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1.
Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University(Medical Sciences) ; (6): 348-352, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005838

ABSTRACT

Children are also at high risk of novel coronavirus infection. However, as children are in the developmental stage and their phylogeny is not yet complete, adult guidelines cannot be directly copied in the diagnosis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. Therefore, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University organized relevant professionals of Children’s Hospital. Based on the "Diagnosis and Treatment Plan for SARS-CoV-2 Infection (Trial 10th Edition)" issued by the General Office of the National Health Commission of the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the diagnosis and treatment plan suggestions for children with novel coronavirus infection in The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University were formulated by referring to several instructive diagnosis and treatment plans and combining our hospital’s experience in treating children with SARS-CoV-2 infection. This recommendation makes a concise and practical description from the perspectives of epidemiology, clinical manifestations, clinical typing, treatment and nursing of children infected with SARS-CoV-2, and also makes recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of high-risk factors and complications for the reference of front-line clinical pediatricians so as to achieve timely and reasonable diagnosis and treatment of children infected with SARS-CoV-2. Early identification and active treatment of high-risk and critically patients can minimize the harm caused by complications.

2.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; (6): 33-47, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993719

ABSTRACT

Objective:To report the results of national surveillance on the distribution and antimicrobial resistance profile of clinical bacterial isolates from bloodstream infections in China in 2021.Methods:The clinical bacterial strains isolated from blood culture from member hospitals of Blood Bacterial Resistant Investigation Collaborative System (BRICS) were collected during January 2021 to December 2021. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were conducted by agar dilution or broth dilution methods recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). WHONET 5.6 was used to analyze data.Results:During the study period, 11 013 bacterial strains were collected from 51 hospitals, of which 2 782 (25.3%) were Gram-positive bacteria and 8 231 (74.7%) were Gram-negative bacteria. The top 10 bacterial species were Escherichia coli (37.6%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (18.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (9.8%), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (6.3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.6%), Enterococcus faecium (3.6%), Acinetobacter baumannii (2.8%), Enterococcus faecalis (2.7%), Enterobacter cloacae (2.5%) and Klebsiella spp (2.1%). The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus were 25.3% and 76.8%, respectively. No glycopeptide- and daptomycin-resistant Staphylococci was detected; more than 95.0% of Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive to ceftobiprole. No vancomycin-resistant Enterococci strains were detected. The rates of extended spectrum B-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolated in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis were 49.6%, 25.5% and 39.0%, respectively. The prevalence rates of carbapenem-resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were 2.2% and 15.8%, respectively; 7.9% of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae was resistant to ceftazidime/avibactam combination. Ceftobiprole demonstrated excellent activity against non-ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Aztreonam/avibactam was highly active against carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The prevalence rate of carbapenem-resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii was 60.0%, while polymyxin and tigecycline showed good activity against Acinetobacter baumannii (5.5% and 4.5%). The prevalence of carbapenem-resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 18.9%. Conclusions:The BRICS surveillance results in 2021 shows that the main pathogens of blood stream infection in China are gram-negative bacteria, in which Escherichia coli is the most common. The MRSA incidence shows a further decreasing trend in China and the overall prevalence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococci is low. The prevalence of Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae is still on a high level, but the trend is downwards.

3.
Chinese Journal of Hepatobiliary Surgery ; (12): 505-509, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993363

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the effects of laparoscopic versus open liver resection for colorectal cancer liver metastasis on the interval between surgery and chemotherapy, the perioperative outcomes and the prognosis of patients.Methods:A total of 127 patients undergoing colorectal cancer liver metastasis resection in the Department of General Surgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, from January 2014 to February 2023 were retrospectively analyzed, including 81 males and 46 females, aged (60.0±8.9) years. Based on surgical approaches, the patients were divided into the laparoscopic group ( n=33) and the open group ( n=94). After propensity score matching (PSM), 26 cases in the laparoscopic group were matched with 45 cases in the open group. The maximum tumor diameter, proportion of tumors involving both lobes, and proportion of solitary tumors, interval between surgery and first cycle of chemotherapy, postoperative complications, postoperative hospital stay and the prognosis of patients were compared between the two groups after matching. Survival curves and rates were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and log-rank test. Results:After PSM, there were no significant differences in the baseline data of patients, including tumor maximum diameter, proportion of tumors involving both lobes, and proportion of solitary tumors between the two groups (all P>0.05), indicating comparability. After matching, the interval between surgery and first cycle of chemotherapy in the laparoscopic group (34.4±11.2) d was shorter than that in the open group (46.7±28.0) d, the laparoscopic group had a lower incidence of postoperative complications[0 vs 20.0%(9/45)] and a shorter postoperative hospital stay[6.0 (5.0, 6.2) d vs 8.0 (7.0, 11.5) d] compared to the open group (all P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the recurrence-free survival rate (χ 2=3.27, P=0.070) and the cumulative survival rate (χ 2=0.001, P=0.974) between the two groups. Conclusion:In patients with colorectal cancer liver metastasis, laparoscopic liver surgery showed a lower incidence of postoperative complications and a shorter postoperative hospital stay compared to open surgery. The interval between surgery and first cycle of chemotherapy is shorter after laparoscopic surgery. The long-term prognosis is comparable in the laparoscopic and open surgery.

