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1.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 143-151, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005263

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo study the effect and mechanism of Yixintai on mitochondrial fission proteins in the rat model of chronic heart failure. MethodTen of 60 SD rats were randomly selected as the sham operation group, and the remaining 50 rats were subjected to ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery for the modeling of heart failure post myocardial infarction. The successfully modeled rats were randomized into model, low-, medium-, and high-dose (1.4, 2.8, and 5.6 g·kg-1, respectively) Yixintai, and trimetazidine (10 mg·kg-1) groups. The rats were administrated with corresponding doses of drugs by gavage, and the rats in the model group and sham operation group were given an equal volume of normal saline by gavage for 28 consecutive days. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was then employed to measure the levels of amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the serum. Color Doppler ultrasound imaging was conducted to examine the cardiac function indicators. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson staining were conducted to observe the pathological changes in the heart, and Image J was used to calculate collagen volume fraction (CVF). Transmission electron microscopy was employed to observe the ultrastructural changes of myocardial cells. Terminal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) was employed to measure the apoptosis rate of myocardial cells. Western blot was employed to determine the protein levels of mitochondrial fission protein 1 (Fis1) and mitochondrial fission factor (Mff) in the outer mitochondrial membrane of the myocardial tissue. ResultCompared with the sham operation group, the model group showed elevated levels of NT-pro BNP and BNP in the serum, decreased ATP content, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and left ventricular fraction shortening (LVFS), increased left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVIDd) and left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVIDs), disarrangement of myocardial cells, inflammatory cell infiltration, increased collagen fibers and CVF, damaged myocardium and mitochondria, and increased apoptosis rate of myocardial cells, and up-regulated expression of Fis1 and Mff in the cardiac tissue (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, different doses of Yixintai and trimetazidine lowered the serum levels of NT-pro BNP and BNP (P<0.05), increased the ATP content (P<0.05), increased LVEF and LVFS (P<0.01), decreased LVIDd and LVIDs (P<0.01). Moreover, the drugs alleviated the myocardial inflammatory damage and fibrosis, reduced CVF (P<0.01), repaired the myocardial mitochondrial structure, and decreased the apoptosis rate of myocardial cells (P<0.01). Medium- and high-dose Yixintai and trimetazidine down-regulated the expression of Fis1 and Mff in the myocardial tissue (P<0.05). ConclusionYixintai can improve mitochondrial structure, reduce myocardial cell apoptosis, and improve cardiac function by inhibiting the expression of Fis1 and Mff in the myocardial tissue.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 382-394, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016643

ABSTRACT

Based on the strategy of metabolomics combined with bioinformatics, this study analyzed the potential allergens and mechanism of pseudo-allergic reactions (PARs) induced by the combined use of Reduning injection and penicillin G injection. All animal experiments and welfare are in accordance with the requirements of the First Affiliated Experimental Animal Ethics and Animal Welfare Committee of Henan University of Chinese Medicine (approval number: YFYDW2020002). Based on UPLC-Q-TOF/MS technology combined with UNIFI software, a total of 21 compounds were identified in Reduning and penicillin G mixed injection. Based on molecular docking technology, 10 potential allergens with strong binding activity to MrgprX2 agonist sites were further screened. Metabolomics analysis using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS technology revealed that 34 differential metabolites such as arachidonic acid, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes were endogenous differential metabolites of PARs caused by combined use of Reduning injection and penicillin G injection. Through the analysis of the "potential allergen-target-endogenous differential metabolite" interaction network, the chlorogenic acids (such as chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, and isochlorogenic acid A) and β-lactam allergens in the combination of the two may be mainly regulated by PLD1, PLA2G12A and CYP1A1. The three upstream signal target proteins mainly activate the arachidonic acid metabolic pathway, promote the degranulation of mast cells, release downstream endogenous inflammatory mediators, and induce PARs.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 511-519, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016627

ABSTRACT

Cells undergo glucose metabolism reprogramming under the influence of the inflammatory microenvironment, changing their primary mode of energy supply from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis. This process is involved in all stages of inflammation-related diseases development. Glucose metabolism reprogramming not only changes the metabolic pattern of individual cells, but also disrupts the metabolic homeostasis of the body microenvironment, which further promotes aerobic glycolysis and provides favourable conditions for the malignant progression of inflammation-related diseases. The metabolic enzymes, transporter proteins, and metabolites of aerobic glycolysis are all key signalling molecules, and drugs can inhibit aerobic glycolysis by targeting these specific key molecules to exert therapeutic effects. This paper reviews the impact of glucose metabolism reprogramming on the development of inflammation-related diseases such as inflammation-related tumours, rheumatoid arthritis and Alzheimer's disease, and the therapeutic effects of drugs targeting glucose metabolism reprogramming on these diseases.

