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1.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873958

ABSTRACT

  In the health resorts of Germany, the empirical effects of the unique natural capital and environment on humans are verified by scientific methods such as medicine, meteorology, and chemistry, and then approved as therapeutic drugs. Natural capital is provided in various forms for the maintenance of health, treatment of diseases, and recovery from fatigue and stress. Natural capital include hot springs, natural gases, and peloid (from the soil), as well as climate and oceans. The categorization of health resorts is defined by the type and quality of natural capital available. Due to their unique characteristics, a system that allows users to select the health resorts that suit their specific needs has been established, enabling them to utilize natural capital effectively for health promotion.  Considering the current state of Japan, country with an abundance of natural capital that is considered underutilized, we visited Bad Homburg and six health resorts located in Germany’s Black Forest located in the southwestern part of the country to learn about the current state of their health resorts.  All the health resorts we visited were excellent centers certified by the German Spas Association and German Tourism Association. Bad Wildbad and Keidel Mineral-Thermalbad, both thermal health resorts, maintain the provision structure for medical treatment and tourism. Against a background of growing interest in the environment, they utilize the land and natural capital to their advantage by incorporating the elements of trendiness, fun, and excitement to revitalize the local and the health resorts’ communities.  Due to the differences in the structure, environment, and systems between the hot springs in Japan and those in Germany, it would not be easy to apply the current state of the German health resorts to similar resorts in Japan. However, Japan is rich in natural environments such as forests and hot springs and is blessed with a quantity and diversity comparable to that of Germany’s Black Forest. Therefore, we believe that there is potential for further utilization of Japan’s natural capital for health promotion. The efforts of the German health resorts could direct and inspire us.

2.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826197

ABSTRACT

  In the health resorts of Germany, the empirical effects of the unique natural capital and environment on humans are verified by scientific methods such as medicine, meteorology, and chemistry, and then approved as therapeutic drugs. Natural capital is provided in various forms for the maintenance of health, treatment of diseases, and recovery from fatigue and stress. Natural capital include hot springs, natural gases, and peloid (from the soil), as well as climate and oceans. The categorization of health resorts is defined by the type and quality of natural capital available. Due to their unique characteristics, a system that allows users to select the health resorts that suit their specific needs has been established, enabling them to utilize natural capital effectively for health promotion.  Considering the current state of Japan, country with an abundance of natural capital that is considered underutilized, we visited Bad Homburg and six health resorts located in Germany’s Black Forest located in the southwestern part of the country to learn about the current state of their health resorts.  All the health resorts we visited were excellent centers certified by the German Spas Association and German Tourism Association. Bad Wildbad and Keidel Mineral-Thermalbad, both thermal health resorts, maintain the provision structure for medical treatment and tourism. Against a background of growing interest in the environment, they utilize the land and natural capital to their advantage by incorporating the elements of trendiness, fun, and excitement to revitalize the local and the health resorts’ communities.  Due to the differences in the structure, environment, and systems between the hot springs in Japan and those in Germany, it would not be easy to apply the current state of the German health resorts to similar resorts in Japan. However, Japan is rich in natural environments such as forests and hot springs and is blessed with a quantity and diversity comparable to that of Germany’s Black Forest. Therefore, we believe that there is potential for further utilization of Japan’s natural capital for health promotion. The efforts of the German health resorts could direct and inspire us.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-375494