4.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 57-65, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984181

ABSTRACT

Lung is the largest organ of the respiratory system. During hypoxia, pulmonary cells undergo rapid damage changes and activate the self-rescue pathways, thus leading to complex biomacromolecule modification. Death from mechanical asphyxia refers to death due to acute respiratory disorder caused by mechanical violence. Because of the absence of characteristic signs in corpse, the accurate identification of mechanical asphyxia has always been the difficulty in forensic pathology. This paper reviews the biomacromolecule changes under the pulmonary hypoxia condition and discusses the possibility of application of these changes to accurate identification of death from mechanical asphyxia, aiming to provide new ideas for related research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asphyxia/pathology , Cause of Death , Hypoxia/pathology , Lung/pathology , Forensic Pathology
5.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 73-79, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964948

ABSTRACT

Sjögren's syndrome (SS), a disorder of immune system, is one of the dominant diseases treated by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). China Association of Chinese Medicine organized experts in the field of TCM and western medicine rheumatology and pharmacology to discuss the advantages and optimal regimens of TCM for the treatment of SS. The experts generally agreed on the low early diagnosis rate of SS and the lack of targeted therapeutic drugs. In addition, autoimmune abnormality is the key factor in the occurrence of SS and deficiency of both Qi and Yin is the core pathogenesis. SS has unique tongue manifestations, which is expected to allow for the early diagnosis and treatment with integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine. TCM has advantages in treating SS in terms of alleviating clinical symptoms and systemic involvement, individualized treatment, relieving sleep and mood disorders, preventing the occurrence in the early stage, and enhancing the effectiveness and reducing toxicity in the treatment by integrated TCM and western medicine. In general, TCM has advantages in different stages of SS. Internal and external use of TCM, acupuncture, and acupotome are all available options. The optimal regimens should be determined on the basis of pattern identification, stage of disease, and the advantages of TCM. Clinical characteristics and biomarkers of SS should be studied to classify patients, so as to design precision evidence-based TCM regimens for SS. On the basis of unique tongue manifestations of SS, models for early diagnosis and poor prognosis identification of SS should also be established to achieve early prevention and treatment and to improve the prognosis. In the future, we should vigorously carry out high-quality evidence-based medical research on the treatment of SS by TCM and integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine and develop relevant guidelines to optimize and standardize current diagnosis and treatment, thereby laying a basis for clarifying and explaining the advantages of TCM in treating SS.

6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2324-2329, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Vaccination has been shown effective in controlling the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and reducing severe cases. This study was to assess the flare and change in disease activity after COVID-19 vaccination in patients with stable rheumatoid arthritis (RA).@*METHODS@#A prospective cohort of RA patients in remission or with low disease activity was divided into a vaccination group and a non-vaccination group based on their COVID-19 vaccination status. Each of them was examined every 3 to 6 months. In the vaccination group, disease activity was compared before and after vaccination. The rates of flare defined as disease activity scores based on 28-joint count (DAS28) >3.2 with ΔDAS28 ≥0.6 were compared between vaccination and non-vaccination groups.@*RESULTS@#A total of 202 eligible RA patients were enrolled. Of these, 98 patients received no vaccine shot (non-vaccination group), and 104 patients received two doses of vaccine (vaccination group). The median time interval from pre-vaccination visit to the first immunization and from the second dose of vaccine to post-vaccination visit was 67 days and 83 days, respectively. The disease activity scores at pre-vaccination and post-vaccination visits in the vaccination group patients were similar. At enrollment, gender, RA disease course, seropositivity, and disease activity were comparable across the two groups. Flare was observed in five (4.8%) of the vaccination group patients and nine (9.2%) of the non-vaccination group patients at post-vaccination assessment ( P  = 0.221). In terms of safety, 29 (27.9%) patients experienced adverse events (AEs) after vaccination. No serious AEs occurred.@*CONCLUSIONS@#COVID-19 vaccinations had no significant effect on disease activity or risk of flare in RA patients in remission or with low disease activity. Patients with stable RA should be encouraged to receive the COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , East Asian People , Prospective Studies , Vaccination/adverse effects
7.
Chinese Journal of Rheumatology ; (12): 807-812, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992907

