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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-513487


Objective To observe the effects of Yiqi Huoxue Tongluo Jiedu fang (YHTJF) on pneumocyte apoptosis after lung ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury (LIRI) in mice and to investigate whether c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) is involved in the mechanism of apoptosis.Methods Seventy C57BL/6J male mice were randomly divided into seven groups:normal control group (C group),carboxyl methyl cellulose-Na+normal control group (CMC-Na+C group),CMC-Na+sham group (CMC-Na+S group),CMC-Na+I/R group (CMC-Na+I/R group) and CMC-Na+YHTJF-low,-middle,-high dose groups (CMC-Na+YL,CMC-Na+YM,CMC-Na+YH groups).C group did not undergo any processing;in CMC-Na+S group,only was chest opened without clipping the lung hilum;in the rest of the four groups,they all underwent opening of the chest and clipping the lung hilum for 30 minutes,then the clipping of artery was relieved and left lung reperfusion was carried out for 3 hours.After operation,the mice were sacrificed,the lung tissues were harvested.Under light and electron microscopes,the lung morphological and ultra-structural changes were observed,and the changes of index of quantitative evaluation for alveolar damage (IQA) were determined.The terminal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) was applied to evaluate the apoptosis index (AI) of the lung tissues.The protein and mRNA expressions of JNK and glucose regulating protein 78 (GRP78) in lung tissues were detected by Western Blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR);the correlations between lung AI and the expressions of mRNA and protein of JNK and GRP78,IQA were analyzed.Results Compared with CMC-Na+S group,IQA,AI and mRNA and the protein expressions of JNK and GRP78 in CMC-Na+I/R group were obviously higher [IQA:(74.00 ± 7.31)% vs.(7.00 ± 1.23)%,AI:(64.40 ± 11.97)% vs.(5.60 ± 1.14)%,JNK mRNA (gray value):1.143 ± 0.284 vs.0.152 ± 0.128,GRP78 mRNA (gray value):0.897 ± 0.129 vs.0.284 ± 0.044,JNK protein (A value):0.428 ± 0.074 vs.0.073 ± 0.052,GRP78 protein (A value):1.075 ± 0.145 vs.0.589 ± 0.060].Compared with CMC-Na+I/R group,the IQA,AI,protein and mRNA expressions of JNK and GRP78 in CMC-Na+YL,CMC-Na+YM,CMC-Na+YH groups were all lower,and the degree of reduction in group CMC-Na+YM was the most remarkable,greater than that in CMC-Na+YL or CMC-Na+YH group [IQA:(26.20 ± 3.35)% vs.(34.00±5.34)%,(41.20±9.18)%,AI:(29.40±3.05)% vs.(48.20±3.83)%,(39.20±6.14)%,JNK mRNA (gray value):0.681 ± 0.130 vs.0.804 ± 0.153,0.938 ± 0.11,GRP78 mRNA (gray value):0.450 ± 0.105 vs.0.747 ± 0.231,0.566 ± 0.115,JNK protein (A value):0.188 ± 0.049 vs.0.261 ± 0.065,0.209 ± 0.063,all P < 0.01],compared with the CMC-Na+I/R group,the expression of GRP78 protein was obviously higher in CMC-Na+YH,CMC-Na+YL,CMC-Na+YM groups and the most remarkably high was in CMC-Na+YH group (A value:1.429 ±0.226 vs.1.130±0.169,1.128 ±0.177,all P < 0.01).The apoptosis of each group was mainly in the pulmonary vascular endothelial cells and alveolar epithelial cells,and brown particles were positive cells under light microscope.Under transmission electron microscope:nuclear pyknosis and margination under the nuclear membrane,cytoplasm condensed,lamellar bodies decreased and emptying increased,cell membrane microvilli decreased or disappeared,mitochondria swelling,inflammatory cells increased in alveolar septum and adhering onto the capillary walls could be seen in CMC-Na+I/R group.Compared with CMC-Na+I/R group,the lung tissue ultrastructural damage alleviated,ultrastructure of alveoli clearly seen,nuclear chromatin relatively uniform,cytoplasm increased,type Ⅱ alveolar epithelial cell surface microvilli relatively plenty,lamellar corpuscle number increased,mitochondria swelling ameliorated in CMC-Na+YH,CMC-Na+YL,CMC-Na+YM groups and the most remarkable one was CMC-Na+YM group.AI was significantly positive correlated with the mRNA and protein expressions of JNK,GRP78 and IQA (r =0.907,0.928,0.880,0.712,0.911,all P < 0.01).Conclusions YHTJF may effectively alleviate the cell apoptosis in mice LIRI,and its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of JNK pathway.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-403271


AIM: To investigate the effect of ligustrazine on hydrogen sulfide (H_2S) system in pulmonary hypertension induced by hypoxic hypercapnia in rats. METHODS: Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group (C), hypoxic hypercapnia group (HH), and hypoxic hypercapnia+ligustrazine group (HH+L). The change of hemodynamics was measured. The ratio of vessel wall area and total area of arteriae pulmonalis were observed under light microscope. The apoptosis of arteriae pulmonalis was tested with TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and the apoptosis index was calculated. Plasma level of hydrogen sulfide and activity of hydrogen sulfide generating enzymes in homogenates of rat lung tissue were evaluated by sensitive modified sulfide electrode method. Cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) mRNA in lung tissues was determined by RT-PCR. RESULTS: The level of mean pulmonary arterial pressure, the ratio of vessel wall area/total area and the right ventricle/left ventricle+septum were significantly higher in HH group than those in C group, and the value was obviously lower in HH+LTZ group than that in HH group (all P<0.01). The mean carotid arterial pressure of 3 groups had no significant difference (P>0.05). The apoptotic index of arteriae pulmonalis in HH group and HH+LTZ group was significantly lower than that in C group, and that in HH+LTZ group was significantly higher than that in HH group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Plasma level of H_2S, the activity of H_2S generating enzymes in homogenates of rat lung tissue, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) mRNA in lung tissues in HH group were significantly lower than those in C group (all P<0.01), and those in HH+LTZ group were significantly lower than those in HH group (all P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Ligustrazine up-regulates the expression of cystanthionine-γ-splitting enzyme (CSE), enhances the activity of CSE and increases the level of H_2S to prevent pulmonary hypertension induced by hypoxic hypercapnia.