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1.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 47-54, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002702

ABSTRACT

With the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in clinical practice, the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria has become a global problem. The MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is especially difficult to treat and increases mortality in critically ill patients. Ceftolozane-tazobactam (Zerbaxa™) is a fifth-generation cephalosporin and beta-lactamase inhibitor that has proved to be effective for treating complicated urinary tract infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections caused by MDR P. aeruginosa. Herein, we report the first case of pediatric hematologic cancer in Korea that was successfully treated for MDR P. aeruginosa bacteremia with Ceftolozane-tazobactam.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e358-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001181

ABSTRACT

Background@#In pediatric patients, the common cold coronavirus (ccCoV) usually causes mild respiratory illness. There are reports of coronavirus causing central nervous system (CNS) infection in experimental animal models. Some immunocompromised patients have also been reported to have fatal CNS infections with ccCoV. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of CNS complications related to ccCoV infection. @*Methods@#From January 2014 to December 2019, a retrospective analysis was performed of medical records from hospitalized patients under 19 years of age whose ccCoV was detected through polymerase chain reaction in respiratory specimens. The CNS complications were defined as clinically diagnosed seizure, meningitis, encephalopathy, and encephalitis. @*Results@#A total of 436 samples from 420 patients were detected as ccCoV. Among the 420 patients, 269 patients were immunocompetent and 151 patients were immunocompromised.The most common type of ccCoV was OC43 (52% in immunocompetent, 37% in immunocompromised). CNS complications were observed in 9.4% (41/436). The most common type of CNS complication was the fever-provoked seizure under pre-existing neurologic disease (42% in immunocompetent and 60% in immunocompromised patients).Among patients with CNS complications, two immunocompetent patients required intensive care unit admission due to encephalitis. Three patients without underlying neurological disease started anti-seizure medications for the first time at this admission. There was no death related to ccCoV infection. @*Conclusion@#ccCoV infection may cause severe clinical manifestations such as CNS complications or neurologic sequelae, even in previously healthy children.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e225-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001122

ABSTRACT

Background@#There is difference in the incidence of multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) in patients with different variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, however, little is known about the epidemiology in Asian countries. We investigated and compared the epidemiology of the MIS-C during omicron-dominant period with that of previous periods in South Korea. @*Methods@#We obtained clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data on MIS-C cases from national MIS-C surveillance in South Korea. We defined pre-delta period as January 2020–May 2021; delta period as June 2021–December 2021; and omicron period as January 2022–April 2022. We describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of MIS-C patients by period. @*Results@#A total of 91 cases were assessed to be MIS-C cases. Number of MIS-C cases have increased from six cases during pre-delta period to 66 cases during omicron period, while the incidence rate (the number of MIS-C cases per 100,000 cases of reported coronavirus disease 2019) has decreased from 38.5 cases per 100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.1–83.9) during pre-delta period to 1.6 cases per 100,000 (95% CI, 1.2–2.0) during omicron periods. During pre-delta period, 66.7% and 100% had hypotension and gastrointestinal involvement, respectively; while during omicron period, 12.1% and 6.1% had such clinical manifestations. Fifty percent of pre-delta MIS-C patients were taken intensive care unit (ICU) cares, while 10.6% of patients during omicron periods were in ICUs. @*Conclusion@#Omicron period were associated with less severe clinical manifestation compared to pre-delta and delta periods. Although incidence rate of MIS-C was lower for the omicron period than pre-delta and delta periods, number of patients reported with MIS-C may pose a substantial clinical burden.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e249-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001069

