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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821635

ABSTRACT

Objective To build a discriminant function of clonorchiasis sinensis using stepwise discriminant analysis, so as to investigate the feasibility of discriminant analysis for clonorchiasis sinensis screening. Methods Ten villages in Mulan County of Harbin City were sampled as the study sites using a cluster random sampling method. The fecal samples were collected from the permanent residents in the study sites and detected for Clonorchis sinensis eggs using the modified Kato-Katz smear technique. A questionnaire of clonorchiasis sinensis was designed. All data were entered into Epidata 3.1, and a discriminant analysis was performed using the software SPSS version 15.0. Variable were screened using the stepwise discriminant analysis, and the discriminant function was built using the Fisher’s discriminant analysis method. The effectiveness of the discriminant function for clonorchiasis sinensis screening was evaluated by comparison with the modified Kato-Katz smear method. Results Eight variables with statistical significance were included to build the discriminant function, including chronic cholecystitis, cholangitis, gender, eating raw fish, abdominal distension, ethnicity, abdominal pain and age, and the correction rate of the discriminant function was 88.75% to identify clonorchiasis sinensis. Conclusions The discriminant function of clonorchiasis sinensis can be rapidly and simply built based on the strong data processing and analysis capability of the SPSS software, which is rapid to screen clonorchiasis sinensis in Harbin City. Such a function has a high discriminant analysis capability, and provides insights into the establishment of rapid screening of clonorchiasis sinensis in other endemic areas.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1449-1456, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780232

ABSTRACT

About 15%-20% of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) will progress to chronic manifestation (CH-DILI), which sometimes advances rapidly to liver cirrhosis (LC-DILI) within 0.5-1 year with deteriorative clinical prognosis. Therefore, it is important to find a non-invasive diagnosis for early detection of liver cirrhosis. In this study, the metabolomic profiles revealed significant differences in the metabolites from the plasma of LC-DILI versus CH-DILI. We found 35 differential metabolites through principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Through pathway enrichment analysis, some up-regulated metabolic pathways reflected impaired liver functions such as bile acid, lipid synthesis and decomposition during cirrhosis. Five biomarkers were found to exhibit effective diagnosis value (AUC > 0.6), including phosphatidylcholine, lysoPC (18:1 (9Z)), creatine, taurochenodeoxycholic acid and taurocholic acid. Furthermore, we found that the relative content ratio between phosphatidylcholine and lysoPC (18:1 (9Z)) had a better distinguishing ability (AUC = 0.867). The relative content ratio also had the feature to reduce systematic errors of sample processing and instrument detection, therefore having a greater value for clinical application.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691399

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the possible mechanism of San-Cao Granule (SCG, ) mediating antiliver fibrosis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, porcine serum-treated group, ursodesoxycholic acid (UDCA, 60 mg/kg), SCG (3.6 g/kg) group, SCG (1.8 g/kg) group and SCG (0.9 g/kg) group, with 10 rats in each group. Liver fibrosis was induced with porcine serum by intraperitoneal injection for 8 weeks, except for the normal control group. Then, the rats in the three SCG-treated groups and UDCA group were administered SCG and UDCA respectively for 4 weeks. The serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), albumin (ALB), total bilirubin (TBIL), hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), and type IV collagen (IVC) were examined using commercial kits and hepatic histopathology was examined with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson staining. Moreover, the protein expression levels of high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), phosphorylated mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (p-Smad3), Smad7, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were determined by western blot, immunohistochemistry and real time quantitative-reverse transcription polymerase.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Both SCG (3.6 and 1.8 g/kg) and UDCA significantly ameliorated the liver fibrosis induced by porcine serum as indicated by retarding the serum levels increasing of ALT, AST, TBIL, HA, LN and IVC and preventing the serum level reducing of ALB compared with the model group (all P<0.01). Meanwhile, the collagen deposition was attenuated by SCG and UDCA treatment. Furthermore, SCG markedly reduced the expressions of HMGB1, TGF-β1, p-Smad3, TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB and α-SMA, and enhanced the expression of the Smad7 compared with the model group (all P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>SCG ameliorates hepatic fibrosis possibly through inhibiting HMGB1, TLR4/NF-κB and TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , HMGB1 Protein , Metabolism , Liver , Metabolism , Pathology , Liver Cirrhosis , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Smad Proteins , Metabolism
4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 396-402, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779888

