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1.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887321

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of expiratory effort on the magnitude and low-frequency components of force variability during submaximal isometric knee extension (IKE). Eight subjects performed 5-s IKE of the dominant leg at the intensity of 10% of maximal voluntary contraction (10% MVC). During the IKE, the subjects performed one of three forced expirations (FEs) of different effort levels. The three effort levels of FE were 0% effort (normal breathing, FE0), 50% effort (FE50) and 100% effort (FE100). In the expiratory phase of each IKE, the amplitude of the force variability was quantified by the coefficient of variation (FCV), and the low-frequency components of the force variability were evaluated by calculating the peak power values of the filtered force signal (F) and rectified EMG signal with high-pass filtering (rEMGH) of the vastus lateralis muscle. The cross-correlation between F and rEMGH was also calculated. FCV was significantly higher in FE100 than in FE0 and FE50 (p < 0.01). The peak power values of F and rEMGH was significantly higher in FE100 than in FE0 (p < 0.05). Cross-correlation between F and rEMGH with the latter preceding the former was observed in each FE condition. These results suggest that FE with maximal effort (FE100) increased not only the absolute amount of force variation but also low-frequency oscillatory components of force and EMG and that low-frequency oscillations of motor unit firing may be responsible for the increase in force variation induced by FE.

2.
Kampo Medicine ; : 24-29, 2020.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826098

ABSTRACT

A42-year-old man presented with a history of tidal fever almost every evening to night with 10-year duration. We could not find out the cause of his fever, so we thought he was classified in fever of unknown origin. The patient suffered from an anhydrosis phase during the temperature rose, but his fever broke after perspiration occurred at the end. The lack of perspiration with fever is a typical symptom of excess pattern of tai yang stage, and fever at night is suggestive of shao yang stage. Saikatsugekito was thought to be best suited as it would address both stages. The formula promoted perspiration, and the body temperature remained stable thereafter. It is not unusual to encounter complicated symptoms due to combined or overlapped pattern in clinical setting. This case represented successful outcome by identifying and analyzing the concept of gobyo and heibyo and prescribing a formula accordingly.

3.
Kampo Medicine ; : 29-34, 2019.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758214

ABSTRACT

Case 1 was a 72-year-old man with a generalized pain after 6 months of heavy physical work. Kakkonto was prescribed based on his symptoms of severe shoulder stiffness and pain, and keishibukuryoganryo was added to treatoketsu. It caused dysuria because of ephedra herb, so the dosage was reduced. Atractylodes lancea rhizome and processed aconite root were added to enhance the effect of treatment. And then, his pain was alleviated. Case 2 was a 53-year-old man with a generalized pain. He had a previous history of whiplash and two surgical operations. Daisaikoto was prescribed based on his symptom of bilateral costal arch pain, and keishibukuryoganryo was added because of oketsu. It caused an increased frequency of bowel movement due to crude drug of rhuharb, so the dosage was reduced. Pueraria root was added for the purpose of relieving severe shoulder stiffness. And then, his pain went away. It is often difficult to treat fibromyalgia. The decoction can be effective with increase or decrease and deleting or adding of the dosage of crude drug. Decoctions become handy as it allows dosage adjustment of crude drug to minimize the side effects and improve the efficacy.

4.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-378861

ABSTRACT

<p>Physical constitution consists of biologically different components, such as fat mass (FM) associated with various risks and fat-free mass (FFM) associated with physical fitness. Given a hypothesis that body composition to provide the best physical fitness is the healthiest, we estimated the relationship between fat-to-lean ratio (FLR= FM/FFM) and physical fitness outcomes in school children. Five hundred and three 4<sup>th</sup> grade school children aged at 10 years were recruited and their body composition were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. They underwent physical fitness test including grip strength, sit-up, sit & reach, side step, 20m shuttle run, 50m dash, standing broad jump, softball throw. According to the sexes, the subjects were classified into 5 ranks (quintile) based on their heights, and subsequently stratified into 4 groups (quartile) in each height-rank (quintile) groups based on their FLR. By grouping the same FLR quartile group in 5 height-ranks (quintile groups), quartile groups (FLR-1 to FLR-4) were compared among their outcome of physical fitness test. Without relation to heights and FFM, 20m shuttle run as an index of cardiorespiratory fitness, 50m dash and standing broad jump showed significant difference among groups in stepwise manner in both boys and girls, where the most lean group had highest capacity. FM and FFM have to be discriminated each other, because of their characteristic biological significance. FLR, strongly correlated to aerobic power, is a useful index to estimate body composition associated with physical fitness.</p>