ABSTRACT

Objective:To improve the ability of identification and differential diagnosis of severe systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).Methods:A severe SLE patient with lupus myocarditis, neuropsychiatric lupus, thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and other multiple system involvement was reported and discussed.Results:A young female patient developed albuminuria 5 months ago, edema of both lower limbs 3 months ago, change of consciousness 1 month ago and two convulsions attack 2 days ago. She experienced life threatening manifestations such as neuropsychiatric lupus, myocardial involvement of lupus, and TMA. During the course, her condition was generally improved after glucocorticoid pulse therapy and plasma exchange.Conclusion:Various complicated clinical manifestations related to SLE need to be recognized earlier and intervened as soon as possible.

8.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 51-57, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927334

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the characteristics and rules of acupoint sensitization phenomena based on knee osteoarthritis (KOA), one of the clinical dominant diseases of acupuncture-moxibustion.@*METHODS@#In combination with literature and expert experiences, the acupoints with the highest use frequency in treatment of KOA were screened, e.g. Heding (EX-LE 2), Liangqiu (ST 34), Mingmen (GV 4), Neixiyan (EX-LE 4), Ququan (LR 8) and Dubi (ST 35). In 814 patients with KOA and 217 healthy subjects, the acupoint temperature, mechanic pain threshold and pressure pain threshold were detected separately. Using machine learning method, the sensitization was judged at each acupoint.@*RESULTS@#Compared with healthy subjects, the acupoint temperature was increased and the mechanic pain threshold and pressure pain threshold were reduced in KOA patients (P<0.05). Besides, the cut-off value was presented to distinguish whether the acupoint was sensitized or not. The results of machine learning showed that the highest prediction accuracy of acupoint sensitization was 86.7% (Shenshu [BL 23]) and the lowest one was 73.9% (Heding [EX LE 2]). The prediction accuracy at the third clinical stage trial was higher, the highest was 93.3% (Ququan [LR 8]) in KOA patients.@*CONCLUSION@#It is confirmed that the acupoint sensitization reflects the characteristics of disease and is correlative with the conditions of illness, which may provide the reference for the auxiliary diagnosis and condition assessment of KOA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Moxibustion , Osteoarthritis, Knee/therapy , Treatment Outcome
9.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 63-68, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935251

ABSTRACT

To investigate the carbapenemases distribution of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) in the intensive care unit, and the clinical characteristics between carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-hvKP) and carbapenem-resistant non-hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-non-hvKP) were compared. A total of 53 non-repetitive CRKP strains isolated from 49 patients in the intensive care unit of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University from May 2020 to March 2021 were retrospectively studied. The carbapenemase inhibitor enhancement test was used for screening carbapenemase-producing strains, and the string test was carried out to screen the hypermucoviscosity phenotype. Using PCR to detect five main carbapenemase genes (blaKPC-2, blaNDM, blaIMP , blaVIM and blaOXA-48-like), common serotype (K1 and K2) and virulence gene (rmpA and iutA). Treated the strains with both rmpA and iutA genes as hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumonia (hvKP), and the whole genome sequencing of CR-hvKP was completed. At the same time, the clinical data of 49 patients were sorted out, and the differences in clinical characteristics of CR-hvKP and CR-non-hvKP infected patients were compared using the independent sample t test, Mann-Whitney U test, chi-square test or Fisher's exact probability test. CRKP isolated from the intensive care unit were extensively drug resistance and still had a good sensitivity to polymyxin B and tigecycline. Producing carbapenemases were the main resistance mechanism of CRKP (52/53, 98.1%). Of the 53 CRKP strains, except for 1strain that did not detect carbapenemase, at least one carbapenemase resistance gene was detected in the remaining 52 CRKP strains, of which 45 strains carried an enzyme, including 36 blaKPC-2 (36/53, 67.9%), 8 blaNDM (8/53, 15.1%), 1 blaIMP (1/53, 1.9%), and 7 strains carried with both blaKPC-2 and blaNDM (7/53, 13.2%). String test and virulence gene showed that 7 CR-hvKP strains (13.2%) were detected in 53 CRKP strains, and two of which were hypermucoviscosity phenotype. Sequencing results revealed that CR-hvKP were mainly ST11 type. Almost all patients with CR-hvKP infection were over 60 years old (7/7), with invasive treatment (7/7), pulmonary infection with hypermucoviscosity phenotype (2/7) and high mortality (5/7); and the percentage of neutrophils in patients with CR-hvKP infection (86.44±4.70) % was higher than those patients with CR-non-hvKP infection (78.90±19.15) %, the difference was statistically significant (t=-2.225, P=0.032). The CR-hvKP strains in the intensive care unit mainly produced KPC-2 enzyme, with K2 capsular serotype and ST11 type. It is necessary to strengthen the monitoring and control of the CR-hvKP strain to prevent the co-evolution of drug-resistant and hypervirulent strains.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Retrospective Studies
10.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 198-204, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940370

