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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 242-250, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913180

ABSTRACT

There are two serious obstacles to tumor immunotherapy. Firstly, the immune response of the tumor is seriously reduced due to immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (ITM) and low immunogenicity of tumor. The second obstacle is the dense and complex heterogeneous structures, which seriously prevent the nanoparticles (NPs) from penetrating deeper into tumor tissue. Immunogenic cell death (ICD) induced by doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective method to enhance tumor immune activity. However, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secreted by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) after ICD induction would increase the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and enhance ITM. IDO1 siRNA would reduce the expression of IDO1 protein, regulate the tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment and regulate ITM, so as to enhance the ICD effect of DOX. In this paper, a novel charge conversional, particle size reduction and highly penetrable NPs based on a pH sensitive copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-poly-L-lysine-2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (mPEG-PLL-DMA, PLD) and polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers to achieve deep delivery of tumor tissue. DOX and IDO1 siRNA were encapsulated to achieve efficient tumor immunotherapy. Preparation and cell level experiments showed that PLD material had significant pH sensitivity. Results of 3D tumor penetrable experiment in vitro showed that adding the pH sensitive material PLD significantly improved the permeability of the preparation. In addition, 4T1 tumor model was established for BALB/c mice and all animal experiments were displayed in according with the requirements of the Animal Experiment Ethics Committee of Shenyang Pharmaceutical University. The results of in vivo efficacy experiments and tissue experiments evaluated that IDO1 siRNA significantly improved the ICD effect owing to DOX, so as to significantly inhibit tumor growth.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910868

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the influence of elastic band aerobics training on cardiovascular risk factors in adults.Methods:Twenty-four health management centers participated in the competition. Each individual participant learned elastic band aerobics through video and tested their own indexes before and after intervention. Height, body weight (BW), muscle content (MC), fat content (FC), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), body fat rate (BFR), resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. A paired samples t-test was used to analyze pre-and post-test results.Results:After 8 weeks of elastic band aerobics training, there were significant differences in body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, body fat content, systolic and diastolic blood pressure for male contestants before and after training ( P<0.01). These decreased by 1.39%, 1.45%, 0.98%, 3.61%, 2.28%, 2.34%, and 3.05% respectively. Weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist hip ratio, body fat content and rate of female contestants decreased by 1.25%, 1.59%, 0.65%, 0.99%, 4.22%, and 2.38% respectively ( P<0.01). There were significant differences in absenteeism between the top 10 and bottom 14 teams ( P<0.05). Average absenteeism rates were 2.8% and 10.7% respectively. Overall attendance rate of participants was 92.6%, higher than the clinical standard of an 80% level of compliance. Conclusions:Eight-week elastic band aerobics training can significantly improve body composition of adults, reducing body fat rate and waist circumference. Using competition as an opportunity to exercise promotes implementation and persistence of sports training programs.

3.
Chinese Journal of Rheumatology ; (12): 727-732, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910218

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the diagnostic efficacy of Chinese diagnostic model, the 1990 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria and the 2018 ACR new classification criteria (draft) for Takayasu arteritis (TA).Methods:A total of 196 TA patients who came to our hospital from January 1, 2009 to May 31, 2019 in the TA database of the department of rheumatology and immunology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University and 131 patients with other vascular diseases visited during the same period were selected. General characteristics, clinical data, laboratory tests and imaging tests of all patients were collected. Categorical variables were presented as numbers and percentages, between-group differences were analyzed using the χ2 test. Continuous variables were presented as the Mean± SD for a normal distribution or median and interquartile range (IQR) for a non-normal distribution. Between-group differences were analyzed using the Student's t-test or Mann- Whitney test, as appropriate. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy and receiver operating characteristics of the above diagnostic/classification criteria area under the curve were analyzed. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results:In terms of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), Chinese diagnostic models was 85.7%, 96.2%, 89.9%, 97.1%, 81.5%, 0.909, 1990 ACR criteria was 47.4%, 97.7%, 67.6%, 96.9%, 55.4%, 0.726, 2018 ACR classification criteria was 79.1%, 98.5%, 86.5%, 98.7%, 75.9%, 0.888. The difference between the Chinese diagnostic model and the 2018 ACR criteria in AUC was not statistically significant ( Z=1.186 , P>0.05). The sensitivity, accuracy and diagnostic efficiency of Chinese diagnostic model was the best, that of the 1990 ACR classification criteria was the worst, and the specificity of the 2018 ACR classification criteria was the highest. The Kappa value of the 2018 ACR classification criteria and the Chinese diagnostic model was 0.719, which had good consistency, and the Kappa value of the consistency between the 1990 ACR classification criteria and the Chinese TA diagnostic model was 0.516. Conclusion:The Chinese diagnostic model, which is based on the clinical characteristics of the Chinese TA population, has a good diagnostic efficacy for the Chinese population. The 2018 ACR classification criteria (draft) is highly consistent with the Chinese TA diagnostic model, and can be promoted and applied in practice.

