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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1124-1131, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970584

ABSTRACT

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center phase Ⅱ clinical trial design was used in this study to recruit subjects who were in line with the syndrome of excess heat and fire toxin, and were diagnosed as recurrent oral ulcers, gingivitis, and acute pharyngitis. A total of 240 cases were included and randomly divided into a placebo group and a Huanglian Jiedu Pills group. The clinical efficacy of Huanglian Jiedu Pills in treating the syndrome of excess heat and fire toxin was evaluated by using the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) syndrome scale. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to determine and evaluate the levels of adenosine triphosphate(ATP), 4-hydroxynonenal(4-HNE), and adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH) in plasma of the two groups before and after administration and to predict their application value as clinical biomarkers. The results showed that the disappearance rate of main symptoms in the Huanglian Jiedu Pills group was 69.17%, and that in the placebo group was 50.83%. The comparison between the Huanglian Jiedu Pills group and the placebo group showed that 4-HNE before and after administration was statistically significant(P<0.05). The content of 4-HNE in the Huanglian Jiedu Pills group decreased significantly after administration(P<0.05), but that in the placebo group had no statistical significance and showed an upward trend. After administration, the content of ATP in both Huanglian Jiedu Pills group and placebo group decreased significantly(P<0.05), indicating that the energy metabolism disorder was significantly improved after administration of Huanglian Jiedu Pills and the body's self-healing ability also alleviated the increase in ATP level caused by the syndrome of excess heat and fire toxin to a certain extent. ACTH in both Huanglian Jiedu Pills group and placebo group decreased significantly after administration(P<0.05). It is concluded that Huanglian Jiedu Pills has a significant clinical effect, and can significantly improve the abnormal levels of ATP and 4-HNE in plasma caused by the syndrome of excess heat and fire toxin, which are speculated to be the effective clinical biomarkers for Huanglian Jiedu Pills to treat the syndrome of excess heat and fire toxin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Hot Temperature , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Adenosine Triphosphate
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 811-822, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970551

ABSTRACT

Children's fever is often accompanied by food accumulation. Traditional Chinese medicine believes that removing food stagnation while clearing heat of children can effectively avoid heat damage. To systematically evaluate the efficacy of Xiaoer Chiqiao Qingre Granules(XRCQ) in clearing heat and removing food accumulation and explore its potential mechanism, this study combined suckling SD rats fed with high-sugar and high-fat diet with injection of carrageenan to induce rat model of fever and food accumulation. This study provided references for the study on the pharmacodynamics and mechanism of XRCQ. The results showed that XRCQ effectively reduced the rectal temperature of suckling rats, improved the inflammatory environment such as the content of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-2(IL-2), interferon-γ(IFN-γ), white blood cells, and monocytes. XRCQ also effectively repaired intestinal injury and enhanced intestinal propulsion function. According to the confirmation of its efficacy of clearing heat, the thermolytic mechanism of XRCQ was further explored by non-targeted and targeted metabolomics methods based on LTQ-Orbitrap MS/MS and UPLC-QQQ-MS/MS. Non-target metabolomics analysis of brain tissue samples was performed by QI software combined with SIMCA-P software, and 22 endogenous metabolites that could be significantly regulated were screened out. MetaboAnalyst pathway enrichment results showed that the intervention mechanism was mainly focused on tyrosine metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle, inositol phosphate metabolism, and other pathways. At the same time, the results of targeted metabolomics of brain tissue samples showed that XRCQ changed the vitality of digestive system, and inhibited abnormal energy metabolism and inflammatory response, playing a role in clearing heat and removing food stagnation from multiple levels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Hot Temperature , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Metabolomics , Food , Fever , Interferon-gamma
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3074-3085, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981438