ABSTRACT

Background@#The aim of this study was to capture multifaceted clinical characteristics of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection from diagnosis to treatment using a multidisciplinary approach including obstetrics, pediatrics, pathology, and otorhinolaryngology-head and neck surgery. @*Methods@#This is a retrospective study including 30 consecutive cases of congenital CMV infection that were diagnosed at a single tertiary hospital located in Seoul, Korea from January 2009 to December 2020. Congenital CMV infection was defined as a positive result by polymerase chain reaction from urine, saliva or cerebrospinal fluid or positive CMV IgM from neonatal blood sampled within 3 weeks after birth. All cases were analyzed with respect to whole clinical characteristics from diagnosis to treatment of congenital CMV by a multidisciplinary approach including prenatal sonographic findings, maternal immune status regarding CMV infection, detailed placental pathology, neonatal clinical manifestation, auditory brainstem response test, and antiviral treatment (ganciclovir or valganciclovir). Long-term outcomes including developmental delay and hearing loss were also investigated. @*Results@#The total number of births during the study period in our institution was 19,385, with the prevalence of congenital infection estimated to be 0.15%. Among 30 cases of congenital CMV, the median gestational age at delivery was 32.2 weeks [range, 22.6–40.0] and 66.7% of these infants were delivered preterm at less than 37 weeks. Suspected fetal growth restriction was the most common prenatal ultrasound finding (50%) followed by ventriculomegaly (17.9%) and abnormal placenta (17.9%), defined as thick placenta with calcification. No abnormal findings on ultrasound examination were observed in one-third of births. Maternal CMV serology tests were conducted in only 8 cases, and one case each of positive and equivocal IgM were found. The most common placental pathologic findings were chronic villitis (66.7%) and calcification (63.0%), whereas viral inclusions were identified in only 22.2%. The most common neonatal manifestations were jaundice (58.6%) followed by elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (55.2%) and thrombocytopenia (51.7%). After excluding cases for which long-term outcomes were unavailable due to death (n = 4) or subsequent follow up loss (n = 3), developmental delay was confirmed in 43.5% of infants (10/23), and hearing loss was confirmed in 42.9% (9/21) during the follow-up period. In our cohort, 56.7% (17/30) of neonates were treated for congenital CMV with ganciclovir or valganciclovir. @*Conclusion@#Our data show that prenatal findings including maternal serologic tests and ultrasound have limited ability to detect congenital CMV in Korea. Given that CMV is associated with high rates of developmental delay and hearing loss in infants, there is an urgent need to develop specific strategies for the definite diagnosis of congenital CMV infection during the perinatal period by a multidisciplinary approach to decrease the risks of neurologic impairment and hearing loss through early antiviral treatment.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e248-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001065

ABSTRACT

The pediatric population with comorbidities is a high-risk group for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As of January 2023, the COVID-19 vaccination rate for at least two doses among Korean children 5–11 years is low at 1.1%. We summarized the COVID-19 vaccination status for the pediatric population (5–17 years) with comorbidities through July 2022 using the National Health Insurance Service database. Pediatric patients with comorbidities had higher vaccination rates than the general pediatric population (2.4% vs. 1.1% in 5–11-year-olds [P < 0.001], 76.5% vs. 66.1% in 12–17-year-olds [P < 0.001]). However, there were substantial differences according to comorbidity category, and the 2-dose vaccination rate was lowest among children with immunodeficiency in all age groups (1.1% in 5–11-year-olds, 51.2% in 12–17-year-olds). The COVID-19 vaccination rate among Korean children has remained stagnant at a low proportion despite ongoing outreach. Thus, more proactive strategies are needed alongside continuous surveillance.

6.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e127-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976940

ABSTRACT

Background@#The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has contributed to the change in the epidemiology of many infectious diseases. This study aimed to establish the pre-pandemic epidemiology of pediatric invasive bacterial infection (IBI). @*Methods@#A retrospective multicenter-based surveillance for pediatric IBIs has been maintained from 1996 to 2020 in Korea. IBIs caused by eight bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella species) in immunocompetent children > 3 months of age were collected at 29 centers. The annual trend in the proportion of IBIs by each pathogen was analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 2,195 episodes were identified during the 25-year period between 1996 and 2020. S. pneumoniae (42.4%), S. aureus (22.1%), and Salmonella species (21.0%) were common in children 3 to 59 months of age. In children ≥ 5 years of age, S. aureus (58.1%), followed by Salmonella species (14.8%) and S. pneumoniae (12.2%) were common. Excluding the year 2020, there was a trend toward a decrease in the relative proportions of S. pneumoniae (rs = −0.430, P = 0.036), H. influenzae (rs = −0.922, P 3 months of age. These findings can be used as the baseline data to navigate the trend in the epidemiology of pediatric IBI in the post COVID-19 era.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e71-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967484

