Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 16 de 16
Filter
Add filters








Year range
1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904484

ABSTRACT

Objective:To characterize the trends in the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer in Jing'an District of Shanghai, thus optimizing the prophylactic options for this malignancy. Methods:Data from Shanghai Cancer Registration and Reporting System were used to analyze the colorectal cancer prevalence in Jing'an District from 1993 to 2017. Joinpoint software was used to analyze the trends in the standardized incidence rate and mortality rate by calculating the annual percentage of change (APC) and the average annual percentage of change (AAPC). Results:A total of 13 580 new cases of colorectal cancer were reported in Jing'an District during 1993 and 2017, with an average crude incidence rate of 52.94/105 and a standardized incidence rate of 24.77/105. The total number of deaths was 7 572, with an average crude mortality rate of 29.52/105 and a standardized mortality rate of 12.20/105. The standardized incidence rate of colorectal cancer in Jing'an District from 1993 to 2017 showed an increasing trend (AAPC=1.64%,P<0.001), and the standardized incidence rate of colorectal cancer in both sexes increased (AAPC: 2.10% in men, 1.04% in women). The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) did not change significantly. The incidence rate of colorectal cancer increased in men in both age groups of 50 to 74 years and 75 years and older, with an AAPC of 2.07% and 3.32%, respectively. However, this was not evident in women of all age groups. The mortality rate of colorectal cancer in men aged 0-49 years, as well as in men and women at 50-74 age groups, decreased significantly, with an AAPC of -7.46%,-1.13%, and -2.72%, respectively. The mortality rate of colorectal cancer in men of 75 years or older showed no significant trend, while that in women of 75 years or older increased (AAPC=2.30%). Conclusion:The overall standardized incidence rate of colorectal cancer in Jing'an District from 1993 to 2017 was increased, and ASMR did not change significantly. Public health prophylactic options are suggested, including improvement of lifestyle/physical activity and eradication of precancerous lesion polypus in males aged ≥50 years to reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer, and enforcement of second-grade prophylaxis in females aged ≥75 years to decrease the mortality of colorectal cancer.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862463

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore and analyse the prevalence of thyroid cancer among population of Jing′an District, Shanghai, providing a scientific basis for prevention and intervention. Methods Analysis was made on the prevalence of thyroid cancer in Jing′an District in 2014 and its incidence and death trend from 2009 to 2014 based on the data of Shanghai Cancer Registration and Reporting System. Results From 2005 to 2014, the total number of thyroid cancer cases in Jing′an District were 2 430, ranking fourth of all malignant tumors.The crude incidence rate of thyroid cancer was 24.33/100 000, the standardized incidence rate was 16.67/100 000.The ratio of male to female was 0.34 : 1;the difference in incidence between male and female was significant(χ2=579.77, P < 0.01).In different age groups the difference in incidence was also statistically significant(χ2=419.90, P < 0.01).The highest incidence was in 45-64 years old group, followed by 15-44 years old group. Only 155 deaths occurred; the ratio of death to morbidity was 1 : 15.68.Standardized incidence of thyroid cancer was increasing in Jing′an District from 2005 to 2014(trend Chi-square tests, χ2=7.33, P < 0.01).APC was 20.69%(male 23.81%, female 19.44%).The standardized mortality rate from 2005 to 2014 was at a relatively low level, and the trend of change was not statistically significant. Conclusion The government and society should pay high attention to the status of high detection rate and low mortality rate of thyroid cancer.The focus of prevention and control is rational diagnosis and treatment for a large number of thyroid cancer patients.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772669

ABSTRACT

Class Ⅱ malocclusion is a common orofacial deformity that could harm the facial esthetics and oral function. Two-stage treatment strategy always applies to functional and skeletal (mild and moderate) class Ⅱ malocclusion with man-dibular retrognathism in teenagers. Traditional functional orthopedic appliances are less comfortable and inconvenient to correct the dental arches, making the treatment duration long. With the rapid progress of digital technology and material science, functional clear aligners that offer comfort have emerged. Functional clear aligners can combine orthopedic and orthodontic treatments to correct the jaw relationship and align the dental arch, thereby shortening the treatment duration. This paper emphasizes the treatment key points, and clinical experience of using functional clear aligners.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Esthetics, Dental , Humans , Malocclusion , Malocclusion, Angle Class II , Orthodontic Appliance Design , Tooth Movement Techniques
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-254986