ABSTRACT

The tissue distribution of Qingfei Paidu Decoction was studied by HPLC-MS/MS in vivo. Hypersil GOLD C_(18) column(2.1 mm×50 mm, 1.9 μm) was used for gradient elution with acetonitrile as the mobile phase A and 0.1% formic acid solution as the mobile phase B. High-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in both positive and negative ion scanning mode and multiple response monitoring(MRM) mode was employed to analyze the behaviors of the active components of Qingfei Paidu Decoction in diffe-rent tissues. The results showed that 19, 9, 17, 14, 22, 19, 24, and 2 compounds were detected in plasma, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, large intestine, and brain, respectively. The compounds belonged to 8 groups, covering 14 herbs in the prescription. After administration with Qingfei Paidu Decoction, the compounds were rapidly distributed in various tissues, especially in the lung, liver, large intestine, and kidney. The majority of the compounds displayed secondary distribution. This study comprehensively analyzed the distribution rules of the main active components in Qingfei Paidu Decoction and provided a basis for the clinical application.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Tissue Distribution , Drugs, Chinese Herbal
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2126-2143, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981344

ABSTRACT

Sanhan Huashi formula(SHF) is the intermediate of a newly approved traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) Sanhan Huashi Granules for the treatment of COVID-19 infection. The chemical composition of SHF is complex since it contains 20 single herbal medicines. In this study, UHPLC-Orbitrap Exploris 240 was used to identify the chemical components in SHF and in rat plasma, lung and feces after oral administration of SHF, and heat map was plotted for characterizing the distribution of the chemical components. Chromatographic separation was conducted on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C_(18)(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) using 0.1% formic acid(A)-acetonitrile(B) as mobile phases in a gradient elution. Electrospray ionization(ESI) source was used to acquire data in positive and negative mode. By reference to quasi-molecular ions and MS/MS fragment ions and in combination with MS spectra of reference substances and compound information in literature reports, 80 components were identified in SHF, including 14 flavonoids, 13 coumarins, 5 lignans, 12 amino-compounds, 6 terpenes and 30 other compounds; 40 chemical components were identified in rat plasma, 27 in lung and 56 in feces. Component identification and characterization of SHF in vitro and in vivo lay foundations for disclosure of its pharmacodynamic substances and elucidation of the scientific connotation.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , COVID-19 , Lignans
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6066-6074, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008805

ABSTRACT

This study comprehensively analyzed the active components of Sanhan Huashi Formula using qualitative and quantitative mass spectrometry techniques, laying the foundation for understanding its pharmacological substance basis. UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS and GC-MS technologies were used to analyze and identify the volatile and non-volatile components in Sanhan Huashi Formula. UHPLC-QQQ-MS/MS technology was used to simultaneously determine the content of 27 major active components in the formula. The results showed that 308 major chemical components were identified in Sanhan Huashi Formula, among which 60 compounds were identified by comparing with reference standards, mainly including alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, triterpenoid saponins, amino acids, and nucleosides. GC-MS technology preliminarily identified 52 volatile compounds, with γ-eudesmol and β-eudesmol as the main components. The quantitative results demonstrated good linearity(r>0.99) for the 27 active components, indicating the stability, simplicity, and reliability of the established method. Among them, amygdalin, nodakenin, arecoline, ephedrine, and pseudoephedrine had relatively high content and were presumably the main pharmacologically active substances. In conclusion, this study systematically and comprehensively characterized the major chemical components and patterns in Sanhan Huashi Formula, providing a basis for understanding its pharmacological mechanisms and clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Reproducibility of Results , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5898-5907, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008788

