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1.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 612-619, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885472

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy is one of the most common diseases of the central nervous system, affecting tens of millions of people around the world. Most of clinically used antiepileptic drugs are based on ion mechanism to antagonize epileptic seizures, targeted to various ion channels or ion channel receptors. However, with the in-depth research on the pathogenesis of epilepsy, the non-ionic antiepileptic mechanism has increasingly become the key to the control of various intractable epilepsy, and the relevant drugs have gradually achieved clinical transformation. In this paper, non-ionic antiepileptic mechanisms are classified to clinical and preclinical types according to whether clinical transformation has been achieved. The application of non-ionic antiepileptic drugs in refractory epilepsy was mainly introduced, including everolimus, cannabidiol, fenfluramine, padsevonil, medium chain triglyceride modified ketogenic diet, and anakinra. Additionally, some preclinical non-ionic antiepileptic mechanisms such as prostaglandin, adenosine, metabolic glutamate receptor and mitochondrial mechanism are briefly introduced. The authors believe that the current stage of ionic antiepileptic drugs research has reached the bottleneck of transformation and it is difficult to achieve a major breakthrough in the mechanism, but there are broader research prospects in non-ionic antiepileptic mechanisms because a large number of them have not yet been clinically transformed. From a deeper perspective, some non-ionic antiepileptic mechanisms may have been involved in the fundamental mechanism of epileptogenesis, and they may be the prospect for the future treatment of refractory epilepsy.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827412

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Cough variant asthma (CVA) is the main cause of obstinate cough. This study aimed to observe the therapeutic effect of Xiaochuan pill on CVA in a rat model, and to explore the mechanisms.@*METHODS@#The rats were sensitized and challenged with 4% ovaibumin (OA) and 2% Al(OH) to establish the CVA models. They were treated with Xiaochuan pill (at the dose of 0.9, 1.8, 3.6 g/kg) or montelukast sodium once a day for 14 days. After 7 and 14 days of intervention, 5 and 10 rats were randomly selected from each group to collect bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), trachea, and lungs. The number of white blood cells (WBC) and eosinophils (EOS), and the levels of IL-1β, TNF- α, and IFN-γ in BALF were detected. Histopathological examination of lung tissue was performed to observe the histomorphological changes. The expressions of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κBp65, and p-p65 in lung tissue were detected by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#The numbers of WBC and EOS in BALF of CVA rats were significantly decreased by Xiaochuan pill (<0.05 or <0.01). The hyperplasia of tracheal, bronchial mucosa and the infiltration of inflammatory cells in lung were alleviated obviously. After 14 d of intervention, high dose of Xiaochuan pill significantly increased the level of IFN- γ (<0.01), reduced the levels of IL-1β (<0.05) and TNF-α (<0.05), and decreased the expressions of TLR4, MyD88, p65, and p-p65 (<0.05 or <0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Xiaochuan pill exerts the significant therapeutic effect on obstinate cough in rats. The mechanism of action may be related to the regulation of TLR4-MyD88-NF-κBp65 signaling pathway as well as the inflammation and immune response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cough , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , NF-kappa B , Rats , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821027

ABSTRACT

@#This study aimed to observe the therapeutic effect and mechanism of Jinshuibao tablet on acute renal injury induced by cisplatin. Acute renal injury models in SD rats were induced separately by single intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin(5 mg/kg)and intravenous injection for 5 consecutive days at a dosage of 2 mg/kg per day. The renal function and renal histopathological changes were observed in rat acute renal injury models after prevention and treatment with Jinshuibao tablet, respectively. The content of tumor necrosis factor(TNF-α)and reactive oxygen species(ROS), the activity of Caspase 3 and the expression of t-p38, p-p38, Bax and Bcl-2 in the kidneys were detected. The results showed that preventive and therapeutic administration of Jinshuibao tablets could both significantly inhibit the increase of the blood urea nitrogen(BUN)and creatinine(CRE), increase the creatinine clearance rate, reduce the contents of TNF-α and ROS, and decrease the activity of Caspase 3 in acute renal injury models induced by cisplatin. The renal histopathological results showed that Jinshuibao tablets could significantly reduce renal histopathology scores, ameliorate renal tubule degeneration and inflammatory infiltration. Western blot results showed that Jinshuibao tablets could significantly decrease the expression of t-p38 and p-p38, while increasing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in the kidneys. These results suggested that preventive and therapeutic administration of Jinshuibao tablets could both improve renal function and pathological changes of renal tissue, which might be related to the inhibition of TNF-α and the ROS-p38 MAPK-Caspase3 pathway and thus inhibition of apoptosis.