5.
Kampo Medicine ; : 227-230, 2017.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-688973

ABSTRACT

A 31-year-old woman started to have a yellowish-white scab with exfoliation on her lip after delivery. Her exfoliative cheilitis did not improve with kigikenchuto nor juzentaihoto for treating deficiency of vital energy and lack of blood. After she developed upset stomach, her prescription was changed to hochuekkito which supports the digestive system. Her symptom improved dramatically. The characteristic of exfoliative cheilitis consists of chronic inflammation of lips which is considered to be yang-syndrome, therefore hochuekkito was effective as it covers yang-syndrome as well as yin-syndrome. It is suggested that psychological factors play a role for a pathogenesis of exfoliative cheilitis. We consider that antistress effect of bupleurum root and sedative effect of citrus unshiu peel in hochuekkito might also be key factors.

6.
Kampo Medicine ; : 34-37, 2016.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-378145

ABSTRACT

A 48-year-old woman started to have dizziness after experiencing an earthquake. Her clinical signs improved with the use of shimbuto that was prescribed based on her symptom of yin-syndrome and hypofunction. At the same time, there was a decrease in reading errors with her finger, in a vein authentication device. One of the common reading errors that the security system makes is due to a change in blood flow due to vasoconstriction caused by low temperature. It is speculated that the use of a warming formula increased peripheral blood circulation, which contributed to the improvement of vein authentication.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-375556

ABSTRACT

<b>Objectives:</b> To investigate the stress-relief and mood-change effects of extractives from the leaves of Abies sachalinensis<BR><b>Methods: </b>The essential oil was steam-distilled from the leaves of Abies sachalinensis (Todomatsu) and it was a generous gift from Japan Aroma Laboratory. Ten healthy university students (male 8, female 2) participated in the present study.After informed consent was obtained, the subject sat on a chair in a climatic chamber in which temperature and relative humidity were kept at 24°C and 50%, respectively. After ten min rest in a room, first salivary collection for cortisol, amylase and questionnaire with mood check list short form 2 (MCL-S.2) were performed.Second measurement was done after 20 min rest without aroma and then further 20 min later with aroma, third measurement was done. None felt discomfort during the experiment.Differences between the three measurements were examined using Friedman test, then if there is any significant differences, Scheffe’ test was performed.<BR><b>Results and Conclusion:</b> Regarding the emotional changes, higher “relaxation” score and lower “anxiety” score were observed in the cases with aroma (third measurement) than those without aroma (second measurement, p<0.05). “Pleasantness” score did not show significant changes.No significant differences between first and second measurements.<BR>  Salivary stress parameter such as cortisol decreased significantly in the subjects with aroma (first vs. third, p=0.001). There was also significant difference between second and third measurements (p<0.05). Salivary amylase activity showed lower value with aroma than the resting value (first vs. third, p<0.05).<BR>  From these findings, essential oil from the leaves of Abies sachalinensis (Todomatsu) assumed to improve mood status and have a stress-relief activity.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689269