ABSTRACT

Since October 2021, severe acute hepatitis of unknown etiology in pediatric patients has been observed in many countries around the world. Adenovirus (mainly enteric adenovirus) was detected in more than 50% of the cases. Nationwide surveillance on acute hepatitis of unknown etiology in pediatric patients was started in May 2022 in Korea. Taking into account the severity of the illness and the urgency of the epidemiological situation worldwide, we report a summary of changes in adenovirus epidemiology during the past five years and six months in Korea.

8.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e62-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967414

ABSTRACT

Background@#Teicoplanin is a glycopeptide antimicrobial that treats serious invasive infections caused by gram-positive bacteria, such as the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Despite some comparable advantages, there is no guideline or clinical recommendation for teicoplanin in the pediatric population, unlike vancomycin where abundant studies and the recently revised guideline on therapeutic drug level monitoring (TDM) exist. @*Methods@#The systematic review was performed in accordance with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews. Two authors (JSC and SHY) searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases using relevant terms independently. @*Results@#Fourteen studies were finally included with a total of 1,380 patients. TDM was available in 2,739 samples collected in the nine studies. Dosing regimens varied widely, and eight studies used recommended dosing regimens. Timing for measuring TDM was mostly 72–96 hours or longer after the initiation of the first dose, which was expected to be a steadystate. The majority of studies had target trough levels of 10 µg/mL or above. Three studies reported that the clinical efficacy and treatment success rate of teicoplanin was 71.4%, 87.5%, and 88%. Adverse events associated with teicoplanin use were described in six studies with a focus on renal and/or hepatic impairment. Except for one study, no significant relation was noted between the incidence of adverse events and trough concentration. @*Conclusion@#Current evidence on teicoplanin trough levels in pediatric populations is insufficient due to heterogeneity. However, target trough levels with favorable clinical efficacy are achievable by recommended dosing regimen in the majority of patients.

9.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 56-66, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919473

ABSTRACT

Background@#Because the etiologies of bronchiectasis and related diseases vary significantly among different regions and ethnicities, this study aimed to develop a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis in South Korea. @*Methods@#A modified Delphi method was used to develop expert consensus statements on a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis in South Korea. Initial statements proposed by a core panel, based on international bronchiectasis guidelines, were discussed in an online meeting and two email surveys by a panel of experts (≥70% agreement). @*Results@#The study involved 21 expert participants, and 30 statements regarding a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis were classified as recommended, conditional, or not recommended. The consensus statements of the expert panel were as follows: A standardized diagnostic bundle is useful in clinical practice; diagnostic tests for specific diseases, including immunodeficiency and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, are necessary when clinically suspected; initial diagnostic tests, including sputum microbiology and spirometry, are essential in all patients with bronchiectasis, and patients suspected with rare causes such as primary ciliary dyskinesia should be referred to specialized centers. @*Conclusion@#Based on this Delphi survey, expert consensus statements were generated including specific diagnostic, laboratory, microbiological, and pulmonary function tests required to manage patients with bronchiectasis in South Korea.

10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e196-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938066