ABSTRACT

This study aims to reveal the endogenous metabolic characteristics of acteoside in the young rat model of purinomycin aminonucleoside nephropathy(PAN) by non-targeted urine metabolomics and decipher the potential mechanism of action. Biochemical indicators in the urine of rats from each group were determined by an automatic biochemical analyzer. The potential biomarkers and related core metabolic pathways were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry(UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS) combined with principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA). MetaboAnalyst 5.0 was used to establish the receiver operating characteristic(ROC) curve for evaluating the clinical diagnostic performance of core metabolites. The results showed that acteoside significantly decreased urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio in PAN young rats. A total of 17 differential metabolites were screened out by non-targeted urine metabolomics in PAN young rats and they were involved in phenylalanine metabolism and phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis. Thirtten differential metabolites were screened by acteoside intervention in PAN young rats, and they were involved in phenylalanine metabolism and arginine and proline metabolism. Among them, leucylproline and acetophenone were the differential metabolites that were significantly recovered after acteoside treatment. These pathways suggest that acteoside treats PAN in young rats by regulating amino acid metabolism. The area under the curve of two core biomarkers, leucylproline and acetophenone, were both greater than 0.9. In summary, acteoside may restore amino acid metabolism by regulating endogenous differential metabolites in PAN young rats, which will help to clarify the mechanism of acteoside in treating chronic glomerulonephritis in children. The characteristic biomarkers screened out have a high diagnostic value for evaluating the treatment of chronic glomerulonephritis in children with acteoside.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Rats , Animals , Puromycin Aminonucleoside , Metabolomics/methods , Biomarkers/urine , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Acetophenones , Glomerulonephritis , Phenylalanine , Amino Acids
7.
International Eye Science ; (12): 2031-2034, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-998485

ABSTRACT

AIM: To analyze the relationship between rs128912 single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP)in the promoter region of Toll-like receptor 3(TLR3)gene and cataract in Chinese Han population.METHODS: A total of 263 patients with cataract admitted to our hospital from June 2019 to June 2021 were selected as study group, and 150 patients with lens dislocation were included in control group. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of TLR3 protein in the anterior capsular tissues of lens in the two groups, and direct sequencing method was applied to analyze the polymorphism of rs128912 locus in the promoter region of TLR3 gene. The expression of peripheral blood TLR3 mRNA of patients with different genotypes was detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR).RESULTS: The expression level of TLR3 protein in the anterior capsular tissues in the study group was higher than that in the control group(P&#x003C;0.05). The frequencies of genotypes(AA, AT, TT)at rs128912 locus in the TLR3 gene promoter region in the study group and the control group were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium, and there were differences in the frequencies of genotypes(AA, AT, TT)and frequencies of alleles(A, T)at rs128912 locus in the TLR3 gene promoter region between both groups(P&#x003C;0.05). The relative expression level of peripheral blood TLR3 mRNA in patients with TT genotype in the study group was higher than that in patients with AA or AT genotypes(P&#x003C;0.05).CONCLUSION: The expression of TLR3 protein in anterior capsular tissues of lens of patients with cataract is significantly up-regulated, and rs128912 locus polymorphism in the TLR3 gene promoter region is related to the susceptibility of cataract in Chinese Han population, and people with TT genotype are more prone to cataract.

8.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 338-342, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1014131

ABSTRACT

Schisaridrae chinensis is the dried ripe fruit of Schisan- drae chinensis in the magnolia family.In recent years studies have shown that Schisandra chinensis has significant effects on the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder and other neurological and mental diseases.Schisandra chinensis has shown to inhibit the activation of microglia and astrocytes, regulate the level of central neurotransmitters and protect neurons.In this paper, the effects of Schisandrae chinensis on various neurological and mental diseases and the underlying mechanisms are reviewed in order to provide reference for the clinical application of Schisandrae chinensis.

9.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 22-30, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940689

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo observe the effects of Sinisan on behaviors and NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes of depressed rats induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and further explore the anti-depressant mechanism of Sinisan. MethodFifty male rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, an NLRP3 inhibitor (MCC950) group (10 mg·kg-1), and low- (2.5 g·kg-1) and high-dose (5 g·kg-1) Sinisan groups, with 10 rats in each group. The depression model was induced by 42 d CUMS in rats except for those in the normal group. Drug intervention was performed on the 22nd day of modeling by gavage in the Sinisan groups and by intraperitoneal injection in the MCC950 group. Except for the MCC950 group, the remaining four groups received 10 mg·kg-1 physiological saline by intraperitoneal injection, while the rats in the model group, the normal group, and the MCC950 group were administered with 3 mL of physiological saline by gavage. Twenty-one days later, the sucrose preference test and open field test were performed. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease-1 (Caspase-1), B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), and CD68 in the hippocampus of rats in each group. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) in the hippocampus of rats. Nissl staining and TUNEL were used to assess the pathological changes and apoptosis level in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats, respectively. ResultThe sucrose preference rate and consumption volume in the sucrose preference test, the total distance, the percentage of central movement distance, and the percentage of residence time in the open field test of rats in the model group were lower than those in the normal group (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the Sinisan groups and the MCC950 group showed improved depression-like behaviors, apoptosis level in the hippocampal CA1 region, and neuron loss to varying degrees. Sinisan could reduce the levels of IL-1β, IL-18, Bax, Iba1, and CD68 in the hippocampus (P<0.05, P<0.01), increase the level of Bcl-2 (P<0.05, P<0.01), and inhibit the protein expression of NLRP3, ASC, and Caspase-1 related to NLRP3 inflammasomes (P<0.05, P<0.01). ConclusionSinisan can improve the depression-like behaviors and pathological damage of hippocampal neurons in CUMS-induced rats, and the mechanism may be related to the inflammatory response mediated by the NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway.