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate the stress-relief and mood-change effects of extractives from the leaves of Abies sachalinensis Methods: The essential oil was steam-distilled from the leaves of Abies sachalinensis (Todomatsu) and it was a generous gift from Japan Aroma Laboratory. Ten healthy university students (male 8, female 2) participated in the present study. After informed consent was obtained, the subject sat on a chair in a climatic chamber in which temperature and relative humidity were kept at 24°C and 50%, respectively. After ten min rest in a room, first salivary collection for cortisol, amylase and questionnaire with mood check list short form 2 (MCL-S.2) were performed. Second measurement was done after 20 min rest without aroma and then further 20 min later with aroma, third measurement was done. None felt discomfort during the experiment. Differences between the three measurements were examined using Friedman test, then if there is any significant differences, Scheffe’ test was performed. Results and Conclusion: Regarding the emotional changes, higher “relaxation” score and lower “anxiety” score were observed in the cases with aroma (third measurement) than those without aroma (second measurement, p<0.05). “Pleasantness” score did not show significant changes. No significant differences between first and second measurements.   Salivary stress parameter such as cortisol decreased significantly in the subjects with aroma (first vs. third, p=0.001). There was also significant difference between second and third measurements (p<0.05). Salivary amylase activity showed lower value with aroma than the resting value (first vs. third, p<0.05).   From these findings, essential oil from the leaves of Abies sachalinensis (Todomatsu) assumed to improve mood status and have a stress-relief activity.

9.
Kampo Medicine ; : 41-44, 2013.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-374570

ABSTRACT

We report a case of hot flush successfully treated with formulations for yin-syndrome. A 56-year-old female patient experienced hot sensations and sweating on her face post menopause. Her hot flush was improved slightly with kamishoyosan and ryokeijutsukanto, but her symptoms were aggravated whenever she became tired. The patient was reevaluated and her prescription was changed to hachimigan, based on symptoms related to yin-syndrome and hypofunction, and a lack of resistance at the lower abdomen with the abdominal palpation. The patient appeared to respond favorably. However, the patient was easily fatigued and her symptoms returned when she felt tired. Ninjinto was added to the prescription based on the patient's “stuck feeling in pit of the stomach”. Her hot flush resolved and she no longer became tired easily. Although the use of formulations for yang-syndrome are known to be useful for the treatment of hot flush, formulations for yin-syndrome may be effective for the treatment of hot flush depending on the state of the patient.

10.
Kampo Medicine ; : 159-167, 2012.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-362897

ABSTRACT

In ancient China, rulers used hot springs as a place of relaxation. The Emperor Xuan Zong had hot springs installed in a Palace (Hua Qing Palace) with a pond inside. He was used to spend enjoyable times in this area accompanying Yang Guifei. The benefits of hot spring were well known in ancient China and have been described in many books, such as <i>Onsenfu </i>by the Han dynasty scientist Zhang Heng. Of these books, <i>Honzoukoumoku </i>written by Li Shizhen is the most famous, in which hot spring (boiling) water is described as that which gushes out of the surface of the earth with a smell of sulfur.<br>In Japan during the Edo period, Kaibara Ekiken described considerations for bathing in hot springs in a book named <i>Youjoukun</i>. Later, Kampo doctor Goto Konzan recommended bathing in hot springs of higher temperature. His disciple Kagawa Shuutoku referred to ways of hot spring bathing in the book <i>Ippondouyakusen</i>.<br>Since balneotherapy can impart influences on the pathological states of “Ki, Ketsu, Sui", it seems that couse of hot spring and Kampo medicine does give rise to beneficial effects.

11.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-375084

ABSTRACT

Accidental tolls during bathig in Japanese subjects were analyzed in collaboration with Japanese Association for Acute Medicine. We sent out questionnaires to 212 medical emergency centers all over Japan to know the number of ambulance runs, outcomes of the patients, if they performed autopsy or postmortem imaging. Total number of victims was 782. More number of accidents occurred in elderly people and in winter season. Autopsies or postmortem imaging was rarely performed. To know the underlying causes of accidental death relating with bathing, autopsy and/or postmortem imaging should be done on more cases.