4.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 476-483, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013579

ABSTRACT

Aim To evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of the total phenylpropanoid glycosides extracted from Ligustrum robustum (Roxb.) Blume (LRTPG) on hyperlipidemic golden hamsters and explore its regulatory effect on intestinal flora. Methods Sixty hamsters were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, a positive drug group, LRTPG-L group, LRTPG-M group, and LRTPG-H group. After the successful induction of the model by high-fat diet, the animals were continuously administered for four weeks, and their blood lipids and liver lipids were detected. The formed feces from the colorectal region of the hamsters in the control group, model group and LRTPG-H group were collected for 16S rDNA sequencing. Results LRTPG reduced serum TG, TC, LDL-C and liver TG, TC concentrations significantly in hyperlipidemic hamsters. The results of the intestinal microbiota sequencing showed that compared to the control group, LRTPG significantly decreased the relative abundance of the phylum Firmicutes and increased the relative abundance of the phylum Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia (P < 0.01) at the phylum level. At the family level, LRTPG significantly increased the relative abundance of Christensenellaceae, Peptococcaceae, and Verrucomicrobiaceae (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). At the genus level, LRTPG significantly increased the relative abundance of Oscillospira, Oscillibacter, Flavonifractor and Akkermansiaceae (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). These changes in the flora were beneficial to the hypolipidemic effect of LRTPG. Conclusion LRTPG may exert its hypolipidemic effect by improving the intestinal flora disorder caused by a high-fat diet in golden hamsters.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2707-2714, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999032

ABSTRACT

Squalene epoxidase (SQLE) is a potential target for the treatment of liver cancer. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the high expression of SQLE was closely related to the clinical stage and poor prognosis of patients with liver cancer. However, the existing inhibitors against SQLE 195 tyrosine residue (Y195) cannot be used clinically due to severe side effects. In this study, 35 small-molecule compounds targeting SQLE 335 tyrosine residue (Y335) were selected by computer virtual screening. Combined with MTT assay, 3 candidate compounds (19#, 31# and 35#) with significant inhibitory effects on the proliferation of Huh7 cell line were obtained. Further studies showed that these 3 compounds could inhibit the migration of Huh7 cells, reduce the contents of total and free cholesterol, up-regulate the expression of tumor suppressor gene PTEN, and down-regulate the expression of PI3K and AKT proteins. The results showed that the novel inhibitors 19#, 31# and 35# targeting SQLE Y335 could reduce cholesterol content, inhibit the proliferation and migration of Huh7, thus playing an anti-liver cancer role.

6.
International Eye Science ; (12): 2035-2039, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-998486

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate the effects of ginsenoside Rg1 injection combined with inosine tablets and vitamin B1 on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide(PACAP)and clinical efficacy in primary retinitis pigmentosa.METHODS: A total of 50 patients(100 eyes)with primary retinitis pigmentosa who admitted to the Department of Ophthalmology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Hebei North University from August 2019 to March 2022 were selected as the research object. They were divided into the study group and the control group according to random number table, with 50 eyes in each group. Patients in the control group were treated with inosine tablets and vitamin B1, while patients in the study group were treated with ginsenoside Rg1 injection on the basis of the control group. The expression of BDNF and PACAP in serum, electroretinogram and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography(SD-OCT)were compared before and after treatment, and the retinal thickness(RT), mean deviation(MD), clinical efficacy and safety indexes were compared between the two groups.RESULTS: There were no differences in the MD of the two groups before treatment(t=1.670, P=0.098), while the MD of the study group was significantly lower than that of the control group after treatment(t=3.628, P&#x003C;0.01). Before treatment, RT with a diameter of 1mm at the circle of macular fovea was compared between the two groups(t=0.108, P=0.914), it was significantly higher than that in the control group after treatment(t=6.125, P&#x003C;0.01). Before treatment, there was no significant difference in the results of dark adaptation of electroretinogram between the two groups(all P&#x003E;0.05). After treatment, the results of dark adaptation in the study group were significantly better than those in the control group(all P&#x003C;0.01). Before treatment, there was no significant difference in the results of electroretinogram adaptation between the two groups(all P&#x003E;0.05). After treatment, the results of electroretinogram adaptation in the study group were significantly better than those in the control group(all P&#x003C;0.01). There was no significant difference in BDNF and PACAP between the two groups before treatment(all P&#x003E;0.05). BDNF and PACAP in the study group were higher than those of the control group after treatment(all P&#x003C;0.01). After treatment, no adverse reactions were observed in both groups.CONCLUSION: The treatment of patients with primary retinitis pigmentosa with ginsenoside will improve the retinal function and promote the prognosis of the disease by regulating the expression of BDNF and PACAP, and it is highly safe.