10.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 98-108, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940557

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo establish blood stasis models in zebrafish using three inducers and select the optimal model for evaluating the activity of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma in promoting blood circulation. MethodArachidonic acid (AA), ponatinib, and isoprenaline (ISO) were used to induce blood stasis models in zebrafish. A normal group, a model group, a positive drug group, and Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma water extract freeze-dried powder groups at different concentrations were set up. The staining intensity of cardiac erythrocytes and the fluorescence intensity of cardiac apoptotic cells were calculated, the anti-thrombotic effect and anti-myocardial hypoxia activity of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were evaluated. The activities of water extract and 70% methanol extract of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were compared based on the preferred AA- and ISO-induced blood stasis models in zebrafish and the difference in the chemical composition was analyzed by UHPLC LTQ-Orbitrap MS/MS. ResultAfter induction by AA and ponatinib, the staining intensity of cardiac erythrocytes was reduced (P<0.01), and the fluorescence intensity of cardiac apoptotic cells increased after the induction by ISO (P<0.01). The freeze-dried powder of the water extract of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma could antagonize the thrombosis in the AA-induced model (P<0.01) and the myocardial apoptosis in the ISO-induced model (P<0.05), while no significant improvement in the thrombosis was observed in the ponatinib-induced model. The freeze-dried powder of 70% methanol extract of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma could inhibit myocardial apoptosis in the ISO-induced blood stasis model (P<0.01), and the effect was stronger than that of the freeze-dried powder of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma water extract. The difference in chemical composition lay in some saponins (such as ginsenoside Re), amino acids, and acetylenic alcohols. ConclusionAA, ponatinib, and ISO all can serve as inducers for the blood stasis model in zebrafish. AA- and ISO-induced models can be used to evaluate the activity of freeze-dried powder of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma water extract in promoting blood circulation. The chemical compositions of the freeze-dried powders of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma extracted with water and 70% methanol are quite different. For the ISO-induced blood stasis model, the freeze-dried powder of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma extracted with 70% methanol has a stronger ability against myocardial hypoxia. Saponins and acetylenic alcohols may be closely related to the effects of promoting blood circulation and resolving blood stasis.

11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1995-2007, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928138

ABSTRACT

Quality evaluation of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces is vital for the development of the downstream industries, and is an important channel for implementing the strategy of "higher quality, higher price, and priority for the high quality" for traditional Chinese medicine. At the moment, the quality of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces is mainly evaluated based on chemical component examination. Considering the weak preliminary research foundation and poor research conditions, traditional experience-based evaluation is undervalued in the quality rating of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces. However, traditional experience is a summary of the quality of Chinese medicinal materials based on clinical experience, which thus can be a potential basis for the quality evaluation of the decoction pieces. It is a challenge in the evaluation of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces to objectify the traditional experience-based evaluation from multiple aspects such as chemistry, effect, and characterization via modern techniques. Therefore, this study developed the "experience-ingredients-activity-electronic sensing" evaluation system for Chinese medicinal decoction pieces on the basis of experience-based assessment, chemical ingredients that can truly reflect the traditional experience, biological effect assessment, and electronic sensory evaluation, which is expected to quantify the traditional experience of quality evaluation of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces via chemistry, biology, and sensory simulation. The evaluation system can serve as a reference for clinical experience-based quality evaluation of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Electronics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Restraint, Physical
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4774-4781, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888184