12.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689070

ABSTRACT

Accidental tolls during bathig in Japanese subjects were analyzed in collaboration with Japanese Association for Acute Medicine. We sent out questionnaires to 212 medical emergency centers all over Japan to know the number of ambulance runs, outcomes of the patients, if they performed autopsy or postmortem imaging. Total number of victims was 782. More number of accidents occurred in elderly people and in winter season. Autopsies or postmortem imaging was rarely performed. To know the underlying causes of accidental death relating with bathing, autopsy and/or postmortem imaging should be done on more cases.

13.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-375016

ABSTRACT

<b>Purpose</b><br> Electrodermal activity (EDA) is well known to be influenced by sympathetic activity. Although spa bathing alters autonomic nervous function, the effects of spa bathing on EDA have not been determined. We therefore examined the influence of spa bathng on EDA and autonomic nervous function. <br><b>Method</b><br> When a gold electrode in test solution and another electrode on the palm were connected to a voltmeter and the index finger was inserted into the test solution, the maximum change of potential shown on the voltmeter was considered as EDA. Several kinds of spa water, tap water, refined water and alkaline ion water were used as test solutions. Electric conductivity, pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and temperature were also measured. Five adult women participated in these tests.<br>To examine influences on the autonomic nervous system, Fourier analysis of the RR interval of heart rate was perforrned for three volunteers using electrocardiography before and after bathing in sulfur spa or tap water. <br><b>Results</b><br> EDA displayed an extremely positive correlation to ORP, a weak negative correlation to pH and barely any relationship to electric conductivity of test solutions. Spectrum density at 0.04-0.15 Hz under Fourier analysis (LF) increased after sulfur bathing, but decreased after tap water bathing.<br>Discussion and conclusion : As EDA strongly correlated to ORP of solutions, epidermal cells may generate electric potential by extracellular ORP which may also produce intracellular electric potential altering membrane potential and consequently autonomic nervous functions might be influenced by the changed EDA.<br> Since LF is consider to mainly comprise a parasympathetic component in resting state, the results of LF may indicate that the balance of autonomic nervous activity of the heart becomes more parasympathetic dominant after sulfur bathing and more sympathetic dominant after tap water bathing.<br>From above mentioned, bathing may have an electric influence on the human body by the ORP of bathing water.

14.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-372970

ABSTRACT

Purpose<br>Half body bathing is popular among young women as well as elderly people. As a matter of fact, it is reported that half body bathing has a smaller burden than whole-body bathing from the point of physical influence. To clarify the relation between bathing habitude and health maintenance, that is, as an approach to general understanding the physiological effects by repeating bathing stimuli, the physiological changes by continuing half body bathing were studied.<br>Methods<br>Half body bathing was repeated for 4 weeks in healthy female subjects (N=10, age: 30.1±4.8, height: 160.4±6.1cm, weight: 55.6±7.0kg, body mass index: 20.9±1.6kg/m<sup>2</sup>, mean±SD).<br>Bathing was performed for 30 minutes and 3times a week, with a level of epigastrium without immersing arms. Changes of blood flow and energy expenditure were measured during bathing at 0W and 4W.<br>Results and Discussion<br>By continuing bathing, blood flow increased more rapidly and higher during bathing, in addition, resting energy expenditure increased by 200kcal/day with a significant difference.<br>From these findings, it is assumed that repeated half-body bathing enhances the increase of blood flow through repeating thermal stimuli, which leads to elevated basal metabolism.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-372965