7.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 178-182, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981926

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Static progressive stretch (SPS) can be applied to treat chronic joint stiffness. However, the impacts of subacute application of SPS to the distal lower limbs, where deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is common, on venous thromboembolism remain unclear. This study aims to explore the risk of venous thromboembolism events following subacute application of SPS.@*METHODS@#A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients diagnosed with DVT following a lower extremity orthopedic surgery before being transferred to the rehabilitation ward from May 2017 to May 2022. Patients with unilateral lower limb comminuted para-articular fractures, transferred to rehabilitation ward for further treatment within 3 weeks after operation, followed up more than 12 weeks since initial manual physiotherapy, and diagnosed DVT by ultrasound before rehabilitation course were included in the study. Patients with polytrauma, without evidence of previous peripheral vascular disease or incompetence, had medication for thrombosis treatment or prophylaxis before the operation, detected with paralysis due to nervous system impairment, infected after operation during the regime, or with acute progression of DVT were excluded. The included patients were randomized to the standard physiotherapy and the SPS integrated groups for observation. Associated DVT and pulmonary embolism data were collected during the physiotherapy course to compare the groups. SSPS 28.0 and GraphPad Prism 9 were used for data processing. A p < 0.05 was set significant difference.@*RESULTS@#In total of 154 patients with DVT participating in this study, 75 of them were treated with additional SPS for postoperative rehabilitation. The participants in the SPS group showed improved range of motion (12.3° ± 6.7°). However, in the SPS group, there was no difference in thrombosis volume between the start and termination (p = 0.106, p = 0.787, respectively), although difference was seen intra-therapy (p < 0.001). Contingency analysis revealed the pulmonary embolism incidence (OR = 0.703) in the SPS group compared to the mean physiotherapy.@*CONCLUSION@#The SPS technique is a safe and reliable option to prevent potential joint stiffness without aggravating the risk of distal DVT for postoperative patients suffering from relevant trauma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Lower Extremity , Risk Factors
8.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 539-543, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981896

ABSTRACT

Objective To propose the blood detection strategies for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among blood donors, and provide reference for the detection, early diagnosis and transmission blocking of HIV. Methods A total of 117 987 blood samples from blood donors were screened using the third- and fourth-generation ELISA HIV detection reagents. Western blot analysis was used to verify the reactive results of the third-generation reagent alone, or both the third-generation and fourth-generation reagents. HIV nucleic acid test was carried out for those with negative test results of the third- and fourth-generation reagents. For those with positive results of the fourth-generation reagent only, nucleic acid test followed by a confirmatory test by Western blot analysis was carried out. Results 117 987 blood samples from blood donors were tested by different reagents. Among them, 55 were tested positive by both the third- and fourth-generation HIV detection reagents at the same time, accounting for 0.047% and 54 cases were confirmed HIV-positive by Western blot analysis, and 1 case was indeterminate, then turned positive during follow-up testing. 26 cases were positive by the third-generation reagent test alone, among which 24 cases were negative and 2 were indeterminate by Western blot analysis. The band types were p24 and gp160 respectively detected by Western blot analysis, and were confirmed to be HIV negative in follow-up testing. 31 cases were positive by the fourth-generation HIV reagent alone, among which 29 were negative by nucleic acid test, and 2 were positive according to the nucleic acid test.Western blot analysis was used to verify that the two cases were negative. However, after 2~4 weeks, the results turned positive when the blood sample was retested by Western blot analysis during the follow-up of these two cases. All the specimens that were tested negative by both the third- and fourth-generation HIV reagents were validated negative by HIV nucleic acid test. Conclusion A combined strategy with both third- and fourth-generation HIV detection reagents can play a complementary role in blood screening among blood donors. The application of complementary tests, such as nucleic acid test and Western blot analysis, can further improve the safety of blood supply, thus contributing to the early diagnosis, prevention, transmission and treatment of blood donors potentially infected by HIV.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Antibodies , Blood Donors , HIV-1 , Blotting, Western , Nucleic Acids
9.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 1133-1141, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010318