ABSTRACT

In the clinical practice of rheumatic immune diseases in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM),it`s still unclear about the dominant diseases and breakthrough points. It`s urgent missions to formulate TCM diagnosis and treatment guidelines widely recognized and integrated by traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. In order to clarify the dominant diseases and breakthrough points in rheumatism,China association of Chinese medicine initiated a research group covering experts in the field of rheumatism of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Based on questionnaire survey and on-site discussion,experts had reached the following consensus. Evidence-based medicine research using modern medical methods and scientific methods should be carried out to provide objective clinical evidences. "Four mutuality" were put forward as the basis for the work of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine,that is the mutual communication using the exchangeable context,the mutual explanation using common theories,the mutual certification using common standards,and the mutual integration using common means. Key works should focus on solving refractory rheumatism in the future. In terms of dominant diseases and breakthrough points,this paper introduces 21 breakthrough points in 6 dominant diseases,including rheumatoid arthritis,ankylosing spondylitis,Sjogren's syndrome,hyperuricemia and gout,systemic lupus erythematosus and fibromyalgia syndrome. Advice on this discussion can provide valuable references for developing the treatment scheme of rheumatism with TCM and integrated Chinese and Western medicine and clinical practice and scientific research.

11.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 51-59, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933430

ABSTRACT

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by synovial inflammation of the joints with high risk of disability. In recent years, remarkable progress has been made towards the diagnosis and treatment of RA, and the international RA guidelines have been also kept updated. Nevertheless, there are many challenges in China, especially inadequate number of rheumatologists and insufficient experience in the diagnosis and treatment of RA. Therefore, Chinese Rheumatology Association drafted the standardized diagnosis and treatment of RA based on the available evidence, so as to improve the management of RA patients in China.

12.
Cancer Research on Prevention and Treatment ; (12): 1035-1040, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-988492

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint therapy is a new mode of tumor therapy. At present, many kinds of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors have been approved for clinical application on various tumors, such as malignant melanoma, lung cancer, bladder cancer, lymphoma, etc. However, with the gradual promotion and application in clinical practice, various immune-related adverse reactions caused by PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors have attracted extensive attention. Especially in recent years, a number of adverse reactions related to endocrine gland injury have been reported. This paper reviews the research status and corresponding clinical treatment methods of endocrine gland related adverse reactions caused by PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors.

13.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 1061-1066, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942297