4.
Chinese Journal of Rheumatology ; (12): 659-668, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910213

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the characteristics of patients with Takayasu arteritis (TA) in the east China Takayasu arteritis (ECTA) cohort and their subgroups, and evaluate the disease characteristics.Methods:Patients diagnosed with TA in ECTA cohort from January 2009 to October 2019 were enrolled and their data were analyzed. The characteristics were analyzed and compared within subgroups using t-test or Wilcoxon rank sum test or Chi-square test. Results:A total of 454 patients were included, with the male to female ratio of 1∶4.75(79/375), and the main complaint were dizziness/headache, fatigue, and chest tightness/pain. The type Ⅴ and Ⅰ were the most common angiographic pattern, among which the subclavian artery and carotid artery were most vulnerable, manifested as vascular stenosis. Hypertension, tuberculosis and hepatitis B were common complications. In subgroup comparison, symptoms and inflammation index were much more evident in the active group, female group, <40 years old, and newly diagnosed group. C-reactive protein (CRP)[10(2, 33) mg/L vs 3(1, 14) mg/L, Z=-4.49, P<0.01), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) [(45±33) mm/1 h vs (25±23) mm/1 h, t=-5.82, P<0.01), in the active group were significantly higher than those in the inactive group, while the ESR in female patients was only higher than that in males, but without statistical significant difference. SAA in the young age group, ESR in the newly diagnosed group was significantly higher than that in the other subgroups [19(6, 95) mg/L vs 10(4, 39) mg/L, Z=2.06, P<0.05] [(44±34) mm/1 h vs (32±28) mm/1 h, t=3.77, P<0.01]. Conclusion:The TA patients are mainly young women, and are in active disease when first being diagnosed. The type Ⅴ and Ⅰ are the most common artery involve-ment pattern. Hypertension and tuberculosis are the most frequent complications.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908714

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the expression levels of small ubiquitinated protein specific protease (SENP) 1 and small ubiquitin-related modifier protein (SUMO) 1 in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and analyze the clinical value of evaluating prognosis.Methods:The clinical data of 66 patients with DLBCL (DLBCL group) in Inner Mongolia People′s Hospital from February 2017 to October 2020 were retrospectively analyzed, and 60 cases of healthy people in the same period were selected as the healthy control group. The expression levels of SENP1 and SUMO1 were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlation between the expression levels of SENP1, SUMO1 and clinical characteristics was analyzed. The independent risk factors affecting the prognosis were analyzed by Cox multivariate analysis.Results:The SENP1 in DLBCL group was significantly higher than that in healthy control group (50.39 ± 6.86 vs. 7.47 ± 1.32), the SUMO1 in DLBCL group was significantly lower than that in healthy control group (8.84 ± 2.13 vs. 31.49 ± 5.89), and there were statistical differences ( t = 47.640 and 29.210, P<0.01). There were statistical differences in SENP1 and SUMO1 among patients with different clinical stages ( P<0.01). The expression levels of SENP1 and SUMO1 were correlated with clinical stage and international prognostic index (IPI) ( P<0.05), and were not correlated with age, gender, disease site and clinical symptoms ( P>0.05). The 3-year survival rate in patients with high SENP1 expression (30 cases) was significantly lower than that in patients with low SENP1 expression (36 cases), the 3-year survival rate in patients with high SUMO1 expression (38 cases) was significantly higher than that in patients with low SUMO1 expression (28 cases), and there were statistical differences (26.67% vs. 75.00% and 73.68% vs. 39.29%, P<0.05). Cox multivariate regression analysis result showed that clinical stage, IPI, SENP1 and SUMO1 were independent risk factors affecting the prognosis in patients with DLBCL ( HR = 1.352, 1.487, 2.048 and 3.295; 95% CI 1.180 to 1.691, 1.187 to 1.602, 2.536 to 4.023 and 2.752 to 5.325; P<0.05 or <0.01). Conclusions:In patients with DLBCL, SENP1 is highly expressed and SUMO1 is lowly expressed. The expression levels of SENP1 and SUMO1 are closely related to clinical stage and IPI in patients with DLBCL, and they are independent risk factors of the prognosis.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908058