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the differences in the needs of users and the value orientation of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) by comparing the contents and formation methods of clinical questions in Chinese and Korean CPGs of acupuncture-moxibustion (Acup-Mox).@*METHODS@#The full text of CPGs was systematically searched from the official websites of Chinese and Korean traditional medicine societies and Acup-Mox associations, with the topic "Acup-Mox for treating diseases" and the retrieval time up to September 28, 2022. Two researchers screened the CPGs independently, and extracted the guidelines' topics, content, quantity and formation methods of clinical questions. The quantitative data were collected by counting the frequency, and the qualitative data were classified and described by thematic analysis.@*RESULTS@#A total of 29 guidelines were included in this study, including 20 Chinese guidelines (305 questions) and 9 Korean guidelines (223 questions). The differences lie in the aspects of content and diversity, and formation method. As for content and diversity, Chinese guidelines focused mainly on the questions related to treatment such as the operation of specific intervention (86, 28.2%), efficacy of intervention (78, 25.6%), and also involving questions in diagnosis, prevention, and prognosis. While the clinical questions in Korean guidelines were concentrated to efficacy of intervention (218, 97.8%). As for formation method, in Chinese guidelines, questions were usually collected directly from clinicians, and then determined and optimized by experts. In Korean guidelines, frequently used clinical Acup-Mox interventions would be screened first. Then the expert group would set up corresponding intervention control measures so as to form clinical questions related to treatment efficacy.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The differences reflect the different needs of clinical practitioners, and the different aims or concepts in developing Acup-Mox guidelines between China and South Korea. Chinese guidelines emphasized promoting operation protocols and techniques of Acup-Mox for practical use, while Korean guidelines emphasized promoting the frequently used clinical intervention therapies. It is speculated that the guidelines from these two countries would play different roles in guiding clinical operation and supporting medical decision. In terms of formation methods of clinical questions, it is suggested to attach importance to optimizing process in formatting clinical questions to improve the clinical applicability of CPGs of Acup-Mox.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Acupuncture Therapy/methods , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Moxibustion/methods , Republic of Korea , Practice Guidelines as Topic
10.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 114-118, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969957

ABSTRACT

The appropriate needle device is crucial for obtaining the curative effect of fire needling therapy. The article introduces the material specification, clinical operation, indications, characteristics and advantages of the contemporary traditional fire needling devices (e.g. He's fire needle and Shi 's fire needle) and the contemporary new-type ones (e.g. fire needling with filiform needle and micro-needle); and determines the innovations of modern fire needling. It is anticipated that the needle specifications, production process and operation standard of fire needling devices should be further unified so as to provide the references for the selection of fire needling devices in treatment based on clinical syndrome differentiation and expand the clinical application of fire needling therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Needles
11.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 433-437, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969907