ABSTRACT

Indolealkylamines(IAAs) are the main hydrophilic substances in toad skin, mainly including free N-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, bufotenine, bufotenidine, dehydrobufotenine, and binding bufothionine. In this study, the LPS-activated neutrophils were used to investigate the structure-activity relationship and anti-inflammatory mechanism of the above-mentioned five monomers from the toad skin in vitro. The neutrophils were divided into the control group, model group(1 μg·mL~(-1) LPS), positive drug group(100 μg·mL~(-1) indometacin), as well as the low-(50 μg·mL~(-1)), medium-(100 μg·mL~(-1)) and high-dose(200 μg·mL~(-1)) free N-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, bufotenine, bufotenidine, dehydrobufotenine, and binding bufothionine groups. The levels of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β in the neutrophil supernatant of each group was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) after LPS stimulation, followed by the detection of apoptosis in each group after Annexin V/PI staining. The protein expression levels of caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, beclin1, LC3-I, and LC3-Ⅱ were assayed by Western blot. The results showed that IAAs reduced the excessive secretion of inflammatory cytokines caused by LPS compared with the model group. Besides, the activity of each free IAAs(N-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, bufotenine, bufotenidine and dehydrobufotenine), especially bufotenine, was stronger than that of the binding bufothionine. As revealed by Annexin V/PI staining, LPS delayed the early apoptosis of neutrophils compared with the control group, while bufotenine promoted the apoptosis of neutrophils in a dose-dependent manner, which might be related to the elevated expression of apoptosis-related protein Bax/Bcl-2. In addition, LPS activated the autophagy pathways in neutrophils. This study confirmed the efficacy of IAAs in reducing the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in neutrophils induced by LPS for the first time. For instance, bufotenine exerts the anti-inflammatory effect possibly by inducing the apoptosis of neutrophils.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Bufonidae , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Neutrophils , Skin
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6163-6177, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921774

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to qualitatively analyze the chemical components in Xiaoer Chiqiao Qingre Granules(XRCQ) by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/MS and identify its material basis. The absorbed components in plasma were combined for exploring the potential action mechanism by integrated network pharmacology. ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 μm) column and mobile phase system of 0.1% formic acid solution(A)-acetonitrile(B) were used for gradient elution, followed by high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in both positive and negative ion scanning modes. According to the precise relative molecular mass and MS/MS fragment ions, a total of 124 chemical components were identified in XRCQ by the comparison with references and literature reports, among which 29 compounds were completely confirmed by comparison with reference substances. Then, the main absorbed components of XRCQ in plasma were also analyzed and clarified by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/MS. BATMAN-TCM and SwissTargetPrediction were used for target prediction of absorbed components in plasma. Following the plotting of association network with Cytoscape 3.8.2, the core targets were subjected to GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and a component-target-pathway network was constructed. A total of eight main targets of XRCQ against fever in children were obtained together with eight absorbed components in plasma, including glycyrhydinic acid, hesperidin, emodin, reticuline, daidzein, magnolignan C, magnolignan A, and magnolaldehyde D. It was inferred that XRCQ might improve alimentary system abnormality, inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and endocrine disorder through tumor necrosis factor, PI3 K-AKT, and other signaling pathways. The present study comprehensively expounded the chemical profiles of XRCQ and the main absorbed components in plasma and predicted the potential mechanism of XRCQ based on integrated network pharmacology, which has provided certain theoretical reference for the clinical application of XRCQ.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Network Pharmacology , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
14.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 224-232, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906475