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the mechanisms of acupuncture treatment promoting the motor function recovery of neonate rats with cerebral palsy.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The improved hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) means was performed to establish the model of neonate rats with cerebral palsy. All neonate rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham group, model group and acupuncture group (n = 20). We observed and scored motor function of rats, measured the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum, and also measured the expression of synaptophysin (SYP) and growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) in the diseased region of cerebral tissue.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The motor function scores (11.3 +/- 0.29) and the serum level of SOD (147.1 +/- 12.7) U/ml in acupuncture treatment group were higher than those of model group ( P < 0.05). The serum level of MDA was lower in acupuncture treatment group than that of model group (P < 0.05). The expression of SYP and GAP-43 in the diseased region of cerebral tissue of acupuncture treatment group were higher than those of model group ( P < 0.05) .</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Acupuncture-therapy could improve the motor function of neonate rats with cerebral palsy by decreasing the content of MDA in serum, increasing the contents of SOD in serum, and prolonging the upregulation of SYP and GAP-43 expressions in hmin tissue.</p>


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Cerebral Palsy , Therapeutics , Disease Models, Animal , GAP-43 Protein , Metabolism , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Therapeutics , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Rats , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism , Synaptophysin , Metabolism
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310988

ABSTRACT

Mian-Zao-Er was collected from the bulbs of Scilla scilloides (Lindl. ) Druce, belonging to the Hyacinthaceae family. 17 compounds were obtained using various column chromatographies on macroporus resin (HPD100), silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and ODS, as well as semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data as 2-hydroxy-7-methoxyscillascillin (1), scillascillin (2), 5,7-dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyspiro 2H-1-benzopyran-7'-bicyclo[4.2.0 ] octa [1,3,5 ] -trien } -4-one (3), socialinone (4), 4-methylresveratrol (5), (E)-resveratrol (6), scillavoneA (7), 3,9-di- hydroeucomnalin (8), 3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl) -5,7-dihydroxychroman-4-one (9), (3R)-5,7,3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyspiro (2H-1-benzopyran-7'-bicyclo[4, 2, 0] octa [1, 3, 5]-trien} -4-one (10), scillabene A (11), 2-hydroxyscillascillin (12), 3-(4-hydroxybenzyl) -5,7-dihydroxychroman-4-one (13), 3-( 4-hydroxybenzylidene) -5, 7-dihydroxychroman-4-one (14), 3-( 4-hydroxybenzyl) -5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxychroman-4-one (15), 3-(4-hydroxybenzyl) -5-hydroxy-6, 7-dimethoxychroman-4-one (16), and 3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-5,8-hydroxy-7-methoxychroman-4-one (17). Among them, compounds 3, 4, 6, 9, 13 and 15-17 were isolated from this plant for the first time.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Flowers , Chemistry , Isoflavones , Chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Structure , Scilla , Chemistry , Stilbenes , Chemistry
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-319635

ABSTRACT

The genus Scilla consists of 90 species widely distributed in Europe, Asia and Africa, one and its variant of which can be found in China Some species of the genus have been used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases related to inflammation and pain. Phytochemical studies have demonstrated the presence of triterpene and tritepenoid saponins derived from eucosterol, bufadienolides, alkaloids, stilbenoids and lignan in the plants of this genus. Various bioactivities such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tumor and glycosidase inhibitory activities, have been reported. In this review, the advance of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of the Scilla species are summarized for further development and utilization of the resource.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Humans , Scilla , Chemistry
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-336775

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To develop dataset for basic medical information system.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>All items of basic medical information system dataset were drafted by literature review, brain storm and group discussion. A Delphi study was conducted to evaluate and adjust the candidate items; then items were finalized based on comprehensive scores.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The final dataset developed through two-round Delphi study contained 20 first-level items, 102 second-level items, 40 third-level items and 88 fourth-level items. The response rates were 71.79% and 92.86% in round 1 and 2, respectively. The authority coefficient was both 0.77 and the coordination coefficient of the specialists' opinion was 0.239 and 0.516, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The dataset for basic medical information system determined from Delphi study is credible and can be used for development of related software.</p>


Subject(s)
Delphi Technique , Information Systems , Software Design
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-247262

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate and compare mail and meeting forms in evaluation of Delphi study.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Delphi study by mail and meeting approaches was used to determine the health information dataset. Experts were required to grade the listed items through three indexes: importance, necessity and availability. Study duration, coefficient of variation of items, authority coefficient and coordination coefficient of the experts' opinion of two forms of study were calculated and compared.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The study duration was four months through mail form and 2 days through meeting. Compared with the first round, the coefficient of variation decreased (P<0.001, all of the three indexes by two forms), and the cooperation index increased (P<0.005) in the second round. The experts' opinions were easier to be consistent through meeting than through mail(P<0.033). And the authority coefficient by meeting consultation (0.83 ± 0.05) was higher than that by mail (0.77 ± 0.03) (P=0.001).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Both mail and meeting forms of Delphi study can determine the health information dataset,but meeting consultation is better and requires shorter study duration.</p>