ABSTRACT

<b>Background</b>: Spring water exhibits “aging”, characterized by increased oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and diminished therapeutic efficacy. However, the influence of spring water ORP on the body during bathing is unknown. Gout has been treated by spa bathing and by acupuncture, as well as pharmacologically. We accordingly examined the relationship between ORP and uric acid excretion, and that between ORP and ryodoraku current, which is closely related to acupuncture.<br><b>Design</b>: Three groups of three volunteers each bathed in a different solution; sulphur-containing spring water, bicarbonate-containing spring water, or tap water. Serial changes in uric acid excretion and ryodoraku were measured.<br><b>Results</b>: Urinary uric acid: creatinine ratio and ryodoraku current increased after sulphur spring water bathing and diminished after tap water bathing. Urinary ORP was negatively correlated with urinary uric acid: creatinine ratio and urinary pH. Ryodoraku current and urine ORP changed in opposite directions.<br><b>Conclusion</b>: Bathing water ORP affected urinary ORP, urinary uric acid excretion, and ryodoraku current. Urinary ORP was assumed to reflect interstitial fluid ORP, suggesting that uric acid excretion and ryodoraku current were affected by interstitial fluid ORP. These findings appeared to indicate that ORP influenced cell membrane potential because voltage-dependent transporters or channels exist in the kidney and epidermis. Moreover, as urinary ORP was negatively correlated with urinary pH, ORP seemed to electrically buffer pH. As these findings can be explained by the Nernst equation by which ORP is derived, ORP of spring water might electrically influence the organism during bathing.

16.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-372920

ABSTRACT

In post-genome era, the greatest challenge of post-genome research is how we can apply genomic outcome to practical field like clinical medicine through discovering effective findings from its complex and meta-molecular network. From the viewpoint of reducing health care cost, preventive medicine that can avoid diseases should be essential target. Balneology that contains preventive medicine in part through unspecified bio-modulation effect should be a principal field of genome science based application. Balneology has expectations to be applied to practical clinical field or health promotion through translational research to modern medicine or health science. This translational research needs establishment of bridging knowledge and its bi-directional migration as the essence of translation. Integration of in silico knowledge among balneology, modern medicine, and genomic science is the fundamental basis of this translation. Single knowledge architecture that has anatomically hierarchical structure, logical conceptual unit and its supportive evidences makes integration logically seamless and establishes smooth translation. This paper reports knowledge architecture in balneologic translational research and its prototype.

17.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-372907

ABSTRACT

Purpose It has been reported that the excretion of urinary uric acid is increased by the ingestion of bicarbonated salt spring water or bathing in radioactive spring water. Furthermore, uric acid is considered to play an important role in diminishing oxidative stresses. We therefore investigated the influence of bathing water on the excretion of uric acid from the aspect of urinary oxidation-reduction potential (ORP).<br>Methods 1. Nine volunteers (three males and six females) aged 22 to 26 were divided into three bathing groups: in sulphur spring water, in bicarbonated salt spring water, and in tap water. Urine specimens were taken six times from 0600 to 1600 while repeating bathing and taking meals alternatively at intervals of 2 hours. ORP, pH, and the concentrations of uric acid and creatinine in urine specimens were measured.<br>2. ORP, pH, and the concentrations of uric acid and creatinine were measured in the urine specimens taken from the seven subjects in the bicarbonated salt spring and sulphur spring bathing groups early in the morning everyday during the stay at the spa. In addition, serum uric acid levels were measured at the beginning and the end of the stay.<br>Results 1. The average ORP was 527mV in tap water, 407mV in bicarbonated salt spring, and 145mV in sulphur spring bathing. The urinary ORP increased obviously after bathing in tap water and decreased after bathing in sulfur spring water. The average urinary ORP was 257mV after bathing in tap water, 220mV after bathing in bicarbonated salt spring water, and 216mV after bathing in sulfur spring water. Urinary uric acid/creatinine ratio showed a significant and negative correlation with urinary ORP in all three kinds of water. Urinary pH after bathing varied randomly. Urinary uric acid/creatinine ratio exhibited a significant positive correlation with the urinary pH in all three kinds of water.<br>2. While serum uric acid elevated after a short stay at the spa of less than 10 days, it decreased after a long stay of more than 2 weeks.<br>Discussion and Conclusions Urinary ORP immediately reflected the ORP of bathing water. The urinary uric acid/creatinine ratio possessed a negative correlation with urinary ORP. Because the ORP of spring water is commonly lower than that of tap water, bathing in spring water may increase the excretion of uric acid and as a result, may lower the serum uric acid levels after the long stay at the spa. The urinary uric acid/creatinine ratio exhibited a significant positive correlation with urinary pH. The results suggest that if the urinary pH gradually becomes alkaline after a long period of ingestion of alkaline spring water, the excretion of uric acid will be promoted, resulting in a lowered serum uric acid.

