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1.
Chinese Journal of Perinatal Medicine ; (12): 448-452, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995123

ABSTRACT

The lower limit of preterm birth varies around the world. In China, the lower limit of preterm infants is set at the gestational age of 28 +0-36 +6 weeks or birth weight ≥1 000 g. Extremely preterm infants are defined as neonates born before 28 weeks of gestation by the World Health Organization. With the development of perinatal medicine and the achievements in neonatal care, the survival rate and the short/long-term outcomes of extreme preterm infants have been greatly improved in China. This article reviews the survival rate, mortality/severe disability rate and medical costs of extremely preterm infants, aiming to provide reference for setting the right lower limit of gestational age for preterm births.

2.
Chinese Journal of Perinatal Medicine ; (12): 18-20, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933874

ABSTRACT

More and more new technologies are being applied to prenatal diagnosis as the development of genetic testing technology advances. Pedigree analysis and phenotype recognition are the foundation of prenatal genetic counseling and diagnosis. In addition, fully understanding the advantages and disadvantages of different genetic testing techniques, developing a rationale, standardized and sequential testing strategy for the affected family, and analyzing the underlying genetic etiology and prognosis are critical for prenatal diagnosis and achieving the goal of birth defect prevention.

3.
Chinese Journal of Perinatal Medicine ; (12): 601-608, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-958117

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the performance of biomarkers in aneuploidy screening in the first trimester-pregnancy associated plasma protein A(PAPP-A) combined with Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF)'s competing risk model in screening preeclampsia among our population.Methods:This study was based on a prospective cohort of singleton pregnant women who underwent aneuploidy screening in the first trimester in Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital from January 2017 to September 2020. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), uterine artery pulsatility index (UtA-PI), and PAPP-A were converted into multiples of median (MoM) using the algorithm disclosed on the website of the FMF (fetalmedicine.org). The predictive outcomes of maternal factors alone or in combination with MAP, UtA-PI, and PAPP-A (alone or in combination) were calculated. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test or rank sum test were used for comparison among groups and Bonferroni method for pairwise comparisons. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the screening efficiency and to calculate the sensitivities of predicting preeclampsia, term and preterm preeclampsia at false-positive rates of 5% and 10%. The predictive performance of this model was further compared to the screening strategy that was recommended in Diagnosis and treatment of hypertension and pre-eclampsia in pregnancy: a clinical practice guideline in China (2020). Results:Among the 5 144 singleton pregnancy women who were recruited in the cohort, 4 919 cases were included and analyzed in this study. A total of 223 cases were diagnosed as preeclampsia (4.5%), including 55 preterm (1.1%) and 168 term preeclampsia (3.4%). The median of MoM values of MAP, UtA-PI, and PAPP-A in the non-preeclampsia group were around 1.0±0.1. Statistical significance was observed in the difference of MAP, UtA-PI, and PAPP-A Mom between women with preterm preeclampsia and those without preeclampsia [1.061 (0.999-1.150) vs 0.985 (0.935-4.043), 1.115 (0.873-1.432) vs 1.039 (0.864-1.236), 0.820 (0.493-1.066) vs 1.078 (0.756-1.508)], which was also seen in the difference of MAP and PAPP-A Mom between women with term preeclampsia and those without preeclampsia [1.065 (1.002-1.133) vs 0.985 (0.935-4.043), 1.007 (0.624-1.393) vs 1.078 (0.756-1.508)] (all P<0.025). The combination screening with maternal factors+MAP+UtA-PI+PAPP-A was noted for the best efficiency. In predicting preeclampsia preterm and term preeclampsia at the false-positive rate of 10%, the sensitivity of the model was 53.0%, 76.4% and 44.6% respectively. Using the screening method recommended in Diagnosis and treatment of hypertension and pre-eclampsia in pregnancy: a clinical practice guideline in China(2020), the proportion of people at high risk of preeclampsia was 5.9% (290/4 919), and the sensitivity for predicting preterm preeclampsia was 25.5% (14/55), which was significantly lower than the combination screening with maternal factors+MAP+UtA-PI+PAPP-A [65.5% (36/55)] when using the same proportion of high-risk population. Conclusion:The preeclampsia screening model based on aneuploidy screening biomarkers in the first trimester--PAPP-A in combination with materral factors, MAP, UtA-PI, can effectively screen preterm preeclampsia in the local population without increasing the laboratory costs.