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the difference in phenotype recognition of PsA patients in two clinical scenarios, physical examination with and without ultrasound assessment.@*METHODS@#PsA patients who visited the rheumatology and clinical immunology department of Peking University First Hospital between January 2010 and October 2020, with complete data of clinical and ultrasound assessment were enrolled. The phenotypes were first identified based on physical examination only, and then combined with enthesitis and dactylitis shown on power doppler and gray-scale ultrasound. The phenotype groupings without and with ultrasound assessment were presented with Wayne diagram. The distributions of different clinical phenotypes were compared by using χ2 test or Fisher's exact test. The differences of clinical phenotypes with and without ultrasound assessment were compared by using Wilcoxon signed rank test.@*RESULTS@#A total of 227 patients with PsA were enrolled with one or more clinical domains. Physical examination revealed that psoriasis was in 209 (92.1%, 209/227) patients, nail involvement in 98 (43.2%, 98/227) patients, peripheral arthritis in 219 (96.5%, 219/227) patients, axial involvement in 25 (11.0%, 25/227) patients, dactylitis in 80 (35.2%, 80/227) patients, and enthesitis in 18 (7.9%, 18/227) patients. Besides 18 patients with clinical enthesitis, ultrasound scan revealed acute enthesitis in 80 patients, with hypoechogenicity (55 cases), tendon thickening (62 cases), and presence of Doppler signals (48 cases). Similarly, dactylitis on ultrasound was found in 18 patients besides those patients with clinical dactylitis. Compared with the phenotypes recognized based on physical examination only, the additional ultrasound assessment revealed that the most common phenotypes, peripheral arthritis was significantly less frequently recognized (49.8% vs. 27.8%, P < 0.001), however on the other hand, the proportion of the patients with peripheral arthritis and enthesitis was significantly increased (4.4% vs. 18.1%, P < 0.001). The phenotype of peripheral arthritis combined with enthesitis, and dactylitis was also dramatically increased (1.8% vs. 17.6%, P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#Ultrasound is a useful tool to identify enthesitis and dactylitis. With the aid of ultrasound assessment, rheumatologists can better identify the lesions of PsA, accurately identify the phenotypes, and further guide the subsequent treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthritis, Psoriatic/diagnostic imaging , Phenotype
14.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; (6): 413-426, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932991

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the bacterial composition and antimicrobial resistance profile of clinical isolates from bloodstream infections in China.Methods:The clinical bacterial strains isolated from blood culture were collected during January 2020 to December 2020 in member hospitals of Blood Bacterial Resistant Investigation Collaborative System (BRICS). Antibiotic susceptibility tests were conducted by agar dilution or broth dilution methods recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute(CLSI, USA). WHONET 5.6 was used to analyze data.Results:During the study period, 10 043 bacterial strains were collected from 54 hospitals, of which 2 664 (26.5%) were Gram-positive bacteria and 7 379 (73.5%) were Gram-negative bacteria. The top 10 bacterial species were Escherichia coli (38.6%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (18.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (9.9%), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (7.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.9%), Enterococcus faecium (3.3%), Enterobacter cloacae (2.8%), Enterococcus faecalis (2.6%), Acinetobacter baumannii (2.4%) and Klebsiella spp (1.8%). The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus were 27.6% and 74.4%, respectively. No glycopeptide- and daptomycin-resistant Staphylococci were detected. More than 95% of Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive to rifampicin and SMZco. No vancomycin-resistant Enterococci strains were detected. Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis were 48.4%, 23.6% and 36.1%, respectively. The prevalence rates of carbapenem-resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were 2.3% and 16.1%, respectively; 9.6% of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains were resistant to ceftazidime/avibactam combination. The prevalence rate of carbapenem-resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii was 60.0%, while polymyxin and tigecycline showed good activity against Acinetobacter baumannii. The prevalence rate of carbapenem-resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 23.2%. Conclusions:The surveillance results in 2020 showed that the main pathogens of bloodstream infection in China were gram-negative bacteria, while Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen, and ESBL-producing strains declined while carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae kept on high level. The proportion and the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa were on the rise slowly. On the other side, the MRSA incidence got lower in China, while the overall prevalence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococci was low.

15.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 33-42, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880945

ABSTRACT

Immunotherapy has recently led to a paradigm shift in cancer therapy, in which immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are the most successful agents approved for multiple advanced malignancies. However, given the nature of the non-specific activation of effector T cells, ICIs are remarkably associated with a substantial risk of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in almost all organs or systems. Up to 90% of patients who received ICIs combination therapy experienced irAEs, of which majority were low-grade toxicity. Cytotoxic lymphocyte antigen-4 and programmed cell death protein-1/programmed cell death ligand 1 inhibitors usually display distinct features of irAEs. In this review, the mechanisms of action of ICIs and how they may cause irAEs are described. Some unsolved challenges, however really engrossing issues, such as the association between irAEs and cancer treatment response, tumor response to irAEs therapy, and ICIs in challenging populations, are comprehensively summarized.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Neoplasms/drug therapy
16.
Chinese Journal of Medical Education Research ; (12): 32-37, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-865734

ABSTRACT

Modern medical education in the United States starts early and is in the leading position in the world. Learning the framework of current medical education and the relevant experience in the United States will help us improve the teaching system in medical colleges and universities in China. The University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) in the United States has rich teaching resources, various forms of lessons and adopts diversified teaching methods such as traditional lectures, flipped classroom, role playing and so on. Due to its advanced teaching system, teachers can carry out classroom tests conveniently and quickly so as to promote students' self-learning. Guest lectures given by front-line staff from Department of Health and Human Services, hospitals and laboratories are a common teaching model in UNMC. In addition, the construction of multidisciplinary education platform is of great reference value in improving the public health education and medical curriculum system in China.