ABSTRACT

Tonkinensis is commonly used in the treatment of hepatitis B infection in China with its effect­tiveness in reducing clinical symptoms and improving liver function. However, the mechanism of the anti-HBV (hepatitis B virus) effect of Tonkinensis is still not clear. In this study, an integrative analysis using the network pharmacology and metabolomics was employed in identification of the main targets and mechanisms of Tonkinensis in treatment of HBV infections. First, the "drug-target" network was established by predicting the targets of the main chemical components of Tonkinensis; Secondly, the differential metabolites associated with the anti-HBV effect of Tonkinensis were analyzed with the LC-MS based metabolomics in HepG2.2.15 cells; Finally, the "drug ingredients-targets-metabolites" network was constructed to screen the main anti-HBV targets of Tonkinensis. The results suggest that Tonkinensis may act on 16 target proteins in the network of retinol metabolism, peroxisome proliferator activate-receptors (PPAR) signaling pathway and transcriptional regulation of cancer and so on, which contributed to the control of HBV replication and the regulation of immune function and metabolic disorders.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330215

ABSTRACT

To reveal the characterization of interaction between Chinese and western medicinal injections, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was applied to evaluating the interaction of Yiqi Fumai injection (YQFM, as mode drug) with epinephrine hydrochloride injection (YS) and 5% glucose injection (5% GS). The diversification of Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS) were determined to judge the reaction types of colliquefaction procedures of different injections. Meanwhile, the fingerprints of YQFM before and after combined with the various injections were compared to validate the results. This work demonstrated that during the titration procedure of YQFM and YS, [ΔH] > T [ΔS] , that was to say the reaction was enthalpy-driving. And the reactive profile indicated that a great deal of heat gave out during the procedure. Obviously, chemical reactions happened and the internal component changed. On the other side, the reaction of YQFM combined with 5% GS was entropy-driving, because [ΔH] < T [ΔS]. The reactive profile showed there was only a little heat released. So non-chemical reactions happened and the major ingredients did not change. ITC could be applied to the evaluation on compatibility of other kinds of Chinese and western medicinal injection combination.


Subject(s)
Calorimetry , Drug Interactions , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Entropy , Epinephrine , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Glucose , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Injections , Thermodynamics
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337936

ABSTRACT

Toxicity of different processed was evaluated Polygoni Multiflori Radix by determining the hepatotoxic potency for selecting processing technology. Process Polygoni Multiflori Radix using high pressure steamed, Black Bean high pressure steamed, atmospheric steamed for different time. Using normal human hepatocytes (L02) as evaluation model, hepatotoxic potency as index to evaluate hepatotoxic potency of different processed Polygoni Multiflori Radix. Analysis chemical composition of some processed products by UPLC-MS. Hepatotoxic bioassay method cloud evaluate the toxicity of different Polygoni Multiflori Radix samples. Different processing methods can reduce the toxicity of Polygoni Multiflori Radix, high pressure steamed three hours attenuated was better. Different processing methods have different effects on chemical constituents of Polygoni Multiflori Radix. Comparing with crude sample, the contents of gallic acid, 2,3,5,4-tetrahydroxyl diphenylethylene-2-O-glucoside, emodin-8-O-beta glucoside and emodin were decreased in processed products with 3 kinds of different methods. The change trend of 2,3,5,4-tetrahydroxyl diphenylethylene-2-O-glucoside content was similar with hepatotoxic potency. Different processing methods can reduce the toxicity of Polygoni Multiflori Radix. Processing methods and time attenuated obvious impact on toxicity. Recommended further research on the attehuated standard control of Polygoni Multiflori Radix concocted.