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the long-term health-related quality of life (QOL) in pediatric patients with acute leukemia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and to analyze potential influence factors.Methods:Patients with acute leukemia aging 8-18 years who received HSCT in the Hematology Oncology Center of Beijing Children′s Hospital from June 2009 to June 2012 with more than 80 months survival postoperatively were recruited.All of them were subjected to a short-term QOL survey in 2013.PedsQL? Transplantation Module 3.0 in Chinese mandarin version was completed.QOL data and influence factors were analyzed.Results:Forty-one patients completed the questionnaires, involving 32 males and 9 females with the mean age of(14.29±2.72) years.The mean scores of overall long-term QOL after HSCT were above 75 (total scores: 100), which was above the average.The age, disease status before transplantation, donor sources, post-transplant complications and the parental education level were the influential factors for the long-term QOL in pediatric patients with acute leukemia at post-HSCT, which could affect a certain dimension in QOL.Conclusions:The overall long-term QOL of pediatric patients with acute leukemia who survived for more than 80 months at post-HSCT is acceptable, which is significantly better than the short-term QOL after 4 months of HSCT.The age, disease status before transplantation, donor sources, post-transplant complications and the education level of parents could affect a certain dimension of QOL.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907326

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the correlation of fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) vascular hyperintensity (FVH) and clinical outcome in patients with middle cerebral artery M1 occlusive stroke.Methods:Patients with acute middle cerebral artery M1 occlusive stroke admitted to the Department of Neurology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from June 2018 to September 2019 were enrolled retrospectively. The demographic and clinical data were collected. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)-Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) and FVH score were performed with MRI images. The modified Rankin Scale (MRS) was used to evaluate the clinical outcome at 90 d after onset. 0-2 was defined as good outcome, and >2 was defined as poor outcome. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent correlation between FVH and the outcome. Results:A total of 65 patients with acute middle cerebral artery M1 occlusive stroke were enrolled, including 37 males (56.9%). Their age was 64.35±12.13 years. Twenty-nine patients (44.6%) had a good outcome, and 36 (55.4%) had a poor outcome. There were significant differences in triglyceride ( P=0.037), antihypertensive drug treatment ( P=0.037), baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ( P<0.001), DWI-ASPECTS ( P=0.017) and FVH score ( P<0.001) between the poor outcome group and the good outcome group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that FVH score (odds ratio 6.477, 95% confidence interval 1.570-26.716; P=0.010) and NIHSS score (odds ratio 1.869, 95% confidence interval 1.326-2.635; P<0.001) were significantly independently correlated with the poor outcome. However, there was no significant independent correlation between DWI-ASPECTS and the outcome (odds ratio 0.451, 95% confidence interval 0.068-2.988; P=0.410). Conclusions:FVH score is an independent risk factor for poor outcome in patients with acute middle cerebral artery M1 occlusive stroke.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907123

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo analyze the timeliness of health science popularization during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its correlation with the epidemic situation and policies. MethodsThe original reports of health science popularization by 26 major media in Shanghai during the COVID19 outbreak between January 19 and March 25 of 2020 were retrieved, and the timeliness of the number of reports, media sources and categories, and contents were analyzed. ResultsDuring the epidemic of COVID-19, public media reported timely. Online media accounted for 63.35%, and text-based reports accounted for 85.90%. There was a correlation between the trend of the number of reports and the development of COVID-19 and the prevention and control policy issued by the government. After the change in the epidemic or the release of policy, the number of reports increased. The top four topics were personal protection, disease treatment, healthy lifestyle and psychological health, accounting for 18.62%, 18.54%, 12.96% and 11.74%, respectively. Reports focused on different aspects at different stages of COVID-19 epidemic, and the number of reports tended to increase one week after the occurrence of major events. ConclusionDuring the COVID-19 epidemic, the coverage of health science on media is timely and targeted. For future similar public health emergencies, it is suggested to respond quickly to major events according to the trend, to carry out publicity timely, to innovate the report forms, and thus make it easy for the public to accept and implement.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907100