4.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 582-586, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-870858

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical features, imaging features, gene diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE) with heterozygous RELN mutation.Methods:Clinical data of an ADLTE family caused by a heterozygous mutation in the RELN gene diagnosed in September 2019 at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University were collected. The clinical characteristics of ADLTE were analyzed, and literature review was conducted.Results:The male proband, 22 years old, was admitted with the clinical manifestations including seizures begun at temporal lobe, which specifically manifested as a sudden emergence of binaural hum, lasting for more than 10 seconds, and the symptoms can self-recover quickly. Half a month later, generalized tonic-clonic seizures attacked subsequently after a similar auditory aura. There were no abnormal findings in interictal electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Following the family history, his father had similar auditory symptoms around the age of 20, and occasional secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures appeared. Antiepileptic drug can control better. The whole exome sequencing of three people in the family revealed that both the proband and his father had NM-005045: c.6068T>C heterozygous mutation in the RELN gene.Conclusions:ADLTE mostly occurs in juveniles or early adulthood. The main clinical manifestations are focal seizures with auditory auras, which can be followed by generalized tonic-clonic seizures. There are no abnormal findings in the interictal EEG and MRI. ADLTE is sensitive to drug treatment and has good clinical prognosis. The study identified a novel heterozygous mutation NM-005045: c.6068T>C in RELN gene, which is responsible for the development of ADLTE.

5.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 339-343, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-745934

ABSTRACT

Deep brain disease stimulation (DBS) is commonly used to treat movement disorders such as Parkinson disease,and current evidence suggests that DBS may also be useful for refractory epilepsy and is affected by a variety of factors.Studies show that stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus and hippocampus may decrease the frequency of refractory seizures.The efficacy of stimulating other targets remains inconclusive.An absence of structural abnormality on imaging and electrode position are associated with stimulation efficacy.Certain seizure types may respond more favorably to specific targets.There are several factors that potentially predict seizure outcome following DBS,but more large-scale clinical trials are needed.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-700307

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the clinical effect of protecting the saphenous nerve with the suture anchor on repairing the medial collateral ligament injury of the knee joint. Methods From June 2014 to June 2016, 48 cases of medial collateral ligament injuries of the knee joint were repaired with suture anchors of the saphenous nerve in the 107th Hospital of PLA. Results All patients were followed up for 12-18 months, with an average of 14.6 months. All the patients were followed up with good stability of the knee joint. The 30 degree flexion stress test of the knee joint showed that 2 cases were positive forⅠdegree, and the stress test of the extension position was negative. The X-ray examination showed that the internal and external articular space of the knee joint was symmetrical and good, and the anchors did not loose or move in the bone. The average knee flexion before operation was (43.19 ± 2.60)°, and 1 year after operation was (135.62 ± 3.68) °. And the flexion of knee 1 year after operation was higher than that before operation (t=5.37, P<0.01). The Lysholm score was (43.19 ± 2.60) points before operation, and 1 year after operation was (93.69 ± 5.39) points, and the postoperative score was higher than that before operation (t=4.85, P<0.01). The grade of efficacy was excellent in 42 cases, good in 4 cases, fair in 2 cases, and the excellent and good rate was 95.8%(46/48). Conclusions The repair of medial collateral ligament injury with suture anchors under the protection of the hidden nerve can effectively prevent the symptoms of numbness in the medial area of the knee joint. It is simple, fixed and can be repaired under direct vision. It is reliable to restore the strength of the ligament and maintain the stability of the medial knee joint. It is worthy of clinical push and wide application.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-446036

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the nursing of replantation methods of sea-water soaked rotated avulsion amputated fingers.Methods There were 8 cases (16 fingers) with sea-water soaked rotated avulsion amputated fingers.5 cases were replanted by synchronic replantation method,the other 3 cases were replanted by traditional replantation method.We adopted complete debridement and high quality vascular anastomosis during the operation,and give hyperbaric oxygen therapy and anticoagulant treatment post-operation.Results There were 15 survival fingers in 16 replanted fingers.The survival rate was 93.75%.After follow-up for three months to two years,the total good rate was 87.5%.No wound infection and nonunion of fracture occurred.The outline of the fingers was satisfying and patients felt well.The twopoint discrimination was 3~6 mm after 3~24 months follow-up.Conclusions The injury of sea-water soaked rotated avulsion amputated fingers is complicated and the replantation operation is difficult.but if we can adopt individual measure according to the actual circumstance,it is possible that the sea-water soaked rotated avulsion amputated fingers can survive.