ABSTRACT

Background@#Acinetobacter baumannii infections cause high morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, there are limited data on the changes of longterm epidemiology of imipenem resistance in A. baumannii bacteremia among pediatric ICU (PICU) patients. @*Methods@#A retrospective review was performed on patients with A. baumannii bacteremia in PICU of a tertiary teaching hospital from 2000 to 2016. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and polymerase chain reaction for antimicrobial resistance genes were performed for available isolates. @*Results@#A. baumannii bacteremia occurred in 27 patients; imipenem-sensitive A. baumannii (ISAB, n = 10, 37%) and imipenem-resistant A. baumannii (IRAB, n = 17, 63%). There was a clear shift in the antibiogram of A. baumannii during the study period. From 2000 to 2003, all isolates were ISAB (n = 6). From 2005 to 2008, both IRAB (n = 5) and ISAB (n = 4) were isolated. However, from 2009, all isolates were IRAB (n = 12). Ten isolates were available for additional test and confirmed as IRAB. MLST analysis showed that among 10 isolates, sequence type 138 was predominant (n = 7). All 10 isolates were positive for OXA-23-like and OXA-51-like carbapenemase. Of 27 bacteremia patients, 11 were male (41%), the median age at bacteremia onset was 5.2 years (range, 0–18.6 years). In 33% (9/27) of patients, A. baumannii was isolated from tracheal aspirate prior to development of bacteremia (median, 8 days; range, 5–124 days). The overall case-fatality rate was 63% (17/27) within 28 days. There was no statistical difference in the case fatality rate between ISAB and IRAB groups (50% vs. 71%; P = 0.422). @*Conclusion@#IRAB bacteremia causes serious threat in patients in PICU. Proactive infection control measures and antimicrobial stewardship are crucial for managing IRAB infection in PICU.

11.
Allergy, Asthma & Respiratory Disease ; : 45-49, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913333

ABSTRACT

Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a chronic disease related to human papillomavirus infection. The standard treatment of RRP is surgical resection of the lesion, but due to frequent recurrence, a combination of various adjuvant therapies has been attempted. Herein, we present the first case of RRP to whom intravenous cidofovir was administered as an adjuvant therapy in Korea. A 9-year-old boy was admitted due to hoarseness, stridor and breathing difficulty. At 10 months of age, he was diagnosed with RRP in the upper airway and thereafter he had repeatedly undergone surgical removal. During this hospitalization, papilloma was found again from the superior glottis to the inferior glottis and surrounding the trachea at the age of 9 years. In addition, well-defined nodular lesions were newly found on both lung fields, and a pathologic examination revealed a squamous papilloma with highgrade dysplasia, human papilloma virus types 6, 11, and 40 (low-risk type). Because of the frequent recurrence of papilloma in the upper airway as well as lung involvement, he underwent 38 injections of intravenous cidofovir for 2 years. During treatment, the intervals required for surgical removal of the mass causing upper airway obstruction were prolonged from an average of 37.3 to 74.6 days without serious side effects. However, intravenous cidofovir treatment had no effect on the lung lesion. This case shows that an intravenous cidofovir administration can be used as an adjuvant therapy in a child with RRP to relieve the upper airway obstruction, although this treatment does not cure the disease.

12.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 118-123, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968518

ABSTRACT

A dermatophyte is a zoonotic infection that causes infection on the skin, hair, and nails and is transmitted through contact. The species of Microsporum, Trichophyton, and Epidermophyton are the major dermatophytes that infect humans. Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection in the scalp, and it may progress to Kerion celsi, including severe redness, swelling, and pus formation. Kerion celsi is sometimes misdiagnosed as a bacterial infection or a tumor. Trichophyton verrucosum is a zoophilic dermatophyte that mainly causes infection in cattle. It can be spread to dairy farmers or ranchers who have frequent contact with infected cattle. We report a pediatric case who received scalp tumor excision and a split-thickness skin graft for extensive and severe inflammatory scalp tumors that occurred after contact with cattle with ringworm. Finally, the patient was diagnosed with Kerion celsi caused by T. verrucosum infection. This was based on the patient’s medical history, clinical manifestations, and histopathologic findings.