Subject(s)
Communications Media , Delphi Technique , Postal Service , Records
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-246661

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate maxillary and mandibular rotation type and characteristics in normal and II (1) malocclusion adolescents with different growth patterns.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>158 cephalometric films of normal occlusion and 246 cephalometric films of II (1) malocclusion aged between 10 and 13 years old were selected. Linear regression method was used to analyze the correlation between facial height index and inclination of palatal plane, occlusal plane and mandibular plane in normal occlusion, and to establish floating norm diagram. Then maxillary and mandibular rotational types in normal occlusion and II (1) malocclusion with different growth patterns was clarified and their proportion was counted respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Another type was found beside from traditional ones, which was characterized by that on of the palatal plane and mandibular plane remained unchanged while the other rotated either anteriorly or posteriorly, or both planes remained unchanged. In normal occlusion with different growth patterns, the proportion of five types showed no marked difference, while in II (1) malocclusion with different growth patterns, they displayed remarkable distinction: The proportion of downward rotation type in vertical growth pattern and converging type in horizontal growth pattern increased remarkably.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>A new rotation type was put forward and the difference of five rotation types in II (1) malocclusion would provide reference to clinical diagnosis and treatment.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Cephalometry , Dental Occlusion , Face , Female , Humans , Male , Malocclusion , Malocclusion, Angle Class II , Mandible , Maxilla , Rotation
10.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 922-927, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286177

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To determine the levels of blood spot carnitine and acylcarnitine in children aged 0-15 years by tandem mass spectrometry, offer basic data for evaluating carnitine nutritional status and diagnosing metabolic diseases of organic acid and fatty acid.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The concentration of carnitine and acylcarnitines were measured in blood spot by tandem mass spectrometry using underivatized samples. The samples included those from 1376 perinatal neonates, 49 neonates above 1 week of life, 64 children aged up to 1 year and 401 children aged 1 year to 15 years. A few premature infants and low birth weight infants were involved in perinatal neonates without selection. Other samples were taken from mainly outdoor patients for little surgical preoperative examination. Patients suffering from fever, diarrhea, liver disease, severe fat-metabolic diseases were excluded from this study.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The concentrations of carnitine (C(0)); short-chain acylcarnitines (SC-AC), including acetyl (C(2)), propionyl (C(3)), malonyl (C(3)DC), butyryl (C(4)), methylmalonyl (C(4)DC), isovaleryl (C(5)), glutaryl (C(5)DC); middle-chain acylcarnitines (MC-AC), including hexanoyl (C(6)), hexanediol (C(6)DC), octylenoyl (C(8:1)), octanoyl (C(8)), decadienoyl (C(10:2)), decanoyl (C(10:1)), decanoyl (C(10)); total carnitine and acylcarnitines (TCAC)were lower in neonate, highest in 1-3 months of age, higher in 6-12 months of age, and kept at the same level between 2 and 15 years of age. The concentrations of total long-chain acylcarnitines (LC-AC), including lauren (C(12:1)), lauroyl (C(12)), tetradecanoyl (C(14:1)), tetradecanoyl (C(14)), 3-hydroxy-tetradecanoyl (C(14)OH), hexadecenoyl (C(16:1)), hexadecanoyl (C(16)), 3-hydroxy-hexadecanoyl (C(16)OH), 3-hydroxy-hexadecanoyl (C(16:1)OH), octadecadienoyl (C(18:2)), octadecenoyl (C(18:1)), octadecanoyl (C(18)), 3-hydroxy-octadecenoyl (C(18:1)OH), and 3-hydroxy-octadecanoyl (C(18)OH) were the highest in neonate, decreased gradually, and kept the same level between 2 and 15 years of age. The concentrations of C(0) (23.387 ± 7.702) µmol/L, (30.064 ± 8.252) µmol/L, (25.021 ± 6.630) µmol/L, of LC-AC (4.998 ± 1.557) µmol/L, (2.854 ± 0.821) µmol/L, (2.459 ± 0.553) µmol/L, of TCAC (43.497 ± 12.632) µmol/L, (49.013 ± 12.497) µmol/L, (39.656 ± 9.257) µmol/L were significantly different among the groups of neonate, up to 1 year and above 1 year (P < 0.01). The concentrations of C(0) (24.115 ± 7.715) µmol/L and TCAC (43.65 ± 5.252) µmol/L in perinatal male neonates were higher than that (22.696 ± 7.246) µmol/L, TCAC (41.90 ± 5.038) µmol/L in female neonates. The C(0)/TCAC ratio of neonatal group (54.0% ± 7.1%) was significantly lower than that in the children group (62.1% ± 6.1%, P < 0.05), LC-AC/TCAC (33.5% ± 6.0%), MC-AC/TCAC (1.3% ± 0.3%), SC-AC/TCAC (11.6% ± 2.5%)ratios of neonatal group were higher than that of children group respectively (30.1% ± 4.9%; 0.9% ± 0.6%; 6.5% ± 2.3%, P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Concentrations and profiles of carnitine and acylcarnitines change significantly during the first year of life, the age should be considered as a factor when evaluating carnitine nutritional status and diagnosing metabolic diseases of organic acid and fatty acid. Concentrations of carnitine and acylcarnitines were a little higher in male neonates than in female.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Carnitine , Blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Methods
11.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 195-199, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-239773