8.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 179-181, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-428544

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical,genetic and neuroimaging features by reporting a family with dyssynergia cerebellaris myoclonica. Methods The proband was examined clinically by neuroimaging,electromyography ( EEG),skin and muscles pathology and hematology.The patients with the illness in the family were followed up and the pedigree was drawn.Results There were 6 patients with dyssynergia cerebellaris myoclonica of the 27 family members in the family.All patients had disproportionate myoclonus,epilepsy,progressive cerebellar ataxia performance. Proband brain MRI showed cerebral atrophy.Cerebellar and cortical atrophy were more serious than other parts.There were long T,and long T2 signals in the white matter,high signal in T2FLAIR.EEG showed bursts of spike-low wave,polyspilke-low waves and polyspike waves distributing in the whole brain.Pathology of the skin and muscles was normal.Conclusions Dyssynergia cerebellaris myoclonica is an autosomal dominant disease,characterised by myoclonus,progressive cerebellar ataxia and epilepsy.Brain MRI shows cerebral cortical and cerebellar atrophy,abnormal signal in white matter.EEG showes spike and ware wave.The diagnosis is mainly based on family history,typical clinical manifestations,brain MRI and EEG changes.

9.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 623-626, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-419806

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical and neuroimaging features of Vogt-KoyanagiHarada syndrome ( VKH ).Methods Cerebrospinal fluid ( CSF ), neuroimaging examination, clinical manifestation and pharmacotherapy features were investigated in 5 patients diagnosed as VKH. ResultsAll 5 patients were diagnosed as uveitis in the early stage of disease.All patients suffered “ headache”.Meningeal irritation sign was appeared in 3 cases. The MRI enhanced scan of all 5 cases showed abnormal enhancement of meninges. CSF examination showed increased leukocyte number ((4--196) × 106/L). All patients were alleviatedwith combination therapyof high dose of steroid with cyclophosphamide.ConclusionsVKH is a systemic disease that usually involving the uvea, central nervous system, internal ear and the skin. MRI and CSF examination are valuable for diagnosis. High dose of steroid combined with cyclophosphamide is an effective therapeutic strategy.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-354169

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the anaphylaxis and hemocytolysis of 6 kinds of tween-80 injection from different source.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The Hartley albinism guinea pig was used to carry on the active systematic anaphylaxis (ASA) and the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). The in vitro hemolytic experiment and the hemocytolysis was observed by means of spectrophotometry on the domestic rabbit.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The result of ASA and PLA of 6 kinds of tween-80 injection from different source assumed the negative. In observation time, the temolysis rate of 3 kinds of tween-80 injection are more than 5%, while the others are also more than 5% only in the highly concentrated test tube.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Six kinds of tween-80 injection from different source have not caused the immune-mediated anaphylaxis, but it may have hematolysis tendency on intravenous injection. The hemocytolysis of tween-80 may not be entirely caused by the impurities. It is worthy of further study that the physical and chemical properties of the product itself and the undeserved concentration is doubtful whether there is also some internal relations with the generation of hemolytic.</p>


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , Animals , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Female , Guinea Pigs , Hemolysis , Injections , Male , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis , Polysorbates , Chemistry , Rabbits
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-283216

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of refining temperatures and amounts of sheep's oil used in processing Epimedii Folium on Kedney-yang deficiency rats.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The corticosterone was subcutaneous injected to establish the kidney yang deficiency rat model. With the temperatures and amounts of sheep's oil were 250 degrees C/30%, 120 degrees C/30% and 120 degrees C/20% respectively, the crude drug and three kinds of pressed Epimedii Folium were extracted by water and used as examined samples while total flavonoid of Epimedii Folium was used as positive control. After examined samples and control samples were intragastirc administrated, the pharmacologic action was analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>As compared to crude drug, all of the aqueous extracts of processed Epimedii Folium have stronger effect of warming kidney and enhancing yang, especially the Epimedii Folium processed by sheep's oil with refining temperatures 120 degrees C and amounts of sheep's oil 30%. Its mechanism might be related to improving the insufficiency of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-thymus (HPAT) axis suppression.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The refining temperature of sheep's oil can affect the quality of excipients and processed drugs. The results may be useful in explaining the mechanism of Epimedii Folium processing and establishment of pharmaceutical standard of sheep's oil used as processing excipients.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Kidney Diseases , Drug Therapy , Male , Oils , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sheep , Technology, Pharmaceutical , Yang Deficiency , Drug Therapy
12.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 404-408, 2008.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-400282