ABSTRACT

<b>Introduction: </b>TVS mud index<sup>1)</sup> is a tensiometric marker for quality and maturation process control of Italian Euganean Thermal Muds (ETM) which sensitivity defined on objective basis their quality and maturation degree. <BR><b>Objectives: </b>The goal was to assess the maturation process of Biofango by TVS mud index (Sanraku-en spas centre, Japan and Osservatorio Termale Permanente-OTP, Italy), and its organic compounds by TOC analyses (University of Padova, Italy).<BR><b>Materials and Methods:</b> Biofango was prepared using KomatsuClay, MotoyamaClay, WakuraDiatomite and KasaokaBentonite giving K02 (Bentonite 1.25, Kaolinite 1.5, Diatomite 0.25) and A01 (KasaokaBentonite 1.25, Kaolinite 0.5, Diatomite 0.25). Final Biofango BFM+0%Dolomite, MAT1+10%Dolomite, MAT2+18%Dolomite, and MAT3+35%Dolomite were analyzed by TOC (Perkin-Elmer-2400) and DSA10-Krüss employing (a) PFPE, Fomblin HC/OH-1000, diiodomethane, glycerine as liquid tests and (b) Owens-Wendt mathematical model for conversion of contact angles in surface energy parameters<sup>2)</sup>.<BR><b>Results:</b> The behaviour of C(%) in MAT1, MAT2, and MAT3 during maturation process (20°C) showed respectively (a) MAT1t0h=1.26%, MAT1t216h=0.91%, MAT1t360=1.08%, MAT1t576h=1.23%, MAT1t720h=0.98%, (b) MAT2t0h=2.36%, MAT2t216h=1.80%, MAT2t360=1.49%, MAT2t576h=1.86%, MAT2t720h=1.68%, (c) MAT3t0h=3.29%, MAT3t216h=2.71%, MAT3t360=2.57%, MAT3t576h=2.6%, MAT3t720h=2.7%. C% decrease demonstrating the influence of Dolomite in Biofango mixtures. Dispersed energy components (DC) of MAT1, MAT2, and MAT3 showed respectively (a) MAT1t0h=3.0mN/m, MAT1t216h=3.1mN/m, MAT1t360=2.9mN/m, MAT1t576h=3.8mN/m, MAT1t720h=2.5mN/m, (b) MAT2t0h=2.1mN/m, MAT2t216h=2.2mN/m, MAT2t360=3.1mN/m, MAT2t576h=3.7mN/m, MAT2t720h=2.6mN/m, (c)MAT3t0h=2.0mN/m, MAT3t216h=2.6mN/m, MAT3t360=2.6mN/m, MAT3t576h=2.9mN/m, MAT2t720h=3.0mN/m. On the other side TVS mud index showed respectively (a) MAT1t0h=68.7mN/m, MAT1t216h=70.26mN/m, MAT1t360=71.78mN/m, MAT1t576h=64.69mN/m, MAT1t720h=71.84mN/m, (b) MAT2t0h=74.06mN/m, MAT2t216h=71.69mN/m, MAT2t360= 70.36mN/m, MAT2t576h=65.83mN/m, MAT2t720h=71.23mN/m, (c) MAT3t0h=75.9mN/m, MAT3t216h=73.05mN/m, MAT3t360=73.34mN/m, MAT3t576h=68.52mN/m, MAT3t720h=68.66mN/m proportionally inverse with DC behaviour. MAT3 with highest content in Dolomite demonstrated great capability to uptake DC during maturation process with consequently decrease of TVS mud index levels accordingly with TOC result.<BR><b>Conclusions: </b>Tensiometric investigations of Biofango underlined the links between chemical and surface energy data. The high sensitivity of TVS mud index consented to follow directly in a non invasive way the structural-surface changes in Biofango mixtures occurred during maturation process opening at new perspective for their control.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689241