ABSTRACT

Qingxin Lianzi Yin (QXLZY), as an ancient classical formula for clearing the heart and nourishing the Yin, was composed of nine herbs (Scutellariae Radix, Ophiopogonis Radix, Lycii Cortex, Plantaginis Semen, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle, Nelumbinis Semen, Poria, Astragali Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma), coming from Prescriptions of the Bureau of Taiping People's Welfare Pharmacy. It could clear away the heart-fire, promote the interaction of the heart and kidney, replenish Qi and Yin, and stop strangury-turbidity. It was used to treat gonorrhea of urination, seminal emission, restlessness, wasting-thirst and so on. At present, the usage and dosage of QXLZY and its addition and subtraction are different in clinical practice. Most of the studies just focus on its clinical efficacy, and there is few review literature reflecting its historical evolution. Based on this, this paper systematically clarified the historical evolution, composition, preparation, interpretation, function, and modern clinical application of QXLZY. This work has been explained the historical evolution of QXLZY, and found that it was wildly used in modern clinical, especially suitable for the treatment of chronic urinary system diseases. At the same time, QXLZY also had significant therapeutic effects on neurasthenia, stomatitis, diabetic nephropathy and other aspects. Through the comprehensive analysis of ancient and modern literature, this work explores the true connotation of QXLZY from the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine theory, which can point out the direction of the clinical application and positioning of this famous classical formula after it comes into the market, and also can provide reference basis for its subsequent in-depth research and development.

15.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 243-250, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906386

ABSTRACT

As an inflammatory skin disease with a gradually increasing prevalence,psoriasis has negatively impacted the quality of life of patients and has attracted widespread attention from the medical community. The pathogenesis of psoriasis can be affected by a variety of genetic,environmental, and immune factors,and cytokine-driven epidermal proliferation,abnormal differentiation,inflammation, and neovascularization contribute to the pathogenesis,involving the interaction between immune and skin cells. However, some pathogenesis is still a blind spot for research,which brings great challenges to clinical treatment. Therefore, the identification of effective targets for psoriasis is critical in the research on psoriasis. Signaling pathways, another hotpot in the research on psoriasis, play an important cellular transduction role in the pathological mechanism of psoriasis and serve as key transduction factors regulating the immune and inflammatory responses to psoriasis. With the in-depth research in the field of network pharmacology and molecular biology, single Chinese medicine and Chinese medicinal compound can exert a therapeutic role by regulating multiple signaling pathways related to psoriasis. In recent years,traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has achieved good clinical efficacy in the prevention and treatment of psoriasis,such as relieving pruritus,decreasing the area of skin lesions,improving anxiety, and preventing complications, which confirms the credibility of TCM in the understanding and treatment of psoriasis. Despite the rich theoretical and clinical research on the prevention and treatment of psoriasis,studies on the regulation of psoriasis-related signaling pathways and mechanisms of action by TCM are rarely reported. Therefore,the present study reviewed the available research in recent years and introduced the following six major signaling pathways related to psoriasis which are regulated by TCM: Janus kinase(JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription(STAT) signaling pathway,mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) signaling pathway,phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases(PI3K)/protein kinase B(Akt) signaling pathway,nuclear transcription factor-κB(NF-κB) signaling pathway,Wnt signaling pathway, and Notch signaling pathway.

16.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 228-234, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906133

ABSTRACT

In traditional Chinese medicine, it is believed that the spleen is the foundation of acquired nature and the source of Qi and blood. All life activities of a person since birth depend on the water and grain essence transported by spleen and stomach. The liver helps the spleen to strengthen the movement, the liver and spleen cooperate with each other. The liver and the spleen are invigorated, so that the Qi and blood are sufficient. The external energy can nourish the limbs, muscles and fur. The Qi and blood can be supplied to the internal organs, meridians and bones, and the body can be nourished both inside and outside to strengthen the acquired foundation. Emotional dissatisfaction can lead to stagnation of liver Qi, loss of spleen Qi, failure to dredge Qi, and deficiency of spleen Qi, forming the syndrome of liver depression and spleen deficiency. Its clinical manifestations include the symptoms of liver Qi stagnation such as depression, stamina, and chest fullness, as well as symptoms of spleen deficiency such as anorexia, abdominal distension, loose stools. Xiaoyaowan is an effective classic prescription for the treatment of liver stagnation and spleen deficiency syndrome, which is based on the dosage form of Xiaoyaosan in Prescriptions of the Bureau of Taiping People's Welfare Pharmacy. It has the effect of relieving depression, nourishing blood and invigorating spleen. In modern research, it has been found that Xiaoyaowan has good curative effect in the treatment of endocrine diseases, liver diseases, immune diseases, and neurological diseases, etc. It was praised by the famous medical scientist YE Tian-shi in the Qing Dynasty as "the holy medicine for women", with a wide range of significant curative effects gynecology. Progress has been also made in pharmacological research. In this article, we have searched and consulted the relevant literature reports of Xiaoyaowan in recent years, summarized the key directions of the pharmacological research literature, and proposed deficiencies to provide relevant basis for the in-depth study of Xiaoyao pill in the future.