ABSTRACT

To explore the relationship between the early or delayed age at natural menopause and metabolic syndrome (MS) in women. A total of 4 734 natural menopausal women who completed the baseline survey from November 2017 to January 2020 in the Guangzhou Middle-aged and Elderly Chronic Disease Prospective Cohort Study were selected in this cross-sectional study. Data on general demographic characteristics, disease history and female physiological health indicators were collected. Logistic regression model and restricted cubic spline curve were used to analyze the relationship between the age at natural menopause and MS. The results showed that the mean age of the subjects was (60±6) years old. The median (Q1,Q3) age at natural menopause was 50 (49, 52) years old, and the prevalence of MS was 14.8%(699/4 734). After adjusting for confounders, the age at natural menopause was closely related to MS in an approximate"U"shape. Compared with the group of normal age at natural menopause, the early age at menopause (OR=1.52, 95%CI: 1.12-2.06) and delayed age at menopause (OR=1.77, 95%CI: 1.36-2.30) had a higher risk of MS. In the group with time since menopause ≤6 years and 7-9 years, the risk of MS in the group with delayed age at menopause was 2.40 times (95%CI: 1.54-3.75) and 2.19 times (95%CI: 1.11-4.31) higher than that in the group with normal menopausal age, respectively. In conclusion, the early and delayed age at natural menopause increased the risk of MS. The increased risk of MS in delayed age at natural menopause mainly occurred within 10 years since menopause.


Subject(s)
Middle Aged , Aged , Female , Humans , Child , Postmenopause , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Menopause/physiology , Risk Factors
12.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 259-267, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969876

ABSTRACT

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox when it first infects humans, and the virus may reactivate in adulthood and cause herpes zoster (HZ). Broad-spectrum antiviral drugs are one of the treatments for varicella and herpes zoster, but the emergence of drug resistance poses many challenges to this treatment and increases the burden of disease on patients. This paper discusses the resistance mechanisms, resistance sites and resistance detection methods of anti-VZV drugs in order to help further research on new anti-VZV targets, new drugs and monitoring of resistance to existing drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Herpes Zoster , Chickenpox , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance
13.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 91-99, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969849

ABSTRACT

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the third leading cause of death worldwide and one of the most commonly infectious diseases. Its epidemiological characteristics vary with host and immune status, and corresponding pathogen spectrums migrate over time and space distribution. Meanwhile, with the outbreak of COVID-19, some unconventional treatment strategies are on the rise. This article reviewed the epidemiological characteristics, pathogen spectrum and treatment direction of CAP in China over the years, and aimed to provide guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of CAP in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Causality , Risk Factors
14.
International Eye Science ; (12): 1775-1780, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-996883

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate the effects of antitumor drug paclitaxel(PTX)on the proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, cell morphology, and related protein expression of Müller cells, and to evaluate its potential toxicity to the retina.METHODS:Müller cells were cultured in vitro and divided into two groups: control group(normal medium)and PTX group. Retinal Müller cells were treated with different concentrations of PTX(0.005, 0.05, 0.5 and 5mg/L)for varying durations(12, 24, 36, 48 and 72h). The CCK8 method was used to assess the effects of different concentrations of PTX and treatment duration on the proliferation Müller cells. Flow cytometry was employed to investigate the impact of different concentrations of PTX on Müller cells apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Immunofluorescence was used to observe morphological changes in Müller cells. The effects of PTX on the expression of apoptosis-related proteins and aquaporins were analyzed by Western blot and qRT-PCR.RESULTS: PTX exhibits the ability to inhibit the proliferation of Müller cells when cultured in vitro. The efficacy of this inhibition was found to be dependent on both the concentration of the drug and the duration of the stimulation. Higher concentrations of the drug and longer stimulation times resulted in a weaker ability of the cells to proliferate. Additionally, PTX also induces apoptosis in Müller cells, with increased drug concentrations and longer stimulation times leading to higher apoptosis rates. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrates that PTX arrests Müller cells in the G2-M phase of the cell cycle. Moreover, there is a distinct change in cell morphology, with a shift from the typical appearance characterized by clear and slender fibrous structures to a rounder morphology, accompanied by a significant decrease in cell numbers. Further, our findings reveal that there is a transient increase in the expression of cytoinflammatory factors following drug treatment compared to the control group. However, discontinuation of drug stimulation can alleviate this heightened expression. In treated cells, the expression of the CA XIV protein is upregulated compared to the control group, while the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF)is downregulated(P&#x0026;#x003C;0.05). Additionally, the levels of inflammatory factors in the PTX group are significantly higher than those in the control group(P&#x0026;#x003C;0.05), suggesting that PTX has the potential to disrupt the retinal barrier function.CONCLUSION: PTX affects the proliferation and apoptosis of Müller cells, with the effects dependent on stimulation duration and drug concentration. In addition, PTX blocks the Müller cell cycle at the G2-M phase and alters cell morphology, leading to a transient upregulation of inflammatory factors and affecting the integrity of the retinal barrier. These findings indicate the potential toxicity of the antitumor drug PTX to the retina.