13.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 96-104, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968516

ABSTRACT

Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is an inflammatory bone disorder presenting with sterile osteomyelitis, most often presenting in childhood. Although the etiology is understood incompletely, its association with other auto-inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); psoriasis; Wegener’s disease; arthritis; and synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome suggests that dysregulated innate immunity may play an important role in the pathogenesis. We report a case of a 13-year-old boy with CRMO associated with Crohn’s disease (CD) successfully treated with infliximab after failure of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment. He initially was diagnosed with CRMO based on symmetric and aseptic bone lesions with no fever, lack of response to antibiotic treatment, vertebral involvement, and normal blood cell counts. Despite five months of NSAID treatment, his musculoskeletal symptoms were aggravated, and he developed gastrointestinal symptoms. Finally, he was diagnosed with CRMO associated with CD. Due to the severity of symptoms, infliximab was initiated and produced symptom improvement. This case supports infliximab as another choice for treatment of bowel symptoms in addition to the bone and joint symptoms of CRMO when other first-line treatments are ineffective.

14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e71-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892256

ABSTRACT

Background@#For the 2018–2019 season, the national influenza immunization program expanded to cover children aged from 6 months to 12 years in Korea. This study aimed to analyze vaccine effectiveness (VE) against influenza in children visiting the pediatric emergency room at a tertiary hospital during the 2018-2019 season. @*Methods@#Patients tested for influenza antigens from October 1st 2018 to May 31st 2019 at the pediatric emergency room of Samsung Medical Center were included. Patients' influenza antigen test results, influenza vaccination history, and underlying medical conditions were reviewed retrospectively. VE was estimated from the test-negative design study. @*Results@#Among the 2,901 visits with influenza test results 1,692 visits of 1,417 patients were included for analysis. Among these 1,417 patients, 285 (20.1%) were positive (influenza A, n = 211, 74.0%; influenza B, n = 74, 26.0%). The VE in all patients was 36.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.9 to 53.1). The VE for influenza A was 37.6% (95% CI, 12.6 to 55.5) and VE for influenza B was 24.0% (−38.5 to 58.3). The VE in the age group 6 months to 12 years was significant with a value of 35.6% (95% CI, 10.5 to 53.7); it was not statistically significant in the age group 13 to 18 years. In a multivariate logistic regression model, patients who received an influenza vaccination were less likely to get influenza infection (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4 to 0.8; P = 0.001), with significant confounding factors such as age group 13 to 18 years (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3 to 0.8; P = 0.003) and underlying hematology-oncology disease (OR, 0.3;95% CI, 0.1 to 0.6; P = 0.002). @*Conclusion@#We report moderate effectiveness of influenza vaccination in previously healthy children aged from 6 months to 12 years in the 2018-2019 season.

15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e166-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892237

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study presents a framework for determining the allocation and distribution of the limited amount of vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). @*Methods@#After analyzing the pandemic strategies of the major organizations and countries and with a literature review conducted by a core panel, a modified Delphi survey was administered to 13 experts in the fields of vaccination, infectious disease, and public health in the Republic of Korea. The following topics were discussed: 1) identifying the objectives of the vaccination strategy, 2) identifying allocation criteria, and 3) establishing a step-bystep vaccination framework and prioritization strategy based on the allocation criteria. Two rounds of surveys were conducted for each topic, with a structured questionnaire provided via e-mail in the first round. After analyzing the responses, a meeting with the experts was held to obtain consensus on how to prioritize the population groups. @*Results@#The first objective of the vaccination strategy was maintenance of the integrity of the healthcare system and critical infrastructure, followed by reduction of morbidity and mortality and reduction of community transmission. In the initial phase, older adult residents in care homes, high-risk health and social care workers, and personal support workers who work in direct contact with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients would be prioritized. Expansion of vaccine supply would allow immunization of older adults not included in phase 1, followed by healthcare workers not previously included and individuals with comorbidities. Further widespread vaccine supply would ensure availability to the extended adult age groups (50–64 years old), critical workers outside the health sector, residents who cannot socially distance, and, eventually, the remaining populations. @*Conclusion@#This survey provides the much needed insight into the decision-making process for vaccine allocation at the national level. However, flexibility in adapting to strategies will be essential, as new information is constantly emerging.