17.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 225-232, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906071

ABSTRACT

Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease presented in the context of inflammation, and it mainly results from proliferation and differentiation defects of keratinocytes and abnormal immune response. However, some cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Although a variety of drugs and physiotherapies are applicable to this disease, they can only be utilized for a short-term period considering their transient effect, high cost, and serious adverse reactions. It is difficult to achieve satisfactory long-term results in the treatment of psoriasis. With the development of network pharmacology and molecular biology and the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the multi-component and multi-target characteristics of TCM have become prominent, promoting the in-depth research on TCM by doctors and scholars. Nevertheless, there is no detailed summarization on the mechanisms of TCM in interfering with T helper 17 (Th17)/regulatory T (Treg) cell balance to prevent and treat psoriasis. After reviewing the recent literature data, this paper has found that Chinese herbal monomers, active ingredients, and compounds obviously regulate the Th17/Treg axis in psoriasis. Th17 cells have a pro-inflammatory effect, while Treg cells are responsible for maintaining peripheral tolerance. They function in a mutually exclusive manner, and maintaining the Th17/Treg balance helps to effectively reduce inflammatory reaction and regulate immune homeostasis. As revealed by a series of clinical and experimental studies carried out based on the Th17/Treg axis in psoriasis, reducing the percentage of Th17 cells,increasing the percentage of Treg cells,and regulating the levels of related cytokines and transcription factors are conducive to alleviating inflammation and regaining immune homeostasis,which has provided new ideas for further elucidating the pathological mechanism of psoriasis and alternative plans for developing new treatments against psoriasis.

18.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 97-103, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905868

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore effects of different extracts and monomers of <italic>Lepidium meyenii </italic>(Maca) on the proliferation of mouse splenic lymphocytes and induction of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-<italic>α</italic> (TNF-<italic>α</italic>) by observing their immunomodulatory effects. Method:An octadecylsilyl (ODS) column was used to enrich the methanol extract of <italic>L. meyenii</italic> in stages to obtain six fractions and three monomers. Different groups of extracts and monomers of <italic>L. meyenii </italic>at different doses were set up. Cell counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to detect the effect on the proliferation of mitogen-free, concanavalin A (Con A)-induced, and lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced mouse splenic lymphocytes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the levels of IL-2 and TNF-<italic>α</italic>. Result:<italic>L. meyenii </italic>extracts Fr<sub>3</sub> and Fr<sub>6</sub>, and monomers <italic>N</italic>-benzyl hexadecanamide and 1,2-dihydro-4-carboxaldehyde-3-benzyl-<italic>N</italic>-hydroxypyridine slightly promoted the proliferation of Con A-induced T lymphocytes and LPS-induced B lymphocytes (<italic>P</italic><0.01) as compared with the conditions in the model group. <italic>L. meyenii</italic> extracts and monomers significantly induced the secretion of IL-2 and TNF-<italic>α</italic> by splenic lymphocytes (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:<italic>L. meyenii</italic> extracts and monomers can achieve immunological enhancement by promoting the secretion of IL-2 and TNF-<italic>α</italic>, and facilitate the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes. The active components are presumedly macamides and pyridine alkaloids, and the specific mechanism still needs to be further explored.