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo analyze the timeliness of health science popularization during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its correlation with the epidemic situation and policies. MethodsThe original reports of health science popularization by 26 major media in Shanghai during the COVID19 outbreak between January 19 and March 25 of 2020 were retrieved, and the timeliness of the number of reports, media sources and categories, and contents were analyzed. ResultsDuring the epidemic of COVID-19, public media reported timely. Online media accounted for 63.35%, and text-based reports accounted for 85.90%. There was a correlation between the trend of the number of reports and the development of COVID-19 and the prevention and control policy issued by the government. After the change in the epidemic or the release of policy, the number of reports increased. The top four topics were personal protection, disease treatment, healthy lifestyle and psychological health, accounting for 18.62%, 18.54%, 12.96% and 11.74%, respectively. Reports focused on different aspects at different stages of COVID-19 epidemic, and the number of reports tended to increase one week after the occurrence of major events. ConclusionDuring the COVID-19 epidemic, the coverage of health science on media is timely and targeted. For future similar public health emergencies, it is suggested to respond quickly to major events according to the trend, to carry out publicity timely, to innovate the report forms, and thus make it easy for the public to accept and implement.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906475

ABSTRACT

Qingxin Lianzi Yin (QXLZY), as an ancient classical formula for clearing the heart and nourishing the Yin, was composed of nine herbs (Scutellariae Radix, Ophiopogonis Radix, Lycii Cortex, Plantaginis Semen, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle, Nelumbinis Semen, Poria, Astragali Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma), coming from Prescriptions of the Bureau of Taiping People's Welfare Pharmacy. It could clear away the heart-fire, promote the interaction of the heart and kidney, replenish Qi and Yin, and stop strangury-turbidity. It was used to treat gonorrhea of urination, seminal emission, restlessness, wasting-thirst and so on. At present, the usage and dosage of QXLZY and its addition and subtraction are different in clinical practice. Most of the studies just focus on its clinical efficacy, and there is few review literature reflecting its historical evolution. Based on this, this paper systematically clarified the historical evolution, composition, preparation, interpretation, function, and modern clinical application of QXLZY. This work has been explained the historical evolution of QXLZY, and found that it was wildly used in modern clinical, especially suitable for the treatment of chronic urinary system diseases. At the same time, QXLZY also had significant therapeutic effects on neurasthenia, stomatitis, diabetic nephropathy and other aspects. Through the comprehensive analysis of ancient and modern literature, this work explores the true connotation of QXLZY from the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine theory, which can point out the direction of the clinical application and positioning of this famous classical formula after it comes into the market, and also can provide reference basis for its subsequent in-depth research and development.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906387

ABSTRACT

Objective:A comprehensive and in-depth analysis method for identification of chemical constituents in Suanzaoren Tang granules was established. Method:Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was employed with the mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (A)-acetonitrile (B) for gradient elution (0-8 min, 5%-17%B; 8-10 min, 17%B; 10-11 min, 17%-18%B; 11-12 min, 18%-20%B; 12-17 min, 20%-23%B; 17-22 min, 23%-33%B; 22-30 min, 33%-60%B; 30-32 min, 60%-100%B; 32-36 min, 100%B), the flow rate of 0.3 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> and electrospray ionization (ESI). High quality MS/MS data were scanned in positive and negative ion modes with scanning range of <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 50-1 500. The local database of the chemical components from different Chinese medicines in Suanzaoren Tang granules was established by SCIEX OS software. Then the chemical components in Suanzaoren Tang granules were characterized by matching with the local database and comparing with the reference substance and literature information. Result:A total of 134 compounds were characterized and identified under positive and negative ion modes, mainly including flavonoids, triterpenoids, phthalides, steroidal saponins, alkaloids and organic phenolic acids. In addition, the sources of Chinese medicines for all compounds identified in Suanzaoren Tang granules were assigned. Among them, 41 were from Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, 11 were from Poria, 22 were from Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, 28 were from Chuanxiong Rhizoma and 35 were from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. Conclusion:The method can be used to identify the chemical constituents in Suanzaoren Tang granules systematically, quickly and accurately, which can provide a new strategy for the rapid and accurate identification of other Chinese patent medicines.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906386