15.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Ophthalmology ; (12): 871-878, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990925

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the pathogenicity and clinical characteristics of patients with Cohen syndrome caused by a compound heterozygous variation of VPS13B gene. Methods:A pedigree investigation was conducted.A Chinese Han family with Cohen syndrome was recruited from Henan Eye Hospital in September 2021.There were three members of two generations in this family, including one patient.The clinical data of the proband and his parents were collected, and the relevant ophthalmic and general examinations were performed to evaluate the clinical phenotype.The peripheral venous blood samples of the family members were collected to extract whole genomic DNA, and the whole exome sequencing was performed.Sanger sequencing and pedigree co-segregation analysis were performed among the family members.According to the ACMG guidelines, the pathogenicity of the selected variants was evaluated and the online tools were used to predict the pathogenicity of the variants.Relevant literature of Cohen syndrome were retrieved in Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang databases by taking Cohen syndrome and VPS13B gene as the searching keywords.The clinical manifestations and pathogenic variants of patients in the literature were summarized, and the relationship between genotype and clinical phenotype was analyzed.This study protocol adhered to the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Ethics Committee of Henan Eye Hospital (No.HNEECKY-2019[15]). Both the subject and the patient's guardian were aware of the study purpose and method.Written informed consent was obtained. Results:The family was consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance.The proband, a 5-year-old male, had bilateral night blindness with photophobia, ptosis, lower eyelid entropion, and trichiasis; high myopia in both eyes; osteoblastoid pigmentation in the peripheral retina, atrophy and thinning of the outer layer of the peripheral retina, extinguished flashing electroretinogram; global growth retardation, typical facial features, slender fingers and toes, flatfoot, foot valgus, dystonia, no cardiac abnormalities; excessively cheerful personality.The clinical manifestations of the proband were consistent with Cohen syndrome.No obvious abnormality was found in the clinical phenotype and the auxiliary examination of the proband's parents.Whole exon sequencing revealed that the proband carried two heterozygous variations, a nonsense variation c. 11713C>T(p.Gln3905*) and a splicing variation c. 6940+ 1G>T.Sanger sequencing confirmed that the above variations were co-segregated in this family.c.11713C>T(p.Gln3905*) was a novel variant, which prematurely terminated the protein encoded by it and affected the normal function of the protein.The two variations were pathogenic variants according to the ACMG guidelines.A total of 12 articles on variants and clinical characteristics of Cohen syndrome in China were retrieved.Combined with the results of this study, a total of 24 VPS13B variants were found in Chinese patients, of which the incidence of frameshift variation was 41.7%(10/24), missense variation 20.8%(5/24), splicing variation 20.8%(5/24) and nonsense variation 16.7%(4/24), respectively.The onset age of patients with Cohen syndrome was from 28 days to 12 years old.The symptoms such as nerve system, eye, brain, and bone were sporadic, and the clinical manifestations were highly heterogeneous. Conclusions:A novel pathogenic variation c. 11713C>T is found in the VPS13B gene of the Cohen syndrome pedigree in this study, and expands the pathogenic variation spectrum of the VPS13B gene.The clinical manifestations of Cohen syndrome are highly heterogeneous.

16.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 732-742, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007846