19.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 72-79, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905865

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the mechanism of Shugan Bushen Yulin decoction in inhibiting voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 2 (VDAC2) gene methylation, affecting sperm mitochondrial function, and improving sperm motility through the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) pathway. Method:Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into the blank group, model group, high- and low-dose Shugan Bushen Yulin decoction groups, and L-carnitine group, with eight rats in each group. Adenine (0.05 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) was administered by gavage for 14 d for inducing oligospermia and asthenospermia. Rats in the Shugan Bushen Yulin decoction groups were treated with intragastric administration of 32.4, 8.1 g·kg<sup>-1 </sup>Shugan Bushen Yulin decoction, respectively, while those in the L-carnitine group received 0.27 g·kg<sup>-1</sup> L-carnitine by gavage. Following the measurement of sperm motility using an automatic sperm analyzer, the pathological changes in testicular tissue were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Sperm mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by flow cytometry. The expression of VDAC2 in the testicular tissue was determined by immunofluorescence assay. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) was conducted for detecting VDAC2 mRNA expression in testicular tissue. The methylation of VDAC2 gene was examined using bisulfite sequencing. The cAMP expression in testicular tissue was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the PKA protein expression in testicular tissue by Western blot. Result:Compared with the blank group, the model group exhibited significantly decreased sperm density and motility (<italic>P</italic><0.01), increased mitochondrial membrane potential (<italic>P</italic><0.01), down-regulated VDAC2 mRNA and protein expression, PKA protein expression, and cAMP content in testicular tissue (<italic>P</italic><0.01), and elevated VDAC2 gene methylation (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, L-carnitine and Shugan Bushen Yulin decoction at the high and low doses all remarkably increased the sperm density and motility and mitochondrial membrane potential (<italic>P</italic><0.01), up-regulated VDAC2 mRNA and protein expression, PKA protein expression, and cAMP content in the testicular tissue (<italic>P</italic><0.01), and lowered the methylation of VDAC2 in testicular tissue (<italic>P</italic><0.01). The comparison with the L-carnitine group showed that the sperm density and motility and mitochondrial membrane potential in the low-dose Shugan Bushen Yulin decoction group declined significantly (<italic>P</italic><0.01). The VDAC2 mRNA and protein expression, PKA protein expression, and cAMP content in the testicular tissue were significantly down-regulated (<italic>P</italic><0.01), while the methylation of VDAC2 was significantly enhanced (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:Shugan Bushen Yulint decoction may inhibit VDAC2 gene methylation, increase VDAC2 expression, regulate cAMP/PKA pathway, and change mitochondrial membrane potential to enhance the sperm motility.

20.
Chinese Herbal Medicines ; (4): 403-409, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-953639

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the anaphylaxis effect and anaphylaxis substances of honeysuckle. Methods: Rat peritoneal mast cells (PMC) were separated and purified, the cells were incubated with compound 48/80 (0.02 g/L), physiological saline and honeysuckle extract (120 g/L) at 37 °C for 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. Degranulation were observed by optical microscope and transmission electron microscope. Annexin V positive cell rate was detected by flow cytometry to reflect the degranulation rate of PMC. SD rats were supplied with honeysuckle extract by intravenous injection at a dose of 2.25 g/L. After administration, different parameters were analyzed, including the symptoms, histamine (HIS) and tryptase (MCT) levels, which were determined to explore the effect of anaphylaxis. Regression analysis was used to calculate the relationships between the peaks and the pharmacological effects to explore potentially anaphylactoid components. Results: The percentage of Annxin V positive cells and the degranulation ratio were markedly elevated in PMC treated with honeysuckle extract for more than 15 min (P < 0.05). HIS and MCT level were significantly elevated after injection of honeysuckle extract for more than 15 min. Morphology of PMC and systemic symptoms were also changed compared with the controlled group (P < 0.05). Regression analysis was used to calculate the relationship between peaks and pharmacological effects, and to determine peaks 7, 10 and 13 as possible anaphylactoid ingredients. Conclusion: This study established a prospective method to clarify the anaphylactoid components of honeysuckle extract, which would provide guidance for screening anaphylactoid components in traditional Chinese medicine injections containing honeysuckle in the prescription.

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