ABSTRACT

As an inflammatory skin disease with a gradually increasing prevalence,psoriasis has negatively impacted the quality of life of patients and has attracted widespread attention from the medical community. The pathogenesis of psoriasis can be affected by a variety of genetic,environmental, and immune factors,and cytokine-driven epidermal proliferation,abnormal differentiation,inflammation, and neovascularization contribute to the pathogenesis,involving the interaction between immune and skin cells. However, some pathogenesis is still a blind spot for research,which brings great challenges to clinical treatment. Therefore, the identification of effective targets for psoriasis is critical in the research on psoriasis. Signaling pathways, another hotpot in the research on psoriasis, play an important cellular transduction role in the pathological mechanism of psoriasis and serve as key transduction factors regulating the immune and inflammatory responses to psoriasis. With the in-depth research in the field of network pharmacology and molecular biology, single Chinese medicine and Chinese medicinal compound can exert a therapeutic role by regulating multiple signaling pathways related to psoriasis. In recent years,traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has achieved good clinical efficacy in the prevention and treatment of psoriasis,such as relieving pruritus,decreasing the area of skin lesions,improving anxiety, and preventing complications, which confirms the credibility of TCM in the understanding and treatment of psoriasis. Despite the rich theoretical and clinical research on the prevention and treatment of psoriasis,studies on the regulation of psoriasis-related signaling pathways and mechanisms of action by TCM are rarely reported. Therefore,the present study reviewed the available research in recent years and introduced the following six major signaling pathways related to psoriasis which are regulated by TCM: Janus kinase(JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription(STAT) signaling pathway,mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) signaling pathway,phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases(PI3K)/protein kinase B(Akt) signaling pathway,nuclear transcription factor-κB(NF-κB) signaling pathway,Wnt signaling pathway, and Notch signaling pathway.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906329

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the effects of Cnidii Fructus hypnotic active components (CHC) on the behaviors of rats with p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA)-induced insomnia and melatonin (MT) synthesis rate-limiting enzyme arylalkylamine <italic>N</italic>-acetyltransferase (AANAT), and explore the protective mechanism of CHC on the pineal gland. Method:Male SD rats of SPF grade were randomly divided into a blank control group, a model group, a MT group, and high-, medium-, and low-dose CHC groups with 10 rats in each group. Except for the blank control group, other groups received 4.5% PCPA suspension at 10 mL·kg<sup>-1</sup>, intragastric administration, for two consecutive days. After PCPA model of insomnia was established, normal and model groups were gavaged at the same volume of 2% Tween-80, MT control group (10 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>), CHC was high, medium and low (60, 30, 15 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>), 10 mL·kg<sup>-1</sup>, once a day, for consecutive 7 days. Four days after administration, open field, elevated cross maze, and pentobarbital sodium-induced sleep tests were conducted, respectively. Serum MT was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mRNA expression level of AANAT was determined by real-time fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR). The expression of AANAT protein in the pineal gland was detected by Western blot. Result:Compared with the results in the blank control group, the total distance of open field activity and standing times and duration in the central area were increased (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), the proportions of open arm entry (OE%) and open arm time (OT%) were decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.05), and the sleep latency was prolonged (<italic>P</italic><0.01) in the model group. Compared with the model group, no significant difference was observed in the low-dose CHC group, while other groups exhibited reduced total distance of activity (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), elevated OE% (<italic>P</italic><0.05), shortened sleep latency, and prolonged sleep time (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the serum MT in the blank control group, that in the model group was decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, no significant difference was observed in the low-dose CHC group, while other groups displayed increased serum MT (<italic>P</italic><0.05). The mRNA and protein expression of AANAT was decreased in the model group as compared with that in the blank control group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, the MT group and the high-dose CHC group showed up-regulated expression (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Conclusion:CHC improved the behavioral indexes of PCPA-induced insomnia, increased the synthesis and secretion of MT in pineal cells, and elevated the serum MT level, which was related to the up-regulation of the mRNA and protein expression of AANAT in the pineal gland.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906316

ABSTRACT

Notoginsenosides, the saponins extracted from Panax notoginseng, have many pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-tumor, nervous system and cardiovascular system protection, microcirculation improvement and calcium overload inhibition. At present, notoginsenosides are widely used clinically for treating many diseases with good efficacy, especially for nervous system diseases such as stroke, stroke sequelae and Alzheimer's disease. In recent years, the mechanism underlying their neuroprotective effect has been continuously explored. To advance the applied research on notoginsenosides in the prevention and treatment of central nervous system diseases, this paper, combined with the latest reports, summarizes their neuroprotective effect and mechanisms in terms of regulating voltage-gated ion channels, protecting nerve cells and neurovascular unit, inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction, promoting angiogenesis and reducing excitatory neurotoxicity. Although the protective mechanism of notoginsenosides for the nervous system mainly involves the above several aspects, some of them still remain to be fully elucidated, which necessitates the further exploration of neuroprotective effect of notoginsenosides with molecular biology, metabolomics, proteomics and other technologies.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906295