ABSTRACT

Introduction: TVS mud index1) is a tensiometric marker for quality and maturation process control of Italian Euganean Thermal Muds (ETM) which sensitivity defined on objective basis their quality and maturation degree. Objectives: The goal was to assess the maturation process of Biofango by TVS mud index (Sanraku-en spas centre, Japan and Osservatorio Termale Permanente-OTP, Italy), and its organic compounds by TOC analyses (University of Padova, Italy). Materials and Methods: Biofango was prepared using KomatsuClay, MotoyamaClay, WakuraDiatomite and KasaokaBentonite giving K02 (Bentonite 1.25, Kaolinite 1.5, Diatomite 0.25) and A01 (KasaokaBentonite 1.25, Kaolinite 0.5, Diatomite 0.25). Final Biofango BFM+0%Dolomite, MAT1+10%Dolomite, MAT2+18%Dolomite, and MAT3+35%Dolomite were analyzed by TOC (Perkin-Elmer-2400) and DSA10-Krüss employing (a) PFPE, Fomblin HC/OH-1000, diiodomethane, glycerine as liquid tests and (b) Owens-Wendt mathematical model for conversion of contact angles in surface energy parameters2). Results: The behaviour of C(%) in MAT1, MAT2, and MAT3 during maturation process (20°C) showed respectively (a) MAT1t0h=1.26%, MAT1t216h=0.91%, MAT1t360=1.08%, MAT1t576h=1.23%, MAT1t720h=0.98%, (b) MAT2t0h=2.36%, MAT2t216h=1.80%, MAT2t360=1.49%, MAT2t576h=1.86%, MAT2t720h=1.68%, (c) MAT3t0h=3.29%, MAT3t216h=2.71%, MAT3t360=2.57%, MAT3t576h=2.6%, MAT3t720h=2.7%. C% decrease demonstrating the influence of Dolomite in Biofango mixtures. Dispersed energy components (DC) of MAT1, MAT2, and MAT3 showed respectively (a) MAT1t0h=3.0mN/m, MAT1t216h=3.1mN/m, MAT1t360=2.9mN/m, MAT1t576h=3.8mN/m, MAT1t720h=2.5mN/m, (b) MAT2t0h=2.1mN/m, MAT2t216h=2.2mN/m, MAT2t360=3.1mN/m, MAT2t576h=3.7mN/m, MAT2t720h=2.6mN/m, (c)MAT3t0h=2.0mN/m, MAT3t216h=2.6mN/m, MAT3t360=2.6mN/m, MAT3t576h=2.9mN/m, MAT2t720h=3.0mN/m. On the other side TVS mud index showed respectively (a) MAT1t0h=68.7mN/m, MAT1t216h=70.26mN/m, MAT1t360=71.78mN/m, MAT1t576h=64.69mN/m, MAT1t720h=71.84mN/m, (b) MAT2t0h=74.06mN/m, MAT2t216h=71.69mN/m, MAT2t360= 70.36mN/m, MAT2t576h=65.83mN/m, MAT2t720h=71.23mN/m, (c) MAT3t0h=75.9mN/m, MAT3t216h=73.05mN/m, MAT3t360=73.34mN/m, MAT3t576h=68.52mN/m, MAT3t720h=68.66mN/m proportionally inverse with DC behaviour. MAT3 with highest content in Dolomite demonstrated great capability to uptake DC during maturation process with consequently decrease of TVS mud index levels accordingly with TOC result. Conclusions: Tensiometric investigations of Biofango underlined the links between chemical and surface energy data. The high sensitivity of TVS mud index consented to follow directly in a non invasive way the structural-surface changes in Biofango mixtures occurred during maturation process opening at new perspective for their control.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-372937

ABSTRACT

The objective of this paper is to define the basis for the translational research and its knowledge framework in balneology aiming to approach the disease prevention. As a method to attain this objective, we advocate the knowledge framework that can bridge gene ontology (GO), balneologic ontology (BO), and clinical ontology (CO) virtually at a client site with three sided basic concepts as (1) the logically extended anatomical index from micro to macro, (2) the knowledge representation based on feature described logical conceptual unit, and (3) the EBM (Evidence Based Medicine) based quality evaluation of knowledge. As an result, the scheme and the prototype of the knowledge framework for the basic balneology was built. The logically extended anatomically hierarchical index could offer the seamless and logical continuity from genome to human/environment. The EBM based quality assessment enhanced the reliability of knowledge, and the knowledge representation based on the logical conceptual unit approach offered the unification of the different grain size knowledge.

6.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-372920

ABSTRACT

In post-genome era, the greatest challenge of post-genome research is how we can apply genomic outcome to practical field like clinical medicine through discovering effective findings from its complex and meta-molecular network. From the viewpoint of reducing health care cost, preventive medicine that can avoid diseases should be essential target. Balneology that contains preventive medicine in part through unspecified bio-modulation effect should be a principal field of genome science based application. Balneology has expectations to be applied to practical clinical field or health promotion through translational research to modern medicine or health science. This translational research needs establishment of bridging knowledge and its bi-directional migration as the essence of translation. Integration of in silico knowledge among balneology, modern medicine, and genomic science is the fundamental basis of this translation. Single knowledge architecture that has anatomically hierarchical structure, logical conceptual unit and its supportive evidences makes integration logically seamless and establishes smooth translation. This paper reports knowledge architecture in balneologic translational research and its prototype.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-372902