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical and neuroimaging futures of chorea due to nonketotic hyperglycemia.Methods Seven cases of chorea due to nonketotic hyperglycemia were clinically examined and underwent brain CT and MRI as well.Results Investigations revealed uncontrolled diabetes with absent ketones of 7 cases.They all presented with sudden onset hemiachorea or bilateral chorea or generalized chorea.The CT scan of brain could find abnormal lesions in our cases.Hyperintense lesions in the basal ganglia,on T1 WI of MRI were demonstrated in our study.Pure drugs was unable to control chorea.The symptoms of chorea and neuroimaging lesions were normal after the hyperglycemia being controlled.Conclusions Chorea caused by nonketotic hyperglycemia is mainly found in aged people with diabetes mellitus in a mechanism of causing striatal neuronal dysfunction,presenting charicristic CT scan or MRI of brain.Chorea should be considered potentially reversible when associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia,for rapid detection and early correction of hyperglycemia could lead to complete recovery of these involuntary movements.

13.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 304-308, 2008.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-400249

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate clinicopathological and neuroimaging features of meninheal malignant melanosis.Methods The cytologic study of cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)and neuroimaging examination and meningeal histochemistry were performed in 3 cases of meningeal malignant melanosis. Results Three patients were found to have initial onsets of headache.followed by meningeal irritation.One case had huge malignant melanoma on skin.The second patient had diabrotic malignant melanoma on her face,which did not healed for a long time.The third patient had no malignant melanoma on skin and viscera.The MRI enhanced scanning of all 3 cases showed abnormal enhancement of meninge.There were a large number of abnormal shape cells in CSF.The meninxes were blackbrown or brown.The tumor cells were in various shapes with big and round irregular nucleus and rich cytoplasm.There were a great quantitv of melanosomes.The tumor cells were disarranged. Immunohistochemistry analyses found S-100 protein and Vim and HMB-45 were positive reaction. Conclusions The patients with meningeal malignant melanosis have an initial onset of headache,followed by meningeal irritation,and MRI enhanced scanning plays a valueble role in the diagnosis.A lage number of tumor cells in abnormal shape have been found in CSF.Thetumour cells of meninx presents different shapes with big and round or irregular nucleus.There are a great quantity of mellanosomes,and the tumour cells are arranged in a state of chaos.

14.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 528-531, 2008.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-399467

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the value of gradient echo T2'* -weighted imaging for detection of familial cerebral cavernous malformation (FCCM). Methods Twenty-six members in 2 families of FCCM were examined at 3.0 T by using CT, conventional MRI and GRE T2'*2'-WI sequences to detect numbers of FCCM. Results Twelve cases of FCCM were found by GRE T2'*-WI sequences. These patients all had multiple lesions(average of 23). The lesions were mainly located in ganglia area, followed by cortico-subcortical, thalamus, cerebellar and brain stem. These lesions appeared as special reticulated core of mixed signal intensity with a surrounding rim of decreased signal intensity representing bemosiderin from previous hemorrhages. The numbers of lesions (average of 5-17) and cases of FCCM (average of 3-9) examined by the conventional MRI were decreasing in the order of SE, DWI, T2FLAIR, T1WI and T2WI, each less than GRE T2'*-WI. CT only identified 3 cases with big lesions combined with hemorrhage and calcification.Conclusions GRE T2'*-WI could be a better choice of MRI sequence in diagnosing FCCM compared with CT and conventional MRI.