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the protective effect of essential oil from Alpiniae Zerumbet Fructus (EOAZF) against high glucose (HG)-induced injury of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) <italic>in vitro</italic>, so as to provide experimental evidence for the treatment of diabetes-induced cardiovascular diseases with EOAZF. Method:The cells were divided into the normal group, model group (25 mmol·L<sup>-1</sup> glucose), positive control group (100 mg·L<sup>-1</sup> vitamin C), and the low- (0.25 μg·L<sup>-1</sup>), medium- (1 μg·L<sup>-1</sup>), and high-dose (4 μg·L<sup>-1</sup>) EOAZF groups. The HUVECs were damaged by HG. The secretion amounts of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in HUVECs of different groups were measured to assess the protective effect of EOAZF against HG-induced injury. The effects of EOAZF on the apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of HUVECs damaged by HG were detected by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (Annexin V-FITC/PI) staining and dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. The protein and mRNA expression levels of thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) and thioredoxin 1 (Trx-1) were determined by Western blot and Real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR), followed by the measurement of total intracellular Trx-1 activity with insulin disulfide reduction method. Result:The comparison with the control group revealed that the proliferation of HUVECs in the model group was significantly inhibited and their shape was damaged. Compared with the model group, EOAZF protected HUVECs against HG-induced injury in a concentration-dependent manner. The secretion amounts of MDA and ET-1 (<italic>P</italic><0.05) in the model group were increased in contrast to those in the control group, while the NO level was decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, EOAZF at all the three concentrations, especially at 4 μg·L<sup>-1</sup>, obviously reduced the secretion of MDA and ET-1 (<italic>P</italic><0.05), but elevated NO after HG induction (<italic>P</italic><0.05). The cell apoptosis assay and ROS detection results demonstrated that the apoptosis and ROS level in the model group were higher than those in the control group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, EOAZF at 4 μg·L<sup>-1 </sup>significantly lowered the ROS level and apoptosis (<italic>P</italic><0.05) of HUVECs damaged by HG. The Western blot assay and Trx-1 activity detection uncovered that the protein and mRNA expression levels of TXNIP in the model group were significantly up-regulated as compared with those in the control group (<italic>P</italic><0.05), whereas the Trx-1 activity was decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, EOAZF at 4 μg·L<sup>-1 </sup>significantly down-regulated the mRNA and protein (<italic>P</italic><0.05) expression levels of TXNIP and enhanced the total Trx-1 activity (<italic>P</italic><0.05) in HUVECs, thus suppressing the oxidative stress. Conclusion:EOAZF exerts the protective effects against HG-induced injury in HUVECs by improving the endothelial function and reducing intracellular ROS and apoptosis. Its efficacy in anti-oxidative stress may be related to the down-regulation of mRNA and protein expression levels of TXNIP and the enhancement of Trx-1 activity.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906207

ABSTRACT

Objective:To determine the therapeutic effect of <italic>in vitro</italic> cultivation of bezoar on a mouse model adding disease with syndrome of coronavirus pneumonia with Yidu Xifei syndrome. Method:BALB/c mice were randomly divided into six groups according to their weight grade: normal group, HCoV-229E infection group, cold and damp group, a mouse model combining disease with syndrome of coronavirus pneumonia with Yidu Xifei syndrome, and high and low dose group of <italic>in vitro</italic> cultivation of bezoar. The combination model of human coronavirus pneumonia with Yidu Xifei syndrome mice was established by the method of cold dampness condition stimulation+coronavirus HCoV-229E infection. <italic>In vitro</italic> cultivation of bezoar (0.128,0.064 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) was administrated by gavage for 3 days from the day of infection. The observation indexes included: general state observation of mice, inhibition rate of lung index and lung index of mice. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) was used to detect the viral load in the lung tissues of mice. Serum levels of motilin(MTL), gastrin (GAS), and cytokines interleukin(IL)-10,IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-<italic>α</italic>(TNF-<italic>α</italic>)and interferon-<italic>γ</italic>(IFN-<italic>γ</italic>) in lung tissue of mice were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The percentages of CD4<sup>+</sup> T lymphocytes,CD8<sup>+</sup> T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes in the blood of mice were determined by flow cytometry. Result:The high and low dose group of <italic>in vitro</italic> cultivation of bezoar can significantly improve the general condition of model mice. Compared with blank group, model group mice lung index increased significantly (<italic>P</italic><0.01), nucleic acids significantly increased expression of lung tissue in mice (<italic>P</italic><0.01), significantly higher serum MTL content in mice, GAS content significantly decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic>P</italic><0.01), lung tissue cells in the immune factor TNF-<italic>α</italic>, IL-10 and IL-6 were significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.01), peripheral blood lymphocyte CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells in mice, The percentages of CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells and B cells were significantly decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with model group, <italic>in vitro</italic> cultivation bezoar mice lung index of high and low dose group were significantly lower (<italic>P</italic><0.01), the lung tissue of mice express nucleic acid decreased significantly (<italic>P</italic><0.01), MTL content decreased significantly (<italic>P</italic><0.01), the lung tissue of mice in the IL-6, IL-10, the TNF-<italic>α</italic>, IFN-<italic>γ</italic> levels were significantly lower (<italic>P</italic><0.01), <italic>in vitro</italic> cultivation bezoar high dose group can significantly increase the CD4<sup>+</sup> T cell percentage (<italic>P</italic><0.05), <italic>in vitro</italic> cultivation bezoar can to a certain extent reduce model mice lung inflammatory exudation, pulmonary interstitial edema, as well as blood stasis symptoms. Conclusion:<italic>In vitro</italic> cultivation of bezoar has a significant therapeutic effect on a mice model adding disease with syndrome of coronavirus pneumonia with Yidu Xifei syndrome. It can be treated by reducing the lung index of the model mice, improving the pathological damage of the lung tissue, adjusting the immune effective and inhibiting the clearing of inflammatory factors, and to provide a laboratory basis for clinical medication.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906133