18.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-372905

ABSTRACT

We investigated the effects of hot spring water drinking in Kawayu on blood glucose levels and insulin secretions. Kawayu hot spring water is characterized “acid alum vitriol hydrogensulfide” with a pH of 1.98. First, a glucose tolerance test (GTT) was performed on eight non-diabetic people and nine diabetic patients after drinking of tap water or Kawayu hot spring water at a one-week interval. Plasma glucose levels after pre-drinking spring water showed significantly (p=0.05) decreasing compared with those after pre-drinking tap water. Serum immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels after predrinking hot spring water were tend to be higher at the early phase of GTT than those after pre-drinking tap water. And, we confirmed the correlation between the total decreasing of blood glucose levels and the reactions of insulin secretion at early phase of GTT after spring water drinking. Second, GTT was performed on seven diabetic patients before and after four-week drinking of Kawayu hot spring water. The results showed that hemoglobin A1c levels and total cholesterol levels ware decreased significantly (p<0.05). Total blood glucose levels of tested GTT were, however, almost similar before and after drinking treatment. These findings suggest that drinking of Kawayu hot spring water is beneficial for diabetic patients.

19.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-372900

ABSTRACT

It is believed that one of the principal effects of negative air ion is refreshing human psychological condition. Negative air ion can be observed in natural environments such as forest, fountain, and hot spring. In order to elucidate scientific reason of psychological effects by negative air ions, quantifying psychological effects will be important.<br>Healthy sixteen examinees (8 young candidates around 20 years, 8 old candidates around 60 years) are tested by SRS-18, blood pressure, questionnaire, and electroencephalogram. SRS-18, blood pressure, questionnaire was performed before and after experiment. Electroencephalogram was continuously measured during whole experiment and used for emotional spectrum analysis method (ESAM) calculation. Experiment was divided into three conditions (initial normal condition, negative air ion boosted condition at middle concentration, after ventilated condition) and three phases (accommodation, rest, calculation) at each condition.<br>At young group, excessive negative air ions increased human psychological concentration which is calculated by ESAM. At calculation phase, psychological concentration has a positive correlation with psychological stress (correlation factor 0.505). Otherwise at old aged group, no significant change was observed. It shows that sensitivity of negative air ions at old persons will be reduced. It also suggests that human sensitivity for negative air ion decreases with aging.<br>At rest phase of young group in negative air ion boosted condition, elementary emotions are balanced at ESAM. This shows that balancing among four elementary emotions is related with psychological effects of negative air ions.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-372899

ABSTRACT

Drinking of hot spring water containing sulfur or sodium bicarbonate is reported to be beneficial for diabetic patients. In the present study, sulfur spring water and water from simple thermals were chosen to examine their effects on glucose metabolism. Eleven volunteers including eight type 2 diabetic patients and three healthy subjects drank hot spring water from Kawayu Onsen (K-O, acid alum vitriol hydrogen-sulfide springs, pH1.98), and another six patients from Asukano-yu (A-Y, alkaline simple thermals, pH8.9). Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed after drinking tap water (200<i>ml</i>) or K-O spring water (5 times diluted) at a week interval (short term effect). Increments in plasma glucose levels were significantly lower (p<0.05) with predrinking of spring water than those with pre-drinking of tap water. To know the long term effect of drinking, patients drank K-O water twice daily for 4 weeks or A-Y water twice daily for a week. Hemoglobin A<sub>1C</sub> levels decreased significantly (p<0.05) by drinking K-O water and the levels of 1.5-Anhydro-D-glucitol increased by A-Y water (NS). From these findings, it is suggested that drinking hot spring water from K-O and A-Y is beneficial for diabetic patients if they have no contraindications for drinking these kinds of spring water.

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