4.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 762-766, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-957292

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of geriatric hip fractures.Methods:This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of 2 054 elderly patients with hip fracture aged 60 years and over who were admitted to Beijing Hospital from January 2011 to December 2020.The epidemiological characteristics of geriatric hip fractures were analyzed from the aspects of age, gender, fracture type, length of stay, surgical method and surgical complications.Results:The total number of hip fractures patients admitted from 2011 to 2020 showed a general upward trend in quantity.Among them, there were 1 177 femoral neck fractures(57.3%, 1 177/2 054), and 877 intertrochanteric femoral fractures(42.7%, 877/2 054)with statistical differences in the distribution of fracture types between patients at different ages( χ2=61.727, P<0.001). A total of 1 839 patients chose surgical treatment, accounting for 89.5% of the total number of patients.Artificial femoral head arthroplasty was the most common operation mode for patients with femoral neck fractures(783 cases, 75.4%).534 patients with intertrochanteric femoral fractures(66.8%)were treated with closed reduction and femoral intramedullary nailing.There was a statistically significant difference in operation modes among different fracture types( χ2=1 480.800, P<0.001). The length of hospital stay in patients with femoral neck fracture was(14.2±8.3)days, which was significantly longer than in patients with femoral neck fracture(13.2±10.9)days( t=2.417, P=0.016). There was no significant difference in the time from admission to operation between the two groups[(5.7±3.5)days vs.(5.4±3.3)days]( t=1.954, P=0.051). Among all the comorbidities of hip fracture patients, the top 5 diseases were cardiovascular system diseases(2 001 cases, 97.4%), nervous system diseases(1 105 cases, 53.8%), endocrine system diseases(814 cases, 39.6%), skeletal and muscular system diseases(623 cases, 30.3%), digestive system diseases(472 cases, 23.0%).1 485 patients(72.3%)had 3 or more comorbidities. Conclusions:Hip fractures in the elderly have some epidemiological distribution characteristics in terms of age, gender, length of hospitalization, injury mechanism and comorbidities, which is conducive to further improve the prevention and treatment strategies for hip fractures and promote the rational allocation of medical resources.

5.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 449-455, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-956676

ABSTRACT

Objective:To understand the actual situation of the implementation of “Diagnosis and therapy guideline of preterm birth(2014)”, “Guideline” for short, by front-line obstetricians, and to provide reference for the further update and supplement of the “Guideline”.Methods:This study designed a structured questionnaire for the prominent problems in the prevention and treatment of preterm birth, which was determined by the expert team drafting the “Guideline”. In October to November 2021, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among obstetricians, including members of the Perinatal Medicine Branch of Jiangsu Medical Association and the Obstetrics Subgroup,Chinese society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chinese Medical Association, on the implementation status of the “Guideline”. The recommendations of the “Guideline” were used as standard answers to determine the implementation rate. A total of 328 valid questionnaires were collected. The total score of the questionnaire was 12 points. The questionnaire was divided into low executive ability group (<7 points) and high executive ability group (≥7 points) with a score of 7 as the threshold value, and the differences in baseline information such as hospital grade and professional title between the two groups were compared.Results:The score of 328 obstetricians was (7.6±1.6) points, including 250 (76.2%, 250/328) in the high execution group and 78 (23.8%, 78/328) in the low execution group. The execution rates of “the use of uterine contraction inhibitors for short courses”[97.0% (318/328)], “late umbilical cord breakage after birth of premature infants”[87.8% (288/328)] and “should preterm patients with intact membranes be treated with antibiotics”[86.6% (284/328)] were all over 80%, indicating good implementation. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that hospital grade and professional title were independent factors influencing the performance of the “Guideline”(all P<0.05), and secondary hospitals had lower scores and worse execution than tertiary hospitals ( OR=0.42, 95% CI: 0.23-0.77; P=0.005). Senior titles had higher scores and better execution than junior titles ( OR=5.33, 95% CI: 2.35-12.07; P<0.001). When answering the question “gestational week at which premature infants could survive in your hospital”, only 3.4% (11/328) answered 22 weeks, and 44.5% (146/328) answered 28 weeks, accounted for the highest proportion. The gestational week of surviving premature infants in tertiary hospitals was earlier than that in secondary hospitals ( P<0.05). The gestational week of surviving premature infants answered by senior titles was earlier than that of junior titles ( P<0.05). Conclusions:Obstetricians generally have a good implementation of the “Guideline”, and their understanding of some recommended clauses in the guidelines needs to be improved. In the future, training of primary hospitals and physicians with junior titles should be strengthened.

6.
Chinese Journal of Perinatal Medicine ; (12): 423-426, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885582

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the abnormal results of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) in the subsequent pregnancy of women with adverse pregnancy history, and explore the applicability of CMA in women with different genetic etiology.Methods:Out of 5 563 pregnant women who received CMA test in Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital during June 2014 and July 2020, 169 cases that underwent prenatal diagnosis due to isolated adverse pregnancy history were retrospectively collected in this study. All the participants were divided into three groups based on the etiology type of probands, genetic origin and expected CMA outcome: high-risk group ( n=19, including 11 cases with inherited pathogenic copy number variations and eight cases with inherited chromosomal abnormalities), low-risk group ( n=113, including six cases with negative whole exome sequencing and/or CMA findings, 31 cases with confirmed monogenic disease, 47 cases with de novo pathogenic copy number variations and 29 cases with de novo chromosomal abnormalities), and unknown risk group ( n=40, none of the cases underwent genetic testing). Descriptive statistical analysis was used to summarize the abnormal detection of each group. Results:There were 169 mothers with 172 fetuses finally enrolled, including two twins and one woman with two singleton pregnancies. A total of nine cases of abnormal fetuses were detected by CMA, accounting for 5.2% (9/172). Among them, eight were in the high-risk group, which were all caused by parental abnormalities, and one case in the low-risk group was detected with a de novo 22q11.22q11.23 microduplication, which was arr[GRCh37]22q11.22q11.23(22,997,928-25,002,659)×3. No abnormality was detected in the 40 patients of unknown risk group. Conclusions:Clarifying the etiology of isolated adverse pregnancy history is crucial to the rational application of CMA. Monogenic disease, unknown cause or negative finding of CMA in probands may not be an indication for prenatal diagnosis of CMA.