Subject(s)
Biological Assay , Cell Line , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Methods , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Toxicity , Fallopia multiflora , Chemistry , Toxicity , Hepatocytes , Humans , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Toxicity
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-294411

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To compare the bidirectional effect of rhubarb total anthraquinone (TA) and total tannins (TT) on rats' liver.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred rats were randomly divided into 10 groups, i.e., the blank group, the model group, the blank + high dose TA group, the blank +low dose TA group, the blank + high dose TT group, the blank + low dose TT group, the model + high dose TA group, the model + low dose TA group, the model +high dose TT group, and the model + low dose TT group, 10 in each group. The carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) was used to prepare the acute liver injury rat model. TA and TT of rhubarb (at 5.40 g crude drugs/kg and 14.69 g crude drugs/kg) were intragastrically administrated to rats in all groups except the blank group and the model group, once daily for 6 successive days.The general state of rats, biochemical indices such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), laminin (LN), hyaluronic acid (HA), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), as well pathological results of rat liver tissues. Finally the protection laws of TA and TT for rats' liver were analyzed using factor analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the blank control group, all biochemical indices increased in the blank group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). HA also increased in the blank + high dose TA group; AST, ALT, and HA also increased in the blank +high dose TT group (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, AST, ALT, ALP, HA, and TGF-beta1 significantly decreased in the model + low dose TA group, the model + high dose TA group, the model + low dose TT group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Serum AST, ALT, and ALP also decreased in the model + high dose TT group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Pathological results showed that mild swollen liver cells in the model + high dose TA group. Fatty degeneration and fragmental necrosis around the central veins occurred in the blank + high dose TA group. The pathological injury was inproved in the model +low dose TA group. Two common factors, liver fibrosis and liver cell injury, were extracted by using factor analysis. TA showed stronger improvement of the two common factors than TT.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Rhubarb TA and TT showed protective and harmful effects on rats' liver. At an equivalent dosage, TA had better liver protection than TT. High dose TT played a role in liver injury to some extent.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Anthraquinones , Pharmacology , Carbon Tetrachloride , Toxicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Liver , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rheum , Chemistry , Tannins , Pharmacology
8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 93-97, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250614

ABSTRACT

This paper is aimed to provide the methods of quality control and bioassay of traditional Chinese medicine injections including bioassay method. Shuanghuanglian freeze-dried powder for injection (SFPI) was chosen as study object. HPLC-ELSD fingerprints of SFPI had been established and the samples were differentiated by similarity calculation. Meanwhile, biological profiles of SFPI on Escherichia coli had been established by microcalorimetry. The similarity values were calculated using the correlation coefficient, based on quantitative thermo-kinetic parameters (T2m, Tj, I%). The results indicated that HPLC-ELSD fingerprints, which showed content changes of chemical components, could not monitor minimal variation of different samples, especially that of biological pollutants, while biological profiles could sensitively detect antibiotic activity alterations of the samples, which were kept under specific conditions. In conclusion, characterized by two-dimension, microcalorimetry could supply thermograms as biological profiles characterized to describe the bioactivity of drugs. This study could clearly demonstrate that the correlative detection was proposed as an efficient strategy for quality control of SFPI, based on HPLC-ELSD fingerprints and biological profiles, which could detect quality fluctuation of samples early and quickly and predict the potential adverse drug events (ADE) for ensuring clinical safety.


Subject(s)
Calorimetry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Drug Combinations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Escherichia coli , Freeze Drying , Injections , Light , Powders , Quality Control , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Scattering, Radiation
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-245441