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of causative microorganisms recovered from patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAIs).@*METHODS@#A total of 2,926 bacterial and fungal strains were identified in samples collected from 1,679 patients with IAIs at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital between 2011 and 2021. Pathogenic bacteria and fungi were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was performed using the VITEK 2 compact system and the Kirby-Bauer method. AST results were interpreted based on the M100-Ed31 clinical breakpoints of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.@*RESULTS@#Of the 2,926 strains identified, 49.2%, 40.8%, and 9.5% were gram-negative bacteria, gram-positive bacteria, and fungi, respectively. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent pathogen in intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU patients; however, a significant decrease was observed in the isolation of E. coli between 2011 and 2021. Specifically, significant decreases were observed between 2011 and 2021 in the levels of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli (from 76.9% to 14.3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (from 45.8% to 4.8%). Polymicrobial infections, particularly those involving co-infection with gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, were commonly observed in IAI patients. Moreover, Candida albicans was more commonly isolated from hospital-associated IAI samples, while Staphylococcus epidermidis had a higher ratio in community-associated IAIs. Additionally, AST results revealed that most antimicrobial agents performed better in non-ESBL-producers than in ESBL-producers, while the overall resistance rates (56.9%-76.8%) of Acinetobacter baumanmii were higher against all antimicrobial agents than those of other common gram-negative bacteria. Indeed, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, S. epidermidis, and S. aureus were consistently found to be susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, and linezolid. Similarly, C. albicans exhibited high susceptibility to all the tested antifungal drugs.@*CONCLUSION@#The distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of the causative microorganisms from patients with IAIs were altered between 2011 and 2021. This finding is valuable for the implementation of evidence-based antimicrobial therapy and provides guidance for the control of hospital infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Escherichia coli , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Retrospective Studies , Staphylococcus aureus , Intraabdominal Infections/epidemiology , Candida albicans , Coinfection
17.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 36-42, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013875

ABSTRACT

Aim To investigate the effect of forkhead transcription factors of O classl (FoxO1) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced acute lung injury and its regulatory mechanism. Methods The model of acute lung injury (ALI) was simulated by LPS. HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of lung tissues. The contents of tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-a) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in lung tissues were determined by ELISA. The expression of FoxOl in mouse lung tissues was observed by immunohistochemical staining. The phosphorylation levels of FoxOl, DNA methyltransferase and p38 MAPK were detected by Western blot. The mRNA levels of FoxOl, IL-6, TNF-a and DNA methyltransferase were detected by qRT-PCR. DNA methylation in FoxOl promoter region in lung tissues was detected by nested methylation specific PCR (nMS-PCR). Pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (PVECs) were cultured and transfected with FoxOl siRNA, and the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was detected by Western blot. The correlation between FoxOl methylation level and inflammatory factors was analyzed by Pearson method. Results Compared with control group, alveolar inflammatory cells increased significantly in LPS group, and pulmonary edema and hyperemia were obvious. TNF-α and IL-6 levels increased by 52. 2% and 150. 4% (P < 0. 05), respectively. The phosphorylation level of p38 MAPK and FoxOl expression increased by 134. 1% and 61. 8% (P < 0. 05), respectively, while the DNA methylation level of Fox0l promoter region decreased by 17. 2% (P < 0. 05). After transfection of FoxOl siRNA in vitro, the phosphorylation level of p38 decreased. Pearson analysis showed that FoxOl methylation level was negatively correlated with inflammatory factors. Conclusion The regulation of FoxOl/p3 8 MAPK signaling pathway by hypomethylation of FoxOl promoter is an important mechanism of LPS-induced acute lung injury.

18.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 714-718, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013160

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the feature and treatment of atrial tachycardia (AT) originated from right atrial appendage (RAA) in children. Methods: The data of 42 children with AT originated from RAA, who were admitted the First Hospital of Tsinghua University from January 2010 to September 2022 were analyzed retrospectively.The clinical characteristics, treatment and efficacy were analyzed. The children were divided into tachycardia cardiomyopathy group and normal cardiac function group. The differences in the ablation age and the heart rate during AT between two groups were compared by independent sample t-test. Results: Among 42 children, there were 20 males and 22 females. The age of onset was 2.7 (0.6, 5.1) years. Their age at radiofrequency ablation was (6.5±3.6) years, and the weight was (23.4±10.0) kg. Thirty-two children (76%) had sustained AT. The incidence of tachycardia cardiomyopathy was 43% (18/42). Compared to that of the normal cardiac function group, the ablation age and the heart rate at atrial tachycardia of the tachycardia cardiomyopathy group were higher ((8.1±3.8) vs. (5.3±3.1) years, t=-2.63, P=0.012; (173±41) vs. (150±30) beats per minute, t=-2.05, P=0.047. Thirty-eight children (90%) responded poorly to two or more antiarrhythmic drugs. The immediate success rate of radiofrequency ablation (RFCA) was 57% (24/42), and the AT recurrence rate was 17% (4/24). Twenty-two children underwent RAA resection, and their AT were all converted to sinus rhythm after the surgery. During the RAA resection, 10 cases of right atrial appendage aneurysm were found, 9/18 of which failed the RFCA. Conclusions: The AT originated from the RAA in children tend to present with sustained AT, respond poorly to antiarrhythmic drugs, and has a low success rate of RFCA as well as high recurrence rate. Resection of the RAA is a safe and effective complementary treatment.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Catheter Ablation , Tachycardia/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Cardiomyopathies
19.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 826-832, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012291