7.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 161-170, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-884346

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effects of interpregnancy interval (IPI) on pregnancy outcomes of subsequent pregnancy.Methods:A multicenter retrospective study was conducted in 21 hospitals in China. Information of age, height, pre-pregnancy weight, IPI, history of diseases, complications of pregnancy, gestational age of delivery, delivery mode, and pregnancy outcomes of the participants were collected by consulting medical records of pregnant women who had two consecutive deliveries in the same hospital during 2011 to 2018. The participants were divided into 4 groups according to IPI:<18 months, 18-23 months, 24-59 months and ≥60 months. According to the WHO′s recommendation, with the IPI of 24-59 months group as a reference, to the effects of IPI on pregnancy outcomes of subsequent pregnancy were analyzed. Stratified analysis was further carried out based on age, history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), macrosomia, and premature delivery, to explore the differences in the effects of IPI on pregnancy outcomes among women with different characteristics.Results:A total of 8 026 women were included in this study. There were 423, 623, 5 512 and 1 468 participants in <18 months group, 18-23 months group, 24-59 months group and ≥60 months group, respectively. (1) The age, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), history of cesarean section, GDM, gestational hypertension and cesarean section delivery rate of <18 months group, 18-23 months group, 24-59 months group and ≥60 months group were gradually increased, and the differences were statistically significant ( P<0.05). (2) After adjusting for potential confounding factors, compared with women in the IPI of 24-59 months group, the risk of premature delivery, premature rupture of membranes, and oligohydramnios were increased by 42% ( OR=1.42, 95% CI: 1.07-1.88, P=0.015), 46% ( OR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.13-1.88, P=0.004), and 64% ( OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.13-2.38, P=0.009) respectively for women in the IPI≥60 months group. No effects of IPI on other pregnancy outcomes were found in this study ( P>0.05). (3) After stratified by age and adjusted for confounding factors, compared with women in the IPI of 24-59 months group, IPI≥60 months would significantly increase the risk of oligohydramnios for women with advanced age ( OR=2.87, 95% CI: 1.41-5.83, P=0.004); and <18 months could increase the risk of premature rupture of membranes for women under the age of 35 ( OR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.04-2.43, P=0.032). Both the risk of premature rupture of membranes ( OR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.18-2.13, P=0.002) and premature delivery ( OR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.07-2.17, P=0.020) were significantly increased in the IPI≥60 months group. After stratified by history of GDM and adjusted for confounding factors, compared with women in the IPI of 24-59 months group, IPI≥60 months would lead to an increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage for women with a history of GDM ( OR=5.34, 95% CI: 1.45-19.70, P=0.012) and an increased risk of premature rupture of membranes for women without a history of GDM ( OR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.10-1.90, P=0.009). After stratified by history of macrosomia and adjusted for confounding factors, compared with women in the IPI of 24-59 months group, IPI≥60 months could increase the proportion of cesarean section for women with a history of macrosomia ( OR=4.11, 95% CI: 1.18-14.27, P=0.026) and the risk of premature rupture of membranes for women without a history of macrosomia ( OR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.12-1.89, P=0.005). After stratified by history of premature delivery and adjusted for confounding factors, compared with women in the IPI of 24-59 months group, IPI≥60 months would significantly increase the risk of premature rupture of membranes for women without a history of premature delivery ( OR=1.47, 95% CI: 1.13-1.92, P=0.004). Conclusions:Both IPI≥60 months and <18 months would increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the subsequent pregnancy. Healthcare education and consultation should be conducted for women of reproductive age to maintain an appropriate IPI when they plan to pregnant again, to reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the subsequent pregnancy.

8.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 767-773, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910181