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To promote stem cells differentiation into neurons and enhance neuromotor function after brain injury through brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) induction.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Recombinant adenovirus vector was applied to the transfection of BDNF into human-derived umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs). Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the secretion phase of BDNF. The brain injury model of athymic mice induced by hydraulic pressure percussion was established for transplantation of stem cells into the edge of injury site. Nerve function scores were obtained, and the expression level of transfected and non-transfected BDNF, proportion of neuron specific enolase (NSE) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and the number of apoptosis cells were compared respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The BDNF expression achieved its stabilization at a high level 72 hours after gene transfection. The mouse obtained a better score of nerve function, and the proportion of the NSE-positive cells increased significantly (P<0.05), but GFAP-positive cells decreased in BDNF-UCMSCs group compared with the other two groups (P<0.05). At the site of high expression of BDNF, the number of apoptosis cells decreased markedly.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>BDNF gene can promote the differentiation of the stem cells into neurons rather than glial cells, and enhance neuromotor function after brain injury.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Genetics , Animals , Apoptosis , Brain Injuries , Therapeutics , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Genetics , Cell Differentiation , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Mice , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Neurons , Cell Biology , Phosphopyruvate Hydratase , Transfection
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-264361

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of estrogen on heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression in rat masseter muscle.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sixty twelve-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham surgery group (control group), ovariectomy group (OVX group), ovariectomy with estradiol valerate replacement treatment group (OVX/EV group). Half of the animals were sacrificed at 4 and 8 weeks respectively, then the masseter muscle was removed. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) method was employed to study the HSP70 expression in masseter muscle.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared to control group and OVX/EV group, the expression of HSP70 was significantly lower at 8 weeks in OVX group (P < 0.05). There were no significantly difference between the HSP70 expression of control group and that of OVX/EV group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Estrogen may affect HSP70 expression in rat masseter muscle, and estrogen replacement therapy may prevent HSP70 reduction.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Estradiol , Estrogens , Female , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins , Humans , Masseter Muscle , Ovariectomy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296734

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effects of 17beta-estradiol on the intracellular calcium of masticatory muscles myoblast.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Myoblasts from maxillofacial skeletal muscle of one week old female Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured. Fluo-4-AM as the Ca2+ indicator and the laser confocal microscope system were used to observe the effects of estrogen on the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration in the normal pH condition and the acid condition (pH = 6.7).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In the normal pH condition, when 17beta-estradiol (10(-9), 10(-8), 10(-7) mol/L) were added to cells cytoplasmic Ca2+ immediately increased then decreased right away, and in the end came into a new Ca2+ homeostasis in the base line. In the acid condition, 17beta-estradiol (10(-9), 10(-8), 10(-7) mol/L) made the cytoplasmic Ca2+ decreased immediately then came into a new Ca2+ homeostasis under the base line.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The results suggest that estrogen may maintain the skeletal cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration in a lower level and reduce the cytoplasmic Ca2+ accumulation to keep the normal functions of masticatory muscles myoblast.</p>


Subject(s)
Aniline Compounds , Animals , Calcium , Estradiol , Female , In Vitro Techniques , Masticatory Muscles , Myoblasts , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Xanthenes
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-348097

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the changes in expression of gelatinase (MMP-2, MMP-9) in young rat condylar cartilage during functional mandibular advancement.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sixty male 5-week old SD rats were divided into experimental and control groups. The mimic functional appliances were used in experimental group rats. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 2, 4 weeks. The immunoreactivity of gelatinase was detected by immunohistochemistry.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In normal mandibular condylar cartilage, the immunoreactivity of MMP-2 was rather strong, the immunoreactivity of MMP-9 was very weak. Following functional mandibular advancement, the expression of MMP-9 was significantly increased (P < 0.01), but immunoreactivity of MMP-2 had no significant changes.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Gelatinase plays an important role in the adaptive remondling of young rat condylar cartilage during functional mandibular advancement.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cartilage , Gelatinases , Male , Mandibular Advancement , Mandibular Condyle , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 567-571, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286248

ABSTRACT

The glucoamylase gene (glaA) of Aspergillus niger CICIM F