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the value of uterine morphological parameters and endometrial T2 signal intensity (T2-SI) in evaluating the degree of the fibrotic repair secondary to endometrial injury. Methods: From Sep. 2018 to Feb. 2023, this study prospectively enrolled 29 patients with fibrotic repair secondary to severe endometrial injury (severe group), 17 patients with fibrotic repair secondary to mild to moderate endometrial injury (mild to moderate group), and 40 healthy women of reproductive age (control group) in Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital. The length of uterine cavity (LUC), length of cervix and isthmus (LCI), width of upper uterine cavity (WUUC) and width of lower uterine cavity (WLUC) were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. T2-SI of endometrium and subcutaneous fat of buttocks were measured, and endometrial normalized T2-SI (nT2-SI; T2-SI of endometrium/T2-SI of subcutaneous fat of buttocks) was calculated. Statistical analyses of data were performed using one-way analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U test, intraclass correlation coefficient, Spearman rho test, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: LUC, WUUC, WLUC and endometrial nT2-SI of severe group [(19.7±3.5) mm, (26.9±6.4) mm, (7.9±1.4) mm, 0.73±0.11, respectively] were significantly lower than those of the control group (all P<0.01), while LCI and WUUC/LUC [(51.3±7.3) mm and 1.38±0.34] were significantly higher than those of the control group (all P<0.001). LUC and WLUC of severe group were significantly lower than those of mild to moderate group [(32.4±5.1) mm and (8.8±1.2) mm; all P<0.05], while LCI and WUUC/LUC were significantly higher than those of mild to moderate group [(41.8±8.6) mm and 0.94±0.16; all P<0.001]. LUC and endometrial nT2-SI of mild to moderate group were significantly lower than those of the control group [ (32.4±5.1) vs (35.3±3.5) mm, 0.68±0.13 vs 0.80±0.12; all P<0.01]. LUC, WUUC, WLUC and endometrial nT2-SI were significantly negatively correlated to the degree of the fibrotic repair secondary to endometrial injury (Spearman rho:-0.794, -0.441, -0.471 and -0.316, respectively; all P<0.05), while LCI and WUUC/LUC were significantly positively correlated to the degree of the fibrotic repair secondary to endometrial injury (Spearman rho: 0.481 and 0.674, respectively; all P<0.05). LUC and WUUC/LUC showed high value in distinguishing severe group from the control group or mild to moderate group (all AUC>0.9, all P<0.001). Conclusion: As noninvasive and quantitative biomarkers, uterine morphological parameters and endometrial nT2-SI could evaluate the degree of the fibrotic repair secondary to endometrial injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterus , Endometrium , Health Status , Hospitals , ROC Curve
20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 3414-3424, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011130

ABSTRACT

A new class of potent liver injury protective compounds, phychetins A-D ( 1- 4) featuring an unique 6/6/5/6/5 pentacyclic framework, were isolated and structurally characterized from a Chinese medicinal plant Phyllanthus franchetianus. Compounds 2- 4 are three pairs of enantiomers that were initially obtained in a racemic manner, and were further separated by chiral HPLC preparation. Compounds 1- 4 were proposed to be originated biosynthetically from a coexisting lignan via an intramolecular Friedel-Crafts reaction as the key step. A bioinspired total synthesis strategy was thus designated, and allowed the effective syntheses of compounds 2- 4 in high yields. Some of compounds exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activities in vitro via suppressing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. Notably, compound 4, the most active enantiomeric pair in vitro, displayed prominent potent protecting activity against liver injury at a low dose of 3 mg/kg in mice, which could serve as a promising lead for the development of acute liver injury therapeutic agent.

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