ABSTRACT

Objective:To construct the gestational‐age‐specific blood pressure curve and percentile blood pressure values of pregnant women in Jiangsu Province, and to explore the clinic significance of the blood pressure changes in women whose blood pressure was less than 140/90 mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) in each trimester and eventually developed pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) or pre-eclampsia (PE).Methods:A prospective longitudinal cohort during pregnancy was built. Singleton pregnant women in the first trimester (11-13 +6 weeks) were recruited from July 2017 to September 2020 in Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, and were followed up in the second trimester (19-23 +6 weeks), the third trimester (30-33 +6 weeks) and approaching the expected date of delivery (35-38 +6 weeks). The Viewpoint 6.0 software was used to record pregnancy-related information. The blood pressure was measured by standard methods in our clinic. Least mean square (LMS) function was performed to fit the gestational-age-specific blood pressure curve and percentile blood pressure values were calculated at every follow‐up time point. Logistic regression was applied to calculate the OR for the groups with blood pressure ≥95th percentile ( P95). Results:There were 3 728 singleton pregnant women invited in this study, including 3 490 normal pregnant women (93.62%, 3 490/3 728), and 238 pregnant women with PIH or PE (6.38%, 238/3 728). Gestational-age-specific blood pressure curve showed that systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased in the second trimester, compared with those in the first and the third trimester, however the fluctuation of blood pressure was low, but regardless of the gestational age, P95 of SBP, DBP and MAP increased by 14, 11 and 11 mmHg respectively, compared with 50th percentile ( P50). In the first trimester, the risk of developing PIH or PE finally in pregnant women with blood pressure ≥ P95 was 4.36-fold (95% CI: 2.99-6.35) for SBP than women with SBP< P95, 5.22-fold (95% CI: 3.65-7.46) for DBP and 5.14-fold (95% CI: 3.61-7.32) for MAP. When approaching the expected date of delivery, the corresponding risks of the women with blood pressure ≥ P95 were 16.76 times, 27.45 and 27.31 times respectively than those of the women with blood pressure < P95. In the first trimester, every 1 mmHg elevation of SBP the risk developing PIH or PE increased by 24% ( OR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.15-1.33), 44% ( OR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.31-1.59) for DBP and 47% ( OR=1.47, 95% CI: 1.33-1.61) for MAP, respectively. The risk in the second trimester was similar to that in the first trimester, and in the third trimester, the risk was further increased. When approaching the expected date of delivery, DBP or MAP increased by 1 mmHg, the risk developing PIH or PE was double; while SBP increased by 1 mmHg, the risk increased by 58%. The areas under the receiver operator characteristic curves of SBP, DBP and MAP were similar for predicting PIH or PE, and the predictive efficiency were all poor. Conclusions:Construction of percentile blood pressure values for pregnant women is helpful in identification of high-risk women of developing PIH or PE. The risk of PIH or PE in pregnant women with blood pressure ≥ P95 but <140/90 mmHg has significantly increased compared with women with blood pressure < P95.

9.
Chinese Journal of Perinatal Medicine ; (12): 891-897, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911988

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects of gestational weight gain (GWG) at different stages on pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM), small for gestational age (SGA), and large for gestational age (LGA).Methods:This was a prospective longitudinal cohort study. Singleton pregnancies at 11-13 +6 weeks of gestation in the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University from January 2017 to November 2019 were recruited. The maternal height, weight, blood pressure, and fetal ultrasonic parameters were measured at 19-23 +6, 29-34 +6, and 35-40 +6 weeks of gestation by face-to-face interview and the pregnancy outcomes were followed up. All participants were grouped by body mass index (BMI) in the first trimester, with <18.50 kg/m 2 as underweight group, 18.50-23.99 kg/m 2 as normal group, ≥24.00 kg/m 2 as overweight/obesity group. Chi-square test and rank-sum test were adopted for comparison among groups. Weekly weight gain was converted into Z scores, and insufficient, appropriate, and excessive weight gain were respectively defined when Z<-1, -1≤ Z≤1, and Z>1. The effect of weekly weight gain at different gestational trimesters on pregnancy complications was analyzed by binary logistic regression. Results:Totally, 4 143 pregnant women entered the cohort. After excluding 327 cases, 3 816 were finally included in the analysis, with 394 in underweight group, 2 668 in normal group, and 754 in overweight/obesity group. Excessive weekly weight gain in the early second trimester was a risk factor for LGA( aOR=1.78, 95% CI:1.31-2.42, P<0.001), and in the later second trimester it was associated with preterm preeclampsia ( aOR=3.00, 95% CI: 1.26-7.10, P=0.013), gestational hypertension ( aOR=2.38, 95% CI: 1.44-3.94, P=0.001), and LGA ( aOR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.15-2.22, P=0.005). In the third trimester, excessive weekly weight gain was associated with higher risks of term preeclampsia ( aOR=2.70, 95% CI: 1.61-4.54, P<0.001) and gestational hypertension ( aOR=1.84, 95% CI: 1.05-3.21, P=0.033); while insufficient weekly weight gain was a risk factor for SGA ( aOR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.01-2.48, P=0.045), but a protective factor for term preeclampsia ( aOR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.14-0.97, P=0.041). Insufficient and excessive weekly weight gain in the early second trimester were not related to GDM (both P>0.05). Conclusions:GWG at different stages has different effects on pregnancy complications. A more relaxed control of GWG in the early second trimester combined with strict control in both the later second trimester and the third trimester may be a reasonable strategy to reduce the risk of preeclampsia without increasing the risk of SGA.