ABSTRACT

<b>Background</b>: Osteoarthritis (OA) is an important rheumatic condition accompanied by synovial inflammation. Numerous leucocytes are recruited and their migration to the inflamed arthritic joints is mediated by adhesion molecules such as E-, P-, and L-selectins. We measured the serum selectin values in OA patients undergoing Mud Pack Treatment (MPT) or treated with anti-inflammatory drugs to test whether the effect of the treatments may be monitored by the level of serum selectins.<br><b>Materials and Methods</b>: 50 OA patients were randomly divided into Group A (30 patients undergoing MPT) and Group B (20 patients receving 50mg diclofenac twice daily p. o.). Blood samples were collected from both groups before and after the treatments to test serum E-, P-, and L-selectin by ELISA methods.<br><b>Results</b>: In Group B sE-selectin level showed a significant increment after the drug assumption. In Group A, a significant increment of sL-selectin after MPT was evident, while sP-selectin level did not present any significant variation.<br><b>Discussion</b>: The study indicates that MPT and diclofenac are able to influence different adhesion molecules in OA patients. The combination of these two treatments may constitute a safe and effective anti-inflammatory therapy in rheumatic diseases.

8.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-372900

ABSTRACT

It is believed that one of the principal effects of negative air ion is refreshing human psychological condition. Negative air ion can be observed in natural environments such as forest, fountain, and hot spring. In order to elucidate scientific reason of psychological effects by negative air ions, quantifying psychological effects will be important.<br>Healthy sixteen examinees (8 young candidates around 20 years, 8 old candidates around 60 years) are tested by SRS-18, blood pressure, questionnaire, and electroencephalogram. SRS-18, blood pressure, questionnaire was performed before and after experiment. Electroencephalogram was continuously measured during whole experiment and used for emotional spectrum analysis method (ESAM) calculation. Experiment was divided into three conditions (initial normal condition, negative air ion boosted condition at middle concentration, after ventilated condition) and three phases (accommodation, rest, calculation) at each condition.<br>At young group, excessive negative air ions increased human psychological concentration which is calculated by ESAM. At calculation phase, psychological concentration has a positive correlation with psychological stress (correlation factor 0.505). Otherwise at old aged group, no significant change was observed. It shows that sensitivity of negative air ions at old persons will be reduced. It also suggests that human sensitivity for negative air ion decreases with aging.<br>At rest phase of young group in negative air ion boosted condition, elementary emotions are balanced at ESAM. This shows that balancing among four elementary emotions is related with psychological effects of negative air ions.

9.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-372860

ABSTRACT

We plotted the distribution of long-lived persons derived from the national register of long-lived persons as of fiscal years of 1980 (N=1, 349) and 2000 (N=17, 740) prepared by the Ministry of Health and Welfare to investigate various factors such as medical climatology and geography on healthy aging. The data were plotted on a map of Japan classified into various living environments, such as coastal areas, forests, and mountainous areas. In addition, we investigated universal elements and transforming elements through year-by-year comparisons over a period of 20 years. Japan was divided into nine climatic districts Hokkaido, the Japan Sea area, the Pacific Ocean area, the Sanriku district, the Tokai district, the inland district, the Seto Inland Sea district, the Northern Kyushu district, the Nankai district, and the South-western Islands.<br>Consequently, we found a common trend that relatively warm climates and climates in coastal areas are favorable for longevity. However, the following trends were also recognized as transforming elements that cannot be ignored: 1. A remarkable improvements in the rate (number of long-lived people per 100, 000 population) in cold climate regions, i.e., the Japan sea area, inland area, and Hokkaido; 2. A remarkable shift of higher rates from coastal areas, which are contaminated by industrial plants, to inland flat areas.<br>As a result, it has become clear that research on factors of healthy aging, especially in cold climate regions, have to be made in the future.