17.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 69-71, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985089

ABSTRACT

Objective To discuss the application of 3D laser scanner and computer technology in restoration of the accident scene and reconstruction of the accident process, as well as identification of the driver-passenger relationship. Methods The scene of a traffic accident, the accident vehicle and the vehicle of the same type as accident vehicle were scanned using 3D laser scanner. The accident scene, traces and accident vehicle were integrated using computer technology to restore the accident scene, and the accident process was reconstructed and analyzed by combining the characteristics of the body injuries. Results By restoring the accident scene and reconstructing the accident process with 3D laser scanner, it was determined that Wu was in the driving seat at the time of the accident. Conclusion It is more objective and scientific to use 3D laser scanning technology to restore the accident scene, reconstruct the accident process and analyze the moving track of the driver and passengers in the vehicle. It will help to improve the accuracy of forensic identification of road traffic accidents.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , Computer Simulation
18.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 261-265, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942171

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the risk factors of detection of uric acid crystals by dual energy CT (DECT) in patients with gout diagnosed by gold standard.@*METHODS@#From June 2011 to December 2018, clinical data of 29 patients were collected who were diagnosed with acute or chronic gout by positive polarized light analysis of joint synovial fluid in First Hospital of Peking University. Chi-square test, Logistic regression and t-test were used. The relationship between DECT and the clinical data, laboratory examination and drug treatment were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#In this study, 29 patients were included, of whom, 22 patients were detected with uric acid crystals by DECT, and 7 patients were not. According to whether the uric acid crystals were detected or not by DECT, the patients were divided into two groups. Compared with the negative group, the patients were older in positive group [(47±12) vs. (39±11) years, P=0.15], had higher body bass index (BMI) [(27.9±3.7) vs. (22.8±2.1) kg/m2, P=0.002], longer gout disease duration [(135±102) vs.(45±53) months, P=0.035], higher in the highest serum uric acid in history [(643±121) vs. (543±103) μmol/L, P=0.043]. Although uric acid near DECT in positive group was higher than in negative group, there was no statistical difference [(558±150) vs. (513±89) μmol/L, P=0.497]. Comparing positive group with negative group, the percentage of the patients in acute phase was higher than in chronic phase [18(81.8%) vs. 4(57%), P=0.311];the percentage of the patients taking uric-acid-lowering drugs was higher than the other group [22(100%) vs. 5 (71%), P=0.052];the percentage of the patients with recurrent typical attacks was higher than that of those without typical attacks [22 (100%) vs.6 (85%), P=0.241]. The consistency of symptoms and the finding of uric acid crystals by DECT had been compared between the joints. The right knee joint had the highest consistency (Kappa=0.627), followed by the left MTP1 (Kappa=0.58), the right metatarsophalangeal 1(MTP1, Kappa=0.551) and the left knee (Kappa=0.494), all of which had statistical significance. The consistency of the ankle joint was lower (the right ankle joint: Kappa=0.19, the left ankle joint: Kappa=0.256), showing no statistical significance. BMI (kg/m2) [2.307 (1.139-4.670), P=0.02], gout duration (years) [0.306 (0.906-4.881), P=0.186], and the highest uric acid level in history (mg/dL) [0.023 (0.981-2.764), P=0.137] had relationship to the positive result of urate crystals in DECT.@*CONCLUSION@#Gout patients with larger BMI, higher previous highest uric acid value and longer gout duration had higher sensitivity of the positive result in DECT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthritis, Gouty , Gout/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Uric Acid
19.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 143-149, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942154