10.
Chinese Journal of Perinatal Medicine ; (12): 376-379, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-871076

ABSTRACT

Genetic variation is an important cause of fetal structural abnormalities, which account for more than half of birth defects in China. Prenatal ultrasound examination is the main method to detect/diagnose fetal structural malformations, and accurate genetic diagnosis provides the basis for prenatal counseling and subsequent management for fetuses with ultrasound abnormalities. At present, ultrasound morphological diagnosis combined with genetic analysis is the main prenatal diagnostic strategy. Practitioners should strengthen the theoretical knowledge and accurately grasp the technical standards for fetal ultrasound screening and genetic diagnosis, which are critical to improve the efficiency of prenatal diagnosis in clinical practice.

11.
Chinese Journal of Radiology ; (12): 882-885, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-868349

ABSTRACT

Objective:To discuss the feasibility, safety and efficacy of kissing cover stents technique in the management of pseudoaneurysm near the bifurcation of innominate artery (the distance <1 cm).Methods:A retrospective study of 10 patients with pseudoaneurysm near the bifurcation of innominate artery were performed in the Affiliated Wuxi People’s Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from May 2013 to August 2018. There were 6 males and 4 females, aged from 25.0 to 77.0 years old, with a median age of 50.5 years old. All patients were treated with Viabahn stents combined with kissing stents. The adverse reactions were observed during the perioperative period, and the patients were followed up to evaluate the stents position and patency. Results:Among 10 patients, 2 were in the distal of innominate artery, 5 were in the bifurcation of innominate artery, 2 were in the root of right common carotid artery and 1 was in the origin of right subclavian artery. The distance from the injury site to the bifurcation of innominate artery was less than 5 mm in 4 cases and 8 mm in 1 case. All of them were successfully treated with Viabahn stents combined with kissing stents. Operation time ranged from 100.0 to 150.0 (122.0±14.9) min. The postoperative hospitalization time was (6.3±1.5) d, ranged from 4.0 to 9.0 d. During the operation, 8 mm×100 mm Viabahn stents were implanted in the right subclavian artery and 10 mm×100 mm Viabahn stents were implanted in the right common carotid artery. There were no severe adverse reactions during the perioperative period. Follow-up time ranged from 12 to 24 months. During the follow-up, color Doppler ultrasound and carotid CT angiography showed that the stents were in appropriate position, the blood flow was unobstructed, and there was no occlusion and displacement of stents. Viabahn stents remained at the level of proximal end of the innominate artery.Conclusion:Viabahn stents combined with kissing stents is a safe and effective treatment for pseudoaneurysm near the bifurcation of innominate artery.

12.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 667-672, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-868162

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate and analyze disease status and risk factors of venous thromboembolism (VTE) during pregnancy and puerperium in our country.Methods:Clinical datas were collected from 575 patients diagnosed with VTE during pregnancy and puerperium and hospitalized in nine medical institutions in our country from January 1, 2015 to November 30, 2019, and retrospectively analyzed it′s disease status and risk factors.Results:(1) The proportion of VTE in pregnancy and puerperium was 50.6% (291/575) and 49.4% (284/575), respectively. Four patients died, the mortality rate was 0.7% (4/575). The cause of death was pulmonary embolism. (2) The location of VTE during pregnancy and puerperium was mainly in the lower limb vascular (76.2%, 438/575), followed by pulmonary vessels (7.1%, 41/575). (3) In the risk factors of VTE, cesarean section accounted for 32.3% (186/575), maternal advance age accounted for 27.7% (159/575), braking or hospitalization during pregnancy accounted for 13.6% (78/575), other risk factors accounted for more than 5% were previous VTE, obesity, preterm birth, assistant reproductive technology conception and so on, pre-eclampsia and multiple pregnancy accounted for 4.9% (28/575) respectively. In addition, some patients with VTE did not have any of the above risk factors, and the incidence rate was as high as 23.1% (133/575).Conclusions:The occurrence of VTE during pregnancy and puerperium is related to multiple risk factors, and could lead to matemal death, It is very necessary to screen VTE risk factors for all pregnant women, to make corresponding prevention and control measures.

13.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 450-456, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-868143

ABSTRACT

Objective:To access the effectiveness and safety of the intrauterine balloon tamponade verse gauze packing combined with temporary abdominal aortic balloon occlusion in the management of placenta accreta spectrum (PAS).Methods:This was an open-label, randomized controlled trial conducted in Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital. The patients suspected with PAS for uterine preservation surgery under the multidisciplinary team care were recruited between Aug 2015 and Jan 2018. When bleeding could not be achieved after fetus delivered, and a temporary abdominal aortic balloon occlusion and the compression sutures as needed, the women were randomly allocated 1∶1 into balloon tamponade ( n=81) or gauze packing ( n=80) group. The primary outcome was successful bleeding arrests by avoiding second line surgeries. The secondary outcomes included the volume of blood loss during and after cesarean section, the rate of PPH, incidence and amount of blood transfusion, hysterectomy, postpartum pain, ICU admission, need for re-laparotomy, and the length of hospital stay, readmission, and interventional radiology complications. Results:All the women [100% (81/81)] in the balloon group were obtained hemostasis without further intervention, significantly higher than 88% (70/80) in the gauze group ( P=0.001). Before uterine tamponade, blood loss were 820 ml (620-1 230) ml and 850 ml (605-1 442) ml, while placenta bed were sutured in 96%(78/81, 77/80) respectively ( P>0.05).The proportion of blood loss≥1 000 ml was higher in the gauze group than that in the balloon group ( P=0.006). Maternal adverse events involving total blood loss, puerperal morbidity and postpartum pain occurred more frequently in the gauze group ( P<0.05). The following outcome showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups: the vascular occlusion time, the dose of radiation, and interventional radiology complication ( P>0.05). The median volume infused into the lower and upper balloons is 70 ml (50-100 ml) and 180 ml (100-240 ml). Conclusions:Incrauterine balloon tamponade is as effective as gauze packing in hemostasis following the placenta delivery in PAS. Compared with gauze packing, the uterine balloon tamponade is more effective.