ABSTRACT

In traditional Chinese medicine, it is believed that the spleen is the foundation of acquired nature and the source of Qi and blood. All life activities of a person since birth depend on the water and grain essence transported by spleen and stomach. The liver helps the spleen to strengthen the movement, the liver and spleen cooperate with each other. The liver and the spleen are invigorated, so that the Qi and blood are sufficient. The external energy can nourish the limbs, muscles and fur. The Qi and blood can be supplied to the internal organs, meridians and bones, and the body can be nourished both inside and outside to strengthen the acquired foundation. Emotional dissatisfaction can lead to stagnation of liver Qi, loss of spleen Qi, failure to dredge Qi, and deficiency of spleen Qi, forming the syndrome of liver depression and spleen deficiency. Its clinical manifestations include the symptoms of liver Qi stagnation such as depression, stamina, and chest fullness, as well as symptoms of spleen deficiency such as anorexia, abdominal distension, loose stools. Xiaoyaowan is an effective classic prescription for the treatment of liver stagnation and spleen deficiency syndrome, which is based on the dosage form of Xiaoyaosan in Prescriptions of the Bureau of Taiping People's Welfare Pharmacy. It has the effect of relieving depression, nourishing blood and invigorating spleen. In modern research, it has been found that Xiaoyaowan has good curative effect in the treatment of endocrine diseases, liver diseases, immune diseases, and neurological diseases, etc. It was praised by the famous medical scientist YE Tian-shi in the Qing Dynasty as "the holy medicine for women", with a wide range of significant curative effects gynecology. Progress has been also made in pharmacological research. In this article, we have searched and consulted the relevant literature reports of Xiaoyaowan in recent years, summarized the key directions of the pharmacological research literature, and proposed deficiencies to provide relevant basis for the in-depth study of Xiaoyao pill in the future.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906071

ABSTRACT

Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease presented in the context of inflammation, and it mainly results from proliferation and differentiation defects of keratinocytes and abnormal immune response. However, some cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Although a variety of drugs and physiotherapies are applicable to this disease, they can only be utilized for a short-term period considering their transient effect, high cost, and serious adverse reactions. It is difficult to achieve satisfactory long-term results in the treatment of psoriasis. With the development of network pharmacology and molecular biology and the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the multi-component and multi-target characteristics of TCM have become prominent, promoting the in-depth research on TCM by doctors and scholars. Nevertheless, there is no detailed summarization on the mechanisms of TCM in interfering with T helper 17 (Th17)/regulatory T (Treg) cell balance to prevent and treat psoriasis. After reviewing the recent literature data, this paper has found that Chinese herbal monomers, active ingredients, and compounds obviously regulate the Th17/Treg axis in psoriasis. Th17 cells have a pro-inflammatory effect, while Treg cells are responsible for maintaining peripheral tolerance. They function in a mutually exclusive manner, and maintaining the Th17/Treg balance helps to effectively reduce inflammatory reaction and regulate immune homeostasis. As revealed by a series of clinical and experimental studies carried out based on the Th17/Treg axis in psoriasis, reducing the percentage of Th17 cells,increasing the percentage of Treg cells,and regulating the levels of related cytokines and transcription factors are conducive to alleviating inflammation and regaining immune homeostasis,which has provided new ideas for further elucidating the pathological mechanism of psoriasis and alternative plans for developing new treatments against psoriasis.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905890

