) decreased. The chemical compositions of two vinegar-baked PRA were also different. Shanxi vinegar- baked PRA showed higher levels of leucine, isoleucine, valine, and albiflorin, while rice vinegar-baked PRA contained more sucrose and paeoniflorin's analogues (calculated by benzoate). And the chemical changes in Shanxi vinegar-baked PRA were greater than those of rice vinegar-baked PRA. The results revealed the chemical differences between raw and vinegar-baked PRA, as well as the influence of vinegar type on processing, in a holistic manner, the results obtained suggested that the correlations between the chemical change and the drug action after processing, as well as the vinegar type used in processing, should be further studied.

14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 340-7, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-457256

ABSTRACT

Growth year is one of the important factors for the quality of Polygala tenufolia. In this study, primary metabolites and secondary metabolites were compared in 1, 2 and 3 years old P. tenufolia cultivated in Shaanxi Heyang. The samples were subjected to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, and the obtained data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and other statistical analysis methods. In addition, content and correlation of different metabolites were also calculated. The results showed no significance between main component contents in 2 year-old and 3 year-old P. Tenufolia, but 1 year-old was statistically different. The contents of primary metabolites, such as fructose, sucrose, and choline increased as time goes on, while glycine and raffinose decreased. The contents of secondary metabolites, such as onjisaponin Fg, polygalasaponin XXVIII, polygalasaponin XXXII increased, while polygalaxanthone III and parts of oligosaccharide multi-ester including tenuifoliose A, tenuifoliose C, tenuifoliose C2 and tenuifoliose H decreased with the extension of the growth years. Growth years has important impact on the quality of P. tenuifolia and the existing growing years of commodity P. tenuifolia have its scientific evidence. This study supplied a new method for the quality evaluation of Chinese medicinal materials.

15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1032-7, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-483413

ABSTRACT

1H NMR metabonomics approach was used to reveal the chemical difference of urine between patients with Xiao-Chaihu Tang syndrome (XCHTS) and healthy participants (HP). The partial least square method was used to establish a model to distinguish the patients with Xiao-Chaihu-Tang syndrome from the healthy controls. Thirty-four endogenous metabolites were identified in the 1H NMR spectrum, and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis showed the urine of patients with Xiao-Chaihu Tang syndrome and healthy participants could be separated clearly. It is indicated that the metabolic profiling of patients with Xiao-Chaihu Tang syndrome was changed obviously. Fifteen metabolites were found by S-pot of OPLS-DA and VIP value. The contents of leucine, formic acid, glycine, hippuric acid and uracil increased in the urine of patients, while threonine, 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, acetamide, 2-oxoglutarate, citric acid, dimethylamine, malonic acid, betaine, trimethylamine oxide, phenylacetyl glycine, and uridine decreased. These metabolites involve the intestinal microbial balance, energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism pathways, which is related with the major symptom of Xiao-Chaihu Tang syndrome. The patients with Xiao-Chaihu Tang syndrome could be identified and predicted correctly using the established partial least squares model. This study could be served as the basis for the accurate diagnostic and reasonable administration of Xiao-Chaihu-Tang syndrome.

16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 708-13, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-483383

ABSTRACT

To reveal the underlying mechanism of doxorubicin induced hepatotoxicity, an NMR-based metabolomic approach combined with multivariate statistical analysis was used to observe its metabolic alternations of rat liver. Sixteen differential metabolites between model rats and normal rats were characterized as potential pathological biomarkers related to doxorubicin induced hepatotoxicity. Six pathways, including phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, and tyrosine metabolism were regarded as the targeted metabolic pathways according to Metabolic Pathway Analysis (MetPA). The results suggested that the metabolic perturbations in rats with doxorubicin induced hepatotoxicity were mainly involved in amino acid metabolism, lipid pathways, purine metabolism, energy metabolism, dysfunction of biotransformation and oxidative stress. The investigation revealed the effects of doxorubicin on liver in a holistic metabolic way, which laid a foundation for further studies on its toxicity mechanism.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 599-604, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-483368

ABSTRACT

1H NMR-based metabolomic approach combined with multivariate statistical analysis was used to evaluate the quality of 21 Farfarae Flos (FF) samples from different growth regions. Principal component analysis showed that wild and cultivated FF could be separated clearly, suggesting a big chemical difference existed between them. Supervised PLS-DA analysis indicated that the wild samples showed higher levels of secondary metabolites, such as bauer-7-ene-3β, 16α-diol, chlorogenic acid, rutin, 7-(3'-ethylcrotonoyloxy)-1α-(2'-methyl-butyryloxy)-3, 14-dehydro-Z-notonipetranone (EMDNT), tussilagone, β-sitosterol and sitosterone. This is consistent with traditional experience that the quality of wild samples are better than that of cultivated ones. The content of pyrrolizidine alkaloids senkirkine also differed greatly among samples from different habitats. The Pearson correlation analysis showed that senkirkine is positively correlated with 4, 5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, rutin, kampferol analogues, to a statistically significant extent. The correlation between the toxic compounds and the bioactive components in FF should be further studied.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-463923

ABSTRACT

Thearticle is aimed to find the correlation between bioactive components of XYE-E and the antidepressant efficacy, by analyzing the immovability time in tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST). Using the method of gray relational analysis, correlation analysis and regression analysis, relating the peak area of each common peak of1H-NMR spectra with the immovability time in TST or FST, we found that there were total 14 chemical components identified in the1H-NMR spectrum of XYE-E. Among them, 8 compounds, including saikosaponin a, saikosaponin c, saikosaponin E, saikosaponin F, saikosaponin G, saikosaponin b2, atractylenolide I and atractylenolide II, had significant correlation with antidepressant efficacy.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-457673

ABSTRACT

Gui-Ling-Ji (GLJ), a classical prescription of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is the only existing compound of refining agent after 400-year testing. It is also one of 4 kinds of TCM secret varieties of the first batch after liberation. However, due to the lack of in-depth modern research, the magical effect of GLJ has not been fully understood and the clinical application has also been influenced. This article analyzed the situation and problems of secret varieties and GLJ. Experiences and strategies of the successful redevelopment of secret varieties were re-ferred to. Then, this paper proposed modern research thoughts of GLJ in order to realize the actively protection and the second development of the prescription.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-457615

ABSTRACT

As an important kind of plant secondary metabolites and widely distributed in the plant kingdom, triter-penoid saponins have a variety of biological activities. The constitution and content of triterpenoid saponin are deter-mined by some key enzymes and their expressing level in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis pathway. So, it is very important to illuminate the molecular mechanism of triterpenoid saponins biosynthetic pathway. In recent years, illu-mination of the entire biosynthetic pathway especially the confirmation and cloning of the key enzymes, such as squa-lene synthase, squalene epoxidase, cytochrome P450 monooxygenase and UDP-glycosyltransferase, had become one of the hot spots by many scholars. In this paper, the entire biosynthetic pathway and some kinds of key enzymes in-volved in the synthesis of carbon skeleton, and its oxidation, and glycation were reviewed for further demonstrating the biosynthetic pathway of triterpenoid saponins and providing a theoretical basis for artificial biosynthesis.

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