14.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 94-99, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-868124

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the relationship between fetal nuchal translucency (NT) in the first trimester and pregnancy outcome.Methods:A prospective cohort study was conducted in Nanjjing Drum Tower Hospital from December 2015 to December 2018, 4 958 singleton pregnant women were enrolled to screen fetal ultrasound structure and serology in the first trimester, ultrasound in the second trimester and neonatus physical examination 28 days after birth. According to the results of NT, 167 cases of fetus with increased NT (≥3.0 mm) and 4 791 cases of normal NT were divided, moreover, 86 cases with isolate increased NT and 81 cases of increased NT combined with structural abnormality. The prognosis of fetuses with different NT thickness was analyzed, and the pregnancy outcome of fetuses with isolate increased NT or combined with structural abnormality were analyzed. In the first trimester, if the fetal structure was abnormal or the serological screening result was high risk, the chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) would be performed by chorionic villus sampling to determine the prenatal diagnosis.Results:(1) The pregnancy outcome for fetus of normal NT: there were 4 791 cases with normal NT. Totally, 4 726 cases with normal NT and no structural abnormalities were screened out in the firsttrimester. In this group, 5 cases of aneuploidies were diagnosed based on high risk of maternal serum biomarkers and 83 cases of structural abnormalities were screened out in the subsequent ultrasound scan and the neonatal examination. Another 65 cases with normal NT present complicated with structural anomalies were screened out in the first trimester and 4 cases were diagnosed as aneuploidies. (2) The pregnancy outcome for fetus of isolate increased NT: 66 (76.7%, 66/86) cases of isolated increased NT were performed CMA, 3 cases were diagnosed as trisomy 21 and terminated pregnancy. Another 4 cases were terminated pregnancy privately without cytogenetic diagnosis. No further anomalies were found in 79 cases till 6 to 21 months postnatally. (3) The pregnancy outcome for fetus of increased NT with structural anomalies: increased NT present with structural anomalies were screened out by detailed anomaly scan in the first trimester and 32 of them were confirmed as aneuploidies. In this group, 70 cases terminated pregnancy, 2 cases had spontaneous miscarriages and 9 cases had liveborns (1 newborn was found ventricular septal defect). (4) The pregnancy outcome for fetus of increased NT with or without structural anomalies: the percentage of aneuploidies in fetuses with isolated increased NT (3.5%, 3/86) was significantly lower than those with structural abnormalities (39.5%,32/81). The healthy survival rate in fetuses with isolated increased NT (91.9%,79/86) was significantly higher than those with structural abnormalities (9.9%, 8/81).Conclusions:A detailed first-trimester anomaly scan could improve prenatal screening efficiency of birth defects. Compared to the fetuses with increased NT combined with structural abnormalities, the healthy survival rate of fetuses with isolated increased NT based on detailed first-trimester anomaly scan is higher and the percentage of fetal aneuploidies is lower.

15.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 94-99, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-799384