16.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e232-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892170

ABSTRACT

Background@#Korean health authority plans to vaccinate adolescents against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) starting high school seniors during the summer vacation of 2021.However, the myocarditis/pericarditis following COVID-19 vaccine has been reported recently in adolescents and young adults. This study was performed to answer the urgent questions about the basic epidemiology and clinical course of myocarditis/pericarditis in hospitalized patients prior to the introduction of COVID-19 vaccines in pediatric population. @*Methods@#A retrospective medical record analysis including frequency, clinical characteristics, etiology and outcome of myocarditis/pericarditis was conducted in 17 years and younger patients who were hospitalized in two referral hospitals in Korea between 2010 and 2019. @*Results@#Total 142 patients with myocarditis (n = 119) and/or pericarditis (n = 23) were identified. Median age was 5.4 years (interquartile range, 0.6–12.9 years; range, 11 days–17.8 years), and male was 61%. In adolescents aged 12–17 years, the male to female ratio was 3.2. Myocarditis/pericarditis occurred 0.70 per 1,000 in-patients during the study period: 0.96 (< 1 year), 0.50 (1–5 years), 0.67 (6–11 years) and 1.22 (12–17 years) per 1,000 in-patients, respectively. There was an increasing tendency for the annual frequency from 0.34 in 2010 to 1.25 per 1,000 in-patients in 2019 (P = 0.021). Among the 56 (40%) proven pathogens at admission, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n = 11, 8%) and enterovirus (n = 10, 7%) were most common. Of the 142 patients, 99 (70%) required pediatric intensive care unit care and 10 (7%) received heart transplantation. In addition, 61 patients (61/131, 47%) without heart medication at admission needed heart medication when they were discharged. Eleven (7.7%) patients died, of which five patients were previously healthy. The median age of deceased patients was lower than the survival group (0.8 vs. 6.3 years, P = 0.014). @*Conclusion@#The frequency of myocarditis/pericarditis was highest among male adolescent in-patients; however, the outcome was favorable in this group without any mortality.

17.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 166-219, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890917

ABSTRACT

Despite the global effort to mitigate the spread, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic that took more than 2 million lives. There are numerous ongoing clinical studies aiming to find treatment options and many are being published daily. Some effective treatment options, albeit of variable efficacy, have been discovered. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an evidence-based methodology, to continuously check for new evidence, and to update recommendations accordingly. Here we provide guidelines on pharmaceutical treatment for COVID-19 based on the latest evidence.

18.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 395-403, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890899

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies targeted at the receptor-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein have been developed and now under evaluation in clinical trials. The US Food and Drug Administration currently issued emergency use authorizations for neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in non-hospitalized patients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who are at high risk for progressing to severe disease and/or hospitalization. In terms of this situation, there is an urgent need to investigate the clinical aspects and to develop strategies to deploy them effectively in clinical practice. Here we provide guidance for the use of anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of COVID-19 based on the latest evidence.

19.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 42-48, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895436

ABSTRACT

Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is a serious threat to pediatric patients with cancer given high morbidity and mortality. We present an 18-year-old male with precursor T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia who developed Pancoast syndrome, presented with paresthesia and numbness in the right shoulder and arm during a neutropenic fever period. He was diagnosed with pneumonia in the right upper lung field. He was later found to have an invasive pulmonary fungal infection caused by multiple fungi species, including Rhizomucor, confirmed by histology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (proven infection), Penicillium decumbens diagnosed by PCR, and Aspergillus suspected from galactomannan assay (probable infection). Unfortunately, the patient's condition further worsened owing to the aggravation of leukemia, chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, and bacterial coinfection, leading to multiorgan failure and death. Here, we report a case of IFI caused by multiple fungal species that presented as Pancoast syndrome.

20.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 7-20, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895431

ABSTRACT

As of March 2021, humanity has been suffering from the global severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic that began late 2019. In 2020, new vaccine platforms— including mRNA vaccines and viral vector-based DNA vaccines—have been given emergency use authorization (EUA), leading to rolling out the vaccines for global mass vaccinations.The purpose of this article is to review the currently most widely used coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines: their action mechanisms and efficacy and safety data from clinical trials that have been published to date. In addition, the current status of clinical trials in the pediatric population was summarized, and further consideration for them was discussed.

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