15.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 695-698, 2008.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-398691

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the role of calcium homeostatic and kinetics in the epileptogenesis activity. Methods Hippocampal neurons were acutely isolated from controls and status epilepticus (SE) models induced by lithium-pilocarpine at different time point. The [Ca2+]i levels were detected by laser scanning confocal microscope. And the ability to restore resting [Ca2+]i levels after a brief exposure to 5 μmol/L glutamate in control and epileptic neurons were evaluated. Results The [Ca2+]i level of acute separated hippocampal neurons in the control rats was (95.4±22. 1) nmol/L After injection of lithium pilocarpine, the [Ca2+]i level in hippecampal neurons increased dramatically to (867.6±35.2) nmol/L, and decreased to (292.8 ± 18.3) nmol/L on the 7th day, lasting for about 30 days ((220. 8± 17.6) nmol/L), it is higher than that in the control group (t = 12. 55, P < 0.01). The distribution of neuronal [Ca22+]i showed that 92% of control neurons were in the normal range of [Ca2+]i level (25-150 nmol/L) ; After 6 hours, however [Ca2+]i levels of all SE neurons increased, and 85% of which were higher than 500 nmol/L; After 7, 14 and 30 days, there were 75%, 60% and 52% of SE neurons still manifested an elevated [Ca22+]i level, but less than 500 nmol/L. After the exposure to 5 μmol/L glutamate treatment for 2 minutes, [Ca2+]i of the control neurons restored to baseline values in (9. 5±3.4) minutes, whereas the SE rats of acute, latent and chronic phases did not (t = 5.08, 4. 56, 4. 21, all P < 0. 01). Conclusion Lithium-pilocarpine induced epilepsy causes a long-term alteration of calcium homeostatic mechanisms of hippocampus neurons, which may play an important role in the development and maintenance of spontaneous recurrent seizures.

16.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 610-613, 2008.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-398554

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical and neuroimaging features of hypoglycemia encephalopathy in the elderly. Methods The history and clinical features of 36 patients who had undergone brain CT and MRI were analyzed retrospectively. Results Twenty-seven patients had infections and fevers as a trigger, presenting all kinds of symptoms. Eleven cases were found to have abnormal signals in bilateral caudate nucleus and lenticular nucleus in MRL But CT examination showed no new lesions in corresponding position. Hypoglycemia encephalopathy were commanly found in the elderly who had diabetes mellitus and treated with drugs. After being followed up for 6 months, their neuroimaging did not change. Conclusions Because the patients often present unconsciousness and weakness with a sudden onset, hypoglycemia is easily mistaken for other disorders, especially in the elderly. For those with consciousness, we should pay more attations to hypoglycemia. Brain CT has no value of diagnosing hypoglycemia encephalopathy, while MRI plays an impotant role in diagnosing the disease. The characteristic MRI features predicts a bad prognosis.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-408265

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Status epilepticus can result in neuronal injury.OBJECTIVE: To observe the mitochondrial ultrastructural damage and the changes of Fas, Bax and Caspase-3 expressions in hippocampal CA3 neurons of rats of different kindling, so as to provide theoretical evidence for the neuronal injury after epilepsy.DESIGN: A randomized c ntrol animal experiment.SETTINGS: Department of Neurology and Department of Anesthesiology,Qilu Hospital of Shandong University.MATERIALS: The experiments were carried out in the pathological laboratory of Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences between March and July2005. Totally 150 adult male SD rats of 260-300 g were provided by the experimental animal center of Shandong University (SCXK20030004), they were raised at room temperature and were free to the access of food and water.METHODS: The adult male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid group and caudal venous injection of kainic acid group respectively ac cording to the method of random number table, and the rats were administrated by kainic acid injected intraperitoneally (12 mg/kg) and via caudal vein (10 mg/kg) respectively. Each group was divided into 5 subgroups, which were 3, 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours after status epilepticus groups respectively. Twelve successfully induced rats were selected from each subgroup, hippocampi were removed at different time points after the termination of status epilepticus, 2 were used for examination under electron microscope, 5 for the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of Fas and Bax, and 5 for the immunohistochemical assay of Caspase-3. Another 12 rats were used as normal controls without any treatment. The materials were taken at24 hours after corresponding status epilepticus in the control group, and the specific distributions were the same as those in the subgroups. The mitochondrial structure was observed under electron microscope, the levels of Fas and Bax mRNA were detected with semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and the expression of Caspase-3 protein was determined with the immunohistochemical assay.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Results of ultrathin section under transmission electron mcroscope; ② RT-PCR results; ③ Immunohistochemical results.RESULTS: Totally 132 rats were involved in the analysis of results. ①Mitochondrial structure under electron microscope: In the intraperitoneal injection group, the mitochondria swelled, and the neurons showed characters of apoptosis. In the caudal venous injection group, the mitochondria swelled, and accompanied by the membranous collapse, and the neurons manifested the necrosis. ② No expression of Fas and Bax was detected in the control group and caudal venous injection. In the intraperitoneal injection group, Fas expression appeared at 6 hours after status epilepticus, increased at 24 hours, reached the peak value at 48 hours, and lasted till 72 hours. ③ The Caspase-3 expressions began to increase 6 hours after status epilepticus in both the intraperitoneal injection group and caudal venous injection group(10.27±0.34, 15.21±0.34; P < 0.001), and reached the peak values at 24 hours (25.36±0.47, 28.23±0.47; P < 0.001); The higher expression of Caspase-3 lasted till 72 hours in the intraperitoneal injection group, but sharply decreased in the caudal venous injection group.CONCLUSION: Two different methods of administration result in different severity of mitochondrial damage and different expressions of Fas, Bax and Caspase-3, which further determines the molecular mechanisms of neuronal death.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-409038