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the relationship between fetal nuchal translucency (NT) in the first trimester and pregnancy outcome.@*Methods@#A prospective cohort study was conducted in Nanjjing Drum Tower Hospital from December 2015 to December 2018, 4 958 singleton pregnant women were enrolled to screen fetal ultrasound structure and serology in the first trimester, ultrasound in the second trimester and neonatus physical examination 28 days after birth. According to the results of NT, 167 cases of fetus with increased NT (≥3.0 mm) and 4 791 cases of normal NT were divided, moreover, 86 cases with isolate increased NT and 81 cases of increased NT combined with structural abnormality. The prognosis of fetuses with different NT thickness was analyzed, and the pregnancy outcome of fetuses with isolate increased NT or combined with structural abnormality were analyzed. In the first trimester, if the fetal structure was abnormal or the serological screening result was high risk, the chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) would be performed by chorionic villus sampling to determine the prenatal diagnosis.@*Results@#(1) The pregnancy outcome for fetus of normal NT: there were 4 791 cases with normal NT. Totally, 4 726 cases with normal NT and no structural abnormalities were screened out in the firsttrimester. In this group, 5 cases of aneuploidies were diagnosed based on high risk of maternal serum biomarkers and 83 cases of structural abnormalities were screened out in the subsequent ultrasound scan and the neonatal examination. Another 65 cases with normal NT present complicated with structural anomalies were screened out in the first trimester and 4 cases were diagnosed as aneuploidies. (2) The pregnancy outcome for fetus of isolate increased NT: 66 (76.7%, 66/86) cases of isolated increased NT were performed CMA, 3 cases were diagnosed as trisomy 21 and terminated pregnancy. Another 4 cases were terminated pregnancy privately without cytogenetic diagnosis. No further anomalies were found in 79 cases till 6 to 21 months postnatally. (3) The pregnancy outcome for fetus of increased NT with structural anomalies: increased NT present with structural anomalies were screened out by detailed anomaly scan in the first trimester and 32 of them were confirmed as aneuploidies. In this group, 70 cases terminated pregnancy, 2 cases had spontaneous miscarriages and 9 cases had liveborns (1 newborn was found ventricular septal defect). (4) The pregnancy outcome for fetus of increased NT with or without structural anomalies: the percentage of aneuploidies in fetuses with isolated increased NT (3.5%, 3/86) was significantly lower than those with structural abnormalities (39.5%,32/81). The healthy survival rate in fetuses with isolated increased NT (91.9%,79/86) was significantly higher than those with structural abnormalities (9.9%, 8/81).@*Conclusions@#A detailed first-trimester anomaly scan could improve prenatal screening efficiency of birth defects. Compared to the fetuses with increased NT combined with structural abnormalities, the healthy survival rate of fetuses with isolated increased NT based on detailed first-trimester anomaly scan is higher and the percentage of fetal aneuploidies is lower.

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Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 793-796, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-796415

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the health of gypsum miners in Hubei province and analyze the health effects of occupational disease hazards exposure on gypsum miners.@*Methods@#In April 2017, occupational disease hazard factors were tested on the site of a gypsum mine, and 500 workers were selected by random sampling to conduct questionnaires, relevant data such as occupational health examination was collected, and descriptive statistical analysis was performed.@*Results@#The main occupational hazards of gypsum miners were gypsum dust and noise. The time-weighted average concentration of 8 h in the workplace was 4.32 to 9.34 mg/m3, and the post pass rate was 69.2% (9/13) ; Respiratory dust 0.13-5.15 mg/m3, post pass rate 75.0% (3/4). Gypsum miners had finger dysfunction and muscle numbness, joint pain (29.2%, 88/301) and chest pain and breathing difficulties (17.6%, 53/301). Followed by tinnitus, auricle pus, running water (4.7%, 14/301), abnormal muscle tension (2.7%, 8/301). The exposure of occupational disease hazards was associated with respiratory, auditory and neurological symptoms of gypsum miners.@*Conclusion@#The long-term exposure of gypsum workers to gypsum dust, noise and other harmful factors may result in obvious symptoms of respiratory system and other health damage.

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Chinese Journal of Perinatal Medicine ; (12): 591-596, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-756153

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the efficacy of immunoprophylaxis against mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in a real-world setting since the implementation of charge-free hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and hepatitis B vaccine in China. Methods The screening rate and the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in 61 790 puerperants, and the administration of combined immunoprophylaxis in infants of HBsAg-positive mothers in Rugao City of Jiangsu Province from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. HBV infection status of infants born to HBV infected mothers was followed up after 7 months of age. HBsAg-positive infants and their mothers were followed up again for HBV markers in April 2018. Fisher's exact test and Cochran-Armitage trend test were used to statistically analyze the differences between groups and various years, respectively. Results All 61 790 puerperants were screened for HBsAg and the prenatal screen rate was 98.6% (60 937/61 790) with an increasing trend over time (χ2trend=750.908, P<0.001). HBsAg-positive puerperants accounted for 5.5% (3 397/61 790) with a decreasing trend over time (χ2trend=32.667, P<0.001). In total, 778 offspring (399 boys and 379 girls) of 759 HBsAg-positive mothers were followed up at (13.7±6.9) months of age, among which 751 (96.5%) were administered and 25 (3.2%) were probably administered standard combined immunoprophylaxis after birth, and the rest two (0.3%) were not. Fourteen infants (1.8%) were HBsAg positive and all born to mothers with positive hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). None of the 538 infants born to HBeAg-negative mothers was HBsAg-positive. HBsAg-positive rate in infants born since 2013 was lower than those in 2011 and 2012 (χ2trend=13.352, P=0.000 3). Eleven HBsAg-positive mothers and their children were followed up again 4–5 years later in April 2018. HBV DNA levels of all mothers were within the range of (7.34–28.2)×107 IU/ml except one case of spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion. One out of the 11 infected children also had HBeAg seroconversion. Phylogenetic analysis of HBV S gene showed that the 11 pairs of mothers and children were all infected with HBV of genotype C. Conclusions The implementation of charge-free HBIG and hepatitis B vaccine for newborns achieves fruitful results in Rugao city as the mother-to-infant transmission of HBV in the real-world had been further reduced to a similar level reported in literature survey.