10.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-372775

ABSTRACT

In order to investigate the effects of the concentration of chemical components of sea water on thermoregulatory functions, rectal, skin and mean body temperatures were measured continuously before, during total body bathing as well as during recovery period on land.<br>Eight healthy young men were subjected in the experiment. Their physical characteristics were in average 19.8±1.0yrs in age, 169.2±5.0cm in height, 57.1±3.1kg in weight and 14.0±2.6% in body fat fraction, respectively. Each subject bathed in sea water or in tap water for 15 minutes in the long-sitting position at 38.5°C of water temperature during bathing and took recovery on land for 60 minutes. Water bathing was conducted in individual subject with the concentration of chemical components of sea water at 0, 1, 3.5 and 7%, respectively.<br>The rectal temperature increased during bathing and decreased gradually during recovery period on land. Statistically significant difference (p<.05) between 0 and 7% of the concentration of sea water was detected in the rectal temperature during bathing and recovery period. The mean skin temperature showed a continuous increase during bathing and showed a rapid decrease during 20 minutes in recovery, and a gradual decrease after then. Statistically significant difference (p<.05) between 0 and 7% of the concentration of sea water was detected in the mean skin temperatures during recovery period. The mean body temperature also showed a continuous increase during bathing and rapid decrease during the first 20 minutes in the recovery period, and decreased gradually thereafter. Statistically significant difference (p<.01) between 0 and 7% of the concentration of sea water was detected in the mean body temperature during bathing and recovery period.

11.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-372742

ABSTRACT

Stellate ganglion radiation by polarized light (SGR) and placebo radiation were applied to healthy adults to compare the effects on the autonomic nervous system and electroencephalogram (EEG) of these radiations and the following results were obtained:<br>(1) The pulse rate tended to decrease during and after both SGR and placebo radiation. In contrast, the systolic blood pressure tended to increase during and after both radiations. No significant difference between radiations was found in either the pulse rate or systolic blood pressure. The coefficient of variation of the pulse rate (CV-PR), which reflects conditon of the cardiovascular parasympathetic nervous function, tended to increase during and after SGR and tended to decrease during placebo radiation. The value of CV-PR was significantly higher after SGR than after placebo radiation.<br>(2) The surface skin temperature of the lower extremities after SGR was slightly higher than that after placebo radiation, but the temperature of the upper extremities did not show any difference between SGR and placebo radiation.<br>(3) The relative power of alpha-2 wave as determined by quantitative EEG tended to be greater during and after SGR than during and after placebo radiation. The value 10min after SGR was significantly higher than after placebo radiation.<br>These results suggested that SGR activated the cardiovascular parasympathetic nervous function and relatively suppressed the cardiovascular sympathetic nervous function. We concluded that SGR influences not only the cardiovascular autonomic nervous system and surface skin temperature of the lower extremities, but also a wide range of EEG.

12.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-372731

ABSTRACT

In this study, 10 healthy students were subjected to experiments. They bathed in plain hot spring water and hot spring water with 2% Togol mud at 39°C for 10min at an interval of 1 week. No difference in the change rates of pulse rate and blood pressure was observed between the two types of bathing. Forehead and oral temperatures decreased slightly after bathing in plain hot spring water. However, after bathing in hot spring water with Togol mud, the forehead temperature tended to be higher than that before bathing while the oral temperature increased significantly after bathing. Skin surface temperatures on the chest wall, left instep, and right forearm increased significantly after both types of bathing. Changes in the skin temperature after bathing in hot spring water with Togol mud tended to be greater than those after bathing in plain hot spring water. Eight out of 10 students felt warmer after bathing in hot spring water with Togol mud. These findings suggest that bathing in hot spring water with Togol mud is useful for medical care.

13.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-372703

ABSTRACT

Two experiments were performed to clarify the effects of balneotherapy on platelet glutathione metabolism. One experiment, in which healthy men were subjected to water immersion at temperatures of 25°C, 36°C, and 42°C for 10min, showed that the level of platelet lipid peroxides (LPO) tended to increase at 25°C and 42°C, suggesting the presence of oxidative stress at these temperatures. When an antioxidative defense system was induced at these temperatures, the levels of platelet glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities increased. The other experiment, in which 4 weeks of balneotherapy was applied to type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients, showed that the level of GSH on admission correlated well with that of fasting plasma glucose (FPG, r=0.692, p<0.050). After 4 weeks of balneotherpy, the level of GSH increased (p<0.01) in well-controlled patients (FPG<150mg/dl) and decreased (p<0.05) in poorly controlled patients (FPG≥150mg/dl), There was a negative correlation between GPX activities and the level of FPG (r=-0.430, p<0.05). After the balneotherapy, the activity increased in five patients, decreased in three patients, and showed no changes in four patients.<br>These results indicate that, in diabetic patients, 1) platelet GSH synthesis is obviously induced in response to oxidative stress, 2) lowered GPX activities suggest an impaired antioxidative defense system, and 3) platelet glutathione metabolism was partly improved by 4 weeks of balneotherapy but depended on the control status of plasma glucose levels. From these findings, we conclude that 1) patients whose platelet antioxidative defense system is damaged such as those with diabetes mellitus should not take hot or cold bath, and that 2) balneotherapy improves platelet glutathione metabolism, leading to normalization of platelet aggregability.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-372682