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the correlations of serum interleukin-18 (IL-18) level and IL-18 gene promoter polymorphisms to the development of sepsis in children.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the authors tested the serum IL-18 level in 90 patients with sepsis and 123 normal controls, and their single nucleotide polymorphisms of the promoter region of IL-18 gene at position -607C/A and -137G/C were detected using polymerase chain reaction with sequence specific primers method and sequencing technique.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>(1) The serum IL-18 level in sepsis groups was (196.56 +/- 157.32) pg/ml that was significantly higher than (66.16 +/- 41.63) pg/ml in normal controls (P < 0.01), the more severe the degree of sepsis was, the more significantly higher the serum IL-18 level was. The serum IL-18 level in non serious sepsis group was (152.87 +/- 114.96) pg/ml that was significantly higher than (66.16 +/- 41.63) pg/ml in normal controls, the serum IL-18 level in serious sepsis group was (191.98 +/- 169.72) pg/ml that was significantly higher than that in non serious sepsis group, and the serum IL-18 level in extremely serious sepsis patients was (323.89 +/- 159.35) pg/ml, the difference was highly significant (P = 0.000). The difference was significant among the groups with different severity of sepsis (P < 0.01). There was a negative correlation between PCIS (pediatric critical illness score) of sepsis and the serum IL-18 level (P < 0.01). (2) There were polymorphisms in IL-18 gene promoter of matched healthy children and sepsis in children. The GG genotype frequency (61.8%) of IL-18-137G/C in healthy children was the highest, followed by GC genotype (35.8%) and CC genotype (2.4%) in sequence. The G allele frequency (79.7%) was higher in IL-18-137G/C of healthy children than C allele (20.3%). The GG genotype frequency (71.1%) of IL-18-137G/C in septic children was the highest, the next were GC genotype (26.7%) and CC genotype (2.2%). The G allele frequency (84.4%) was higher in IL-18-137G/C of septic children than C allele (15.6%). The CA genotype frequency (61.0%) of IL-18-607C/A in healthy children was the highest, followed by CC genotype (26.8%) and AA genotype (12.2%). The C allele frequency (57.3%) was higher in IL-18-607C/A of healthy children than A allele (42.7%). The CA genotype frequency (76.7%) of IL-18-607C/A in septic children was the highest, followed by CC genotype (21.1%) and AA genotype (2.2%) in sequence. The C allele frequency (59.4%) was higher in IL-18-607C/A of septic children than A allele (40.6%). (3) The genotype frequency of IL-18-607 CA was 76.7% in sepsis groups that was significantly higher than 61.0% in normal controls, and the genotype frequency of -607 AA was 2.2% in sepsis groups that was significantly lower than 12.2% in normal controls, the difference was significant (P < 0.05). (4) In the order of -137CC, -137GC, -137GG, the serum IL-18 level in normal controls were as follows: (45.67 +/- 28.36) pg/ml, (53.27 +/- 37.91) pg/ml, (76.91 +/- 42.44) pg/ml, and with (140.50 +/- 60.10) pg/ml, (184.42 +/- 157.33) pg/ml, (237.02 +/- 161.76) pg/ml respectively in sepsis groups. In the order of -607AA, -607CA, -607CC, the serum IL-18 level in normal controls were: (48.80 +/- 32.11) pg/ml, (68.41 +/- 42.53) pg/ml, (70.17 +/- 43.87) pg/ml; and with (141.50 +/- 64.35) pg/ml, (151.21 +/- 121.19) pg/ml, (211.16 +/- 163.64) pg/ml respectively in sepsis groups. The difference was not significant among different groups (P > 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The serum IL-18 level in sepsis groups was significantly higher than that in normal controls, which was related to the severity of sepsis. It was possible that the genotype of -607CA carriers was susceptible to sepsis, which mean that the genotype of -607CA might be susceptible genotype of sepsis. However, the genotype of -607AA might play an oppose role in the risk of sepsis.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Infant , Interleukin-18 , Blood , Genetics , Male , Polymorphism, Genetic , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Sepsis , Blood , Genetics
10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1028-1034, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-353390

ABSTRACT

In this study, microcalorimetry was adopted to establish a novel method for detecting the hemagglutination process of Radix Isatidis (Banlangen in Chinese, BLG), and to evaluate the hemagglutination activity diversity of BLG from various habitats. The hemagglutination biothermokinetics curves of positive reagent (phytohemagglutinin, PHA) and 8 batches BLG from different regions of the hemagglutination with 20% rabbit erythrocyte were recorded by microcalorimetry, then biothermokinetics parameters were abstracted, the hemagglutination utility of samples were calculated and analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA), meanwhile the results were authenticated by micro-plate agglutination. It showed that the hemagglutination was an exothermic reaction, the reaction rate constant (k: 0.039-73.6 min(-1)), maximum reaction power (Pmax: -1 140.2 - 988.2 microW) and reaction enthalpy (Hi: -529.9 - 717.9 microJ) had good linear correlation with BLG extraction concentration (0.2-1.0 g mL(-1), r > 0.97), and PCA showed Pmax (531-1 335 microW) and Ht (585.2-989.2 microJ) could represent the hemagglutination activity diversity of BLG samples, just confirming with the results of micro-plate agglutination (the agglutination dilution was 3-11 respectively). According to the hemagglutination utility, the BLG samples from Good Agriculture Practice (GAP) regions, main producing area and general regions could be clustered correctly; meanwhile, the biothermokinetics curves with perfect distinctive fingerprint and specificity could give out more information for the quality control and evaluation for BLG. In conclusion, the microcalorimetry method established for detecting the hemagglutination activity of BLG samples on rabbit erythrocyte is sensitive and reliable, and could be adopted as an effective technique in detection aggulatination precisely, quantitatively and consecutively; and provide a novel approach for examining and evaluating quality for Chinese herbal medicine with aggulatinative activity such as BLG.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Calorimetry , Methods , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Hemagglutination , Isatis , Chemistry , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Quality Control , Rabbits
11.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 307-311, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-319740