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Chinese Journal of Perinatal Medicine ; (12): 457-460, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-756138

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Objective Human milk of mothers with positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) contains hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, breastfeeding does not increase the risk of mother-to-infant transmission of HBV. Previous investigations demonstrated that breast milk has a property of binding with HBsAg. This study aimed to identify the component in human milk that can bind to HBsAg. Methods This study was performed in Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, the Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, from June 2015 to February 2017. Human milk samples from two postpartum women with negative HBV markers and two control samples of cow milk and goat milk were analyzed by Far-Western blot, in which highly purified recombinant yeast HBsAg was used to bind with whey proteins. Based on the results of mass-spectrum analysis, competition inhibition test was used to confirm the functioning component. Results Far-Western blot showed remarkable protein bands at the relative molecular weight of about 80 000 in both lanes of human milk, but none in the lane of cow or goat milk. Mass-spectrum analysis of the protein band indicated there were proteins sharing 28.4%-93.4% homology in amino acid sequences with five proteins with the highest homology to lactoferrin (93.4%). Further Far-Western blot with purified recombinant lactoferrin showed that lactoferrin could bind to the recombinant HBsAg. Competition inhibition test suggested that the purified recombinant lactoferrin inhibited the binding of HBsAg to its antibody in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions This study confirms the capability of lactoferrin in human milk to combine with HBsAg, suggesting that lactoferrin can bind to HBV. Further study on whether lactoferrin can inhibit the infectivity of HBV would be valuable to clarify the reason for not increasing the risk of mother-to-infant transmission of HBV by breastfeeding.

19.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 27-32, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-734237

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the risk factors and sonographic findings of pregnancies complicated by placenta increta or placenta percreta. Methods Totally, 2219 cases were retrospectively analyzed from 20 tertiary hospitals in China from January 2011 to December 2015. The data were collected based on the original case records. All cases were divided into two groups, the placenta increta (PI) group (79.1%, 1755/2219) and the placenta percreta (PP) group (20.9%, 464/2219), according to the degree of placental implantation. The risk factors and sonographic findings of placenta increta or percreta were analyzed by uni-factor and logistic regression statistic methods. Results The risk factors associated with the degree of placental implantation were age, gravida, previous abortion or miscarriage, previous cesarean sections, and placenta previa (all P<0.05), especially, previous cesarean sections (χ2=157.961) and placenta previa (χ2=91.759). Sonographic findings could be used to predict the degree of placental invasion especially the boundaries between placenta and uterine serosa, the boundary between placenta and myometrium, the disruption of the placental-uterine wall interface and loss of the normal retroplacental hypoechoic zone(all P<0.01). Conclusions Previous cesarean sections and placenta previa are the main independent risk factors associated with the degree of placenta implantation. Ultrasound could be used to make a prenatal suggestive diagnosis of placenta accreta spectrum disorders.

20.
Chinese Journal of Perinatal Medicine ; (12): 266-275, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-809898

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the characteristics and performance of various prediction models for early-onset preeclampsia, and to provide a reference for further study of preeclampsia prediction methods.@*Methods@#(1) Databases of PubMed, Medline, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang Database were searched since their inception to October 2016. Studies in models for predicting early-onset preeclampsia during the first trimester were included. (2) Two reviewers independently checked potentially eligible articles, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. (3) Subtotals for the performance of different models were created and their properties were analyzed. Differences between simple models (based upon high risk factors such as demographic figures, medical history and family history, etc) and complex models (based upon blood pressure, uterine artery Doppler and biomarkers) were compared by analyzing forest plot created by SAS 9.4.@*Results@#(1) Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria were screened out, including nine prospective cohort studies, two case-control studies and six nested case-control studies. A total of 76 436 gravidas from tendifferent populations were assessed by the established models in these studies. (2) The area under the curve (AUC) of 13 simple models ranged from 0.64 to 0.81 with the sensitivity of 21%-60% when the false positive rate (FPR) was 10%. The AUC of 17 complex models ranged from 0.77 to 0.98 and the sensitivity was between 48.0% and 95.2% at a fixed FPR of 10%. (3) Compared with the simple models, the best complex models could ensure a promotion of 0.171 (range from 0.060 to 0.245) in median AUC, and a promotion of 40.8% (16.0% to 52.2%) in sensitivity at a FPR of 10%. Based on the simple models, additional mean arterial pressure (MAP) would increase the AUC and sensitivity by 0.092 (0.079 to 0.104) and 28.7% (16.2% to 55.0%), respectively, while additional uterine artery pulsatility index (UtA-PI) would bring an increase of 0.106 (0 to 0.137) and 31.8% (-1.0% to 41.9%), respectively. Moreover, when both MAP and UtA-PI were included into the simple models, the AUC and sensitivity would increase by 0.157 (0.094 to 0.218) and 31.6% (12.0% to 52.2%).@*Conclusions@#Complex prediction models perform better than simple models in prediction of early-onset preeclampsia. However, further confirmation is required in different population.

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