ABSTRACT

The effects of physical exercise on psychologic variables during mental stress were evaluated. On each of two different days (for intraindividual control) 20 healthy dental students carried out four (modified) d2-tests (3.5min available for each test). After two such tests there was a rest period of 5 minutes. During this intermission either a standardized physical exercise was performed or -the other day- (cross over, balanced) the volunteers rested in a sitting position while listening to relaxing music. After the rest period another two d2-tests were carried out. Thereafter a questionnaire (“adjective list”, in German) defining 15 subscales (categories of the state of well-being) was completed by all volunteers to quantify parameters of their actual mood. For intraindividual control the results of the subscales obtained on both days were compared by the paired student-t-test. In the test with physical exercise during the break the scores of the subscale <i>being activated</i> were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in the test with music. The other subscales showed no significant difference. In all tests the scores of the d2-tests reflecting the capability to concentrate showed an increase after the break, which was significantly higher, if physical exercise was performed during the break. Physical exercise can alleviate certain symptoms of mental stress. Feeling more active is the predominant subjective effect.

15.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-372666

ABSTRACT

Clinical effect of a new TENS apparatus SOMA DYNE and its influence on blood constituents were studied.<br>1. Treatment was performed for four consecutive days, 10min a day, in the patients with chronic pain in their various parts of the bodies. After the treatment, the range of movement (ROM) was improved in fifty out of fifty-two patients (96%).<br>2. Effect of electrotherapy on blood constituent was examined in six male normal controls after treatment for two consecutive days, 10min a day.<br>1) Red blood cell counts, levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit decreased. Whole white blood cell (WBC) counts decreased; however, no changes were observed in analysis of WBC.<br>2) Levels of serum sodium and calcium decreased, whereas those of potassium increased.<br>3) Levels of plasma adrenaline and endorphin decreased.<br>These changes suggest that<br>1. SOMA DYNE is very effective for the patient with chronic somatic pain.<br>2. Electrotherapy may affect the cell ion channels.<br>3. Sympathetic nerve activity decreases by the treatment.

16.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-372663

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of water temperatures on respiratory regulation during head-out water immersion (HWI). A total of eight healthy young male and female subjects were immersed in water at temperatures of 25, 30, 36, 38, 40, and 42°C for 10 minutes, and breathing frequency, tidal volume, ventilation, oxygen consumption, heart rate, and sublingual temperatures were measured over a period of 40 minutes before, during, and after HWI at each water temperature. Both oxygen consumption and ventilation increased during HWI at any temperature. It was hypothesized that the increase in oxygen consumption at 25°C was due to the increase in tidal volume and that at 40 and 42°C was due to the increase in ventilation caused by the increase in breathing frequency. These results suggest that the respiratory regulation during HWI is closely related to the body temperature regulation in response to water temperatures.

17.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-371670

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to examine the effect of exercise training on heat-shock response, the protective response to heat, oxidative stress and other stresses characterized by elevated synthesis of heat-shock proteins (HSP), in strenuous exercise. Five untrained men (aged 20-21 ) participated in the study. The protocol included strenuous exercise to exhaustion by bicycle ergometer (1 st Ex), 4 weeks of training (a 2 km run three days per week) and a repetition of the strenuous exercise (2 nd Ex) . We measured VO<SUB>2</SUB> and VCO<SUB>2</SUB> with a respiratorygas analyzer, 70 kDa heat-shock protein (HSP 70) of mononuclear cells by western blotting, and rectal and mean skin temperatures by thermistors during the strenuous exercise. After 4 weeks of training, VO<SUB>2</SUB>max was increased significantly (p<0.05) . HSP 70 increased immediately after the exercise in 3 of 5 subjects in the 1 st Ex, but not in the 2 nd Ex. Rectal temperatures rose significantly after both the 1 st and 2 nd Ex (p<0.05) . Mean skin temperatures fell significantly after both the 1 st and 2 nd Ex (p<0.05) . There was no correlation between rectal and mean skin temperatures and HSP 70. We observed the heat-shock response during strenuous exercise and the attenuation of this response after 4 weeks of exercise training. These results suggest that exercise training may have suppressive effects on the heat-shock response during strenuous exercise.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-371659