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate frequency and patterns, risk factors of MSU (monosodium urate) crystal deposition at lower extremity tendon by ultrasonography in gout patients, and to explore diagnostic value by ultrasonography.@*METHODS@#Patients diagnosed with gout and age matched healthy controls had ultrasound scanning of both feet and knees including joints and tendons (achilles, quadriceps, and patellar tendon). Readers who scored the ultrasound scans for MSU crystal deposition were blinded to the patients' clinical diagnoses. Clinical characteristics were compared between positive and negative crystal deposition groups by US, and risk factors of MSU deposition in tendons were analyzed. Diagnostic values of MSU deposition were evaluated by ultrasonography according with positive MSU crystal in synovial fluid or tophi by polarized microscopy.@*RESULTS@#Eighty patients and eighty healthy controls were included. Thity-three patients (47.5%) had tophi by physical examination. The achilles tendon was the most commonly involved tendon site 41(51.2%), followed by the quadriceps tendons 22(27.5%), and patella tendon 10(12.5%). There were no MSU deposition in healthy control group at tendon by ultrasonography. Compared with negative MSU deposition at tendon site by ultrasonography, tendon MSU positive patients had longer mean gout duration [(87.3±40.9) months vs. (7.7±2.6) months, P=0.001];higher frequency of gout flare [2(1, 2) /year vs. 1(1, 1) /year, P=0.001]; higher BMI [(26.3±2.5) kg/m2vs. (23.3±2.1) kg/m2, P=0.05]. Also, the mean serum uric acid and creatinine levels were higher in tendon MSU positive group [(584.6±87.6) μmol/L vs. (460.4±96.7) μmol/L, P=0.001] and [(90.9±33.3) μmol/L vs. (70.6±40.2) μmol/L, P=0.02] separately. Logistic regression analysis showed gout duration and flare frequency were independent risk factors for MSU deposition at tendon by ultrasonography (P < 0.01). Joint or tophi aspirations were performed in all the eighty gout patients, and positive MSU crystals in synovial fluid analysis by polarized microscopy were defined as the golden standard of gout diagnosis. When compared with the golden standard, the sensitivity and specificity were 94.0% and 78.0% separately for MSU deposition at tendon by ultrasonography.@*CONCLUSION@#Tendon involvement at the lower extremity tendons in gout is very common. Long gout disease duration and high frequency of gout flare are both independent risk factors of tendon MSU deposition by ultrasonography. Ultrasonography had good sensitivity and specificity for detecting tendinous tophi and aggregates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gout/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors , Symptom Flare Up , Ultrasonography , Uric Acid
20.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 1048-1055, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942115

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), to investigate whether there is a difference in the prevalence of depression and anxiety between PsA and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and to identify associated risk factors for depression and anxiety in PsA patients.@*METHODS@#PsA and RA patients who visited Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology in Peking University First Hospital from May 2018 to Sep 2019 were recruited. Self-rating anxiety scale and self-rating depression scale were surveyed and compared between PsA and RA patients. Demographics and clinical features including age, gender, disease duration, disease activity score, psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), and medical application were collected. Power Doppler and grey-scale ultrasound of joints, tenosynovitis and enthesis were performed. Multivariate Logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with mood disorders and the odds ratio of depression and anxiety between the PsA and RA patients.@*RESULTS@#Among the 114 enrolled PsA patients, 37 (32.5%) had mood disorders, in which 36 (31.6%) with depression and 15 (13.2%) with anxiety. Compared with 201 RA patients, PsA patients showed greater odds for depression [adjusted OR (95%CI): 2.7 (1.1-6.4)]. Depression was more often observed in the PsA than in the RA patients (31.6% vs. 18.9%, P=0.011). The similar trend for anxiety was also observed, although the difference was insignificant (13.2% vs. 8.5%, P=0.185). Age (OR=0.95, P=0.008), psoriasis duration (OR=0.94, P=0.018), pain visual analogue scale (OR=1.47, P=0.011), PASI score (OR=1.07, P=0.007) and presence of ultrasound enthesitis (OR=4.13, P=0.009) were identified as factors associated with depression in the PsA patients. PASI score (OR=1.07, P=0.001) was identified as associated factor for anxiety in the PsA patients.@*CONCLUSION@#The prevalence of depression and anxiety is elevated in PsA patients. Depression is significantly more prevalent in PsA patients than in RA patients. Younger age, shorter psoriasis duration, worse pain and presence of ultrasound enthesitis are associated with depression, while severe psoriasis rash is associated with both depression and anxiety in PsA patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anxiety/etiology , Arthritis, Psoriatic/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Enthesopathy , Prevalence
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