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the clinical, radiologic and pathologic features of solitary plasmacytoma of spine.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The clinical, radiologic and pathologic features, as well as treatment and follow-up data, of 13 solitary plasmacytoma of spine cases were retrieved and analyzed. Immunohistochemical study using EnVision method for LCA, CD19, CD20, CD79a, CD3, CD7, PC, MUM1, CD138, IgG, IgM, kappa, lambda and Ki-67 was carried out.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>All the tumours were primarily located in the vertebrae (including 9 cases in thoracic vertebrae and 4 cases in lumbar vertebrae). The male-to-female ratio was 3.3:1. The age of the patients ranged from 42 to 69 years (mean age = 56 years). The commonest symptom was pain in the surrounding regions. The degree of neurologic disturbance mostly depended on the extent of vertebral destruction and structural instability of the spine. Radiologic examination showed mainly osteolytic lesions in vertebrae. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the presence of heterogeneous intensity inside the involved vertebrae (low in T1 weighted and high in T2 weighted images). Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by malignant cells. In well-differentiated plasmacytomas, the tumor cells resembled normal plasma cells. In poorly differentiated examples, the cellular morphology mimicked that of the centroblasts. The interstitial stroma was scanty and contained plenty of vessels, sometimes with formation of blood lakes. Amyloid deposition was present in some of the cases. Immunohistochemical study showed that the tumor cells were positive for CD79a and negative for CD20. Light chain restriction was detected in all the 13 cases studied. Plasma cell marker PC was expressed in all cases, while IgG was positive in 5 cases, IgM in 1 case, MUM1 in 10 cases and CD138 in 8 cases. Ki-67 index varied from 10% to 50%. All cases were operated, with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy given.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Correlation of clinical, radiologic and pathologic features is important in diagnosis of solitary plasmacytoma of spine. The possibility of multiple myeloma needs to be excluded. Early detection by radiologic examination, local surgical resection, post-operative chemoradiotherapy and long-term follow-up are prudent for successful management of this condition.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , CD79 Antigens , Metabolism , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lumbar Vertebrae , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse , Pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Osteosarcoma , Pathology , Plasmacytoma , Diagnosis , Metabolism , Pathology , General Surgery , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Spinal Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Metabolism , Pathology , General Surgery , Thoracic Vertebrae , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-260480

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To compare the clinical effects between electroacupuncture at Zusanli (ST 36) combined with intravenous drip of Granisetron and intravenous drip of Granisetron only for treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by the chemotherapy of the malignant tumor.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The methods of multicentral, randomized controlled trial were used, the observation group (127 cases) was treated with electroacupuncture at Zusanli (ST 36) combined with intravenous drip of Granisetron, and the control group (119 cases) was treated with intravenous drip of Granisetron only.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The total effective rate of 90.5% in observation group was superior to that of 84.0% in control group (P < 0.01); the nausea and vomiting scores of two groups were obviously decreased after treatment (both P < 0.001), and the decreased degree of the observation group was superior to that of control group (P < 0.001).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Electroacupuncture at Zusanli (ST 36) can significantly alleviate the symptoms such as nausea and vomiting caused by the chemotherapy of the patients.</p>


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Agents , Electroacupuncture , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nausea , Therapeutics , Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Vomiting , Therapeutics , Young Adult
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