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the effect of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, and Chuanxiong Rhizoma extract (GNC) on mitochondrial oxidative stress in hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>)-induced aging of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and explore the therapeutic mechanism of GNC on aging HUVECs. Method:The HUVECs were classified into the control group (control), H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> model group (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>), H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> + DMSO group (DMSO, 1 mL·L<sup>-1</sup>), resveratrol group (Resv, 8 μmol·L<sup>-1</sup>), and low- (200 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>), medium- (300 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>), and high-dose (400 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>) GNC (GNC-L, GNC-M, and GNC-H) groups. Except control group and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> group, the other groups were intervened with corresponding agents. Subsequently, 300 μmol·L<sup>-1</sup> H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> was given to other groups except the control group for 4 h to induce aging, and then the cells were cultured in normal media for 24 h. The aging degree, cell cycle, and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) level were determined by SA-<italic>β</italic>-galactosidase (SA-<italic>β</italic>-Gal) staining, flow cytometry, and MitoSox red fluorescence staining, respectively. JC-10 was used as a fluorescent probe to detect the changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and Western blot was performed to detect the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and p-p66 proteins. Result:The SA-<italic>β</italic>-gal staining results showed that H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> group had increased blue-stained cells compared with other groups (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with those in the control group, the ratio of G<sub>0</sub>/G<sub>1</sub> phase cells significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.05) and that of G<sub>2</sub>/M phase cells decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.05) in the H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> group. Compared with those in the H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> group, the proportion of G<sub>0</sub>/G<sub>1</sub> cells decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.05) while that of G<sub>2</sub>/M cells increased (<italic>P</italic><0.05) in GNC-H groups and Resv group. The fluorescence staining for determining mitochondrial ROS level showed that the H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> group had weakened fluorescence intensity than the control, GNC-H, and GNC-M groups (<italic>P</italic><0.05). The mitochondrial membrane potential fluorescence intensity of the H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> group was weaker than that of the control, GNC-H, GNC-M, and GNC-L groups (<italic>P</italic><0.01), as well as the Resv group (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Western blot showed that the protein level of MnSOD was significantly lower in the H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> group than in the control, GNS-H, and GNS-M groups (<italic>P</italic><0.05), whereas the protein level of p-p66 showed an opposite trend (<italic>P</italic><0.01), indicating that the medication can alleviate the intracellular mitochondrial oxidative stress. Conclusion:GNC can delay the H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-induced aging of vascular endothelial cells. The GNC intervention significantly regulated the mitochondrial ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential, and related proteins MnSOD and p-p66 to alleviate oxidative stress. Chinese medicinal materials may delay the aging of vascular endothelial cells by inhibiting mitochondrial oxidative stress.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905868

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore effects of different extracts and monomers of <italic>Lepidium meyenii </italic>(Maca) on the proliferation of mouse splenic lymphocytes and induction of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-<italic>α</italic> (TNF-<italic>α</italic>) by observing their immunomodulatory effects. Method:An octadecylsilyl (ODS) column was used to enrich the methanol extract of <italic>L. meyenii</italic> in stages to obtain six fractions and three monomers. Different groups of extracts and monomers of <italic>L. meyenii </italic>at different doses were set up. Cell counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to detect the effect on the proliferation of mitogen-free, concanavalin A (Con A)-induced, and lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced mouse splenic lymphocytes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the levels of IL-2 and TNF-<italic>α</italic>. Result:<italic>L. meyenii </italic>extracts Fr<sub>3</sub> and Fr<sub>6</sub>, and monomers <italic>N</italic>-benzyl hexadecanamide and 1,2-dihydro-4-carboxaldehyde-3-benzyl-<italic>N</italic>-hydroxypyridine slightly promoted the proliferation of Con A-induced T lymphocytes and LPS-induced B lymphocytes (<italic>P</italic><0.01) as compared with the conditions in the model group. <italic>L. meyenii</italic> extracts and monomers significantly induced the secretion of IL-2 and TNF-<italic>α</italic> by splenic lymphocytes (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:<italic>L. meyenii</italic> extracts and monomers can achieve immunological enhancement by promoting the secretion of IL-2 and TNF-<italic>α</italic>, and facilitate the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes. The active components are presumedly macamides and pyridine alkaloids, and the specific mechanism still needs to be further explored.

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