ABSTRACT

The erythrocyte antioxidative defense system was investigated before and after a 12km run. The effect of exercise with a bicycle ergometer on this system was also examined one and seven days after the. 12km run. Five untrained healthy men, aged 18-21 years, participated in the present study. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity increased after running and reached a maximum on the next day (p<0.005) . Levels of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) decreased by 24.6% after running (p<0.005), but by 7 days later the values recovered. Levels of lipid peroxides (LPO, expressed as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) fell slightly after running (13.4%, not significant), then showed a significant decrease on the next day (34.7%, p<0.005) and recovered by the seventh day. Neither glutathione peroxidase (GPX) nor glutathione reductase (GR) activities (with or without FAD) showed significant changes after the 12km run. Activities of catalase (CAT) were lowest after the exercise with a bicycle ergometer on the following day (p<0.05 vs. initial levels) . Levels of GSH, GPX, GR and LPO did not change after this exercise. The decreased level of GSH after the 12km run indicates the presence of oxidative stress, while moderate exercise with a bicycle ergometer does not affect the erythrocyte glutathione metabolism in untrained men. It is also suggested that catalase activity decreases after the repeated exercise.

19.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-372644

ABSTRACT

A study was made on 15 healthy subjects to evaluate the efficacy of water immersion with commonly used raw materials on skin elasticity, viscoelasticity and hydration of stratum corneum.<br>Samples used in this study included 30, 60, 90g of sodium hydrogen carbonate and 60g of bath preparation containing 90% in weight of sodium hydrogen carbonate (Cool Bathcrin<sup>®</sup>). These samples were dissolved into 200<i>l</i> of plain water kept at a temperature of 41°C. The duration of each bathing was 5min.<br>Skin elasticity (skin distensibility), skin viscoelasticity and hydration of stratum corneum improved in all types of water immersion including plain water immersion. The skin distensibility, viscoelasticity and hydration state showed a statistically significant increase after water immersion with sodium hydrogen carbonate as compared with those before water immersion. In the plain water immersion group, no significant differences were observed between the values before and after water immersion with the exception of skin hydration. However, a significantly higher rate of increase in skin hydration was observed in the groups of water immersion with sodium hydrogen carbonate as compared with the plain water immersion.<br>The above results show that alkaline salt, especially sodium hydrogen carbonate, improves skin distensibility, viscoelasticity, and hydration state. Furthermore, we recommend sodium hydrogen carbonate as one of the most useful components of bath preparation because it provides the suppleness, freshness, and smoothness of stratum corneum.

20.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-372541

ABSTRACT

Psychological tests were undertaken on the eight wintering members of the 28th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (mean age 35±SD 4years old) with about 4 month intervals through the expedition.<br>The first test was done on the ship to Antarctica on November 24, 1986 (Test-1), and the second (Test-2), the third (Test-3) and the fourth test (Test-4) were done at the Japanese Antarctic Asuka Base on March 28, 1987, July 17, 1987 and October 11, 1987, respectively. The last fifth test (Test-5) was performed on the ship to Japan on February 29, 1988.<br>For psychological tests, MAS (manifest anxiety scale), CMI (Cornell Medical Index) and SRQ-D (Self-rating Questionaire for Depression) were used.<br>The mean scores of MAS-A, CMI-T (S, I, J+M-R) showed a tendency to become high in Test-2 and Test-3 and become low after Test-4. The mean scores of SRQ-D exhibited a tendency to become high in Test-3 and the high score continued after Test-4.<br>The psychological stress seems to have reached a peak point at Test-3, in July, 1987, when was the last session of winter with no sunshine at Antarctic Base.<br>Some management for mental health might be needed in this season for the wintering members of the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition.

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