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Epileptic attack can cause neuronal damage and increase the risk of potential seizure. Analysis of the possible mechanism of neuronal damage following epileptic seizure may provide evidences for implementing preventive measures against brain damage due to epileptic seizures.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based search of the related publications in PubMed database between June 1995 and June 2004 with different combinations of the key words of "epilepsy", "neuron damage", "necrosis"and "apoptosis", limiting the results to the language of English.STUDY SELECTION: The retrieved articles were examined at first to select reports of experimental study on human and animals related to epilepsy and the subsequent neuronal damages, and their full-text publications were obtained with the other unrelated articles excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: Eighteen articles documenting randomized controlled experiment immediately related to neuronal damage after epilepsy seizure, 4 reporting non-randomized controlled experiments related to central neuronal excitatory toxic damage, and 3 concerning neuronal damage were collected for this review.DATA SYNTHESIS: In the 14 randomized controlled experiments, chemical or electric methods were used to induce epilepsy in the animal models in which the ultrastructural changes of the neurons and cell organelles were observed and the expression of apoptosis-related factors determined.In the 4 non-randomized controlled experiments, central neuronal ischemic and hypoxic models were adopted for observing the expression of various apoptotic factors in the neurons due to different damages with the assistance of electron microscope, to provide direct evidences for the mechanism of central neuronal excitatory toxic damage. The other three related literatures introduced the pathways of neuronal damages and the expression of the related factors.CONCLUSION: Neuronal death after epileptic seizure is correlated with the severity of the damage and mitochondrial functional status, and the mitochondria constitute the control center for neuronal survival. The release of cytochrome C and the activation of caspases are the final common pathway of neuronal damage.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-584188

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the morphology of neuronal necrosis by kainic acid(KA) induced status epilepsy (SE) in rats, and to study the brain protective effect of Mg 2+.Methods 75 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into KA group, Mg 2+ group and normal saline group. SE was induced with KA for 3 hours, and the rats in Mg 2+ group were intraperitoneal injected magnesium sulfate before being injected KA. 72 hours later the rats were killed. We had all rat brain sections and observe the morphology of neuronal necrosis with microscope and electron microscope.Results In KA group, seizure was induced 16.1?4.7 min after injection of KA, but seizure delayed to 25.4?6.2 min in Mg 2+ group. There was a significant difference between two groups (P

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-542964

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the role of gap junctions in epileptiform activity. Methods The epileptiform activity was induced by zero-Mg 2+ medium in cultured hippocampal neurons of newborn rats. Immunocytochemistry and real time RT-PCR were introduced to evaluate the expression of gap junction Cx32 and Cx43. Results The level of Cx32 mRNA increased quickly one hour after the neurons were treated with zero-Mg 2+ medium and was raised by 10 times 5 hours later, while Cx32 protein began to develop at the 2nd hour (21.80?1.74) and was raised by 5 times at the 8th hour (47.30?5.75). The expression of Cx43 mRNA went up obviously 5 hours later, and Cx43 protein developed visibly 8 hours later. Carbenoxolone depressed the expressions of Cx32 and Cx43. Conclusions The expression of Cx32 and Cx43 increases dramatically after epileptic discharges and carbenoxolone inhibits both the discharges and the expression of gap junctions, which indicates that gap junction could contribute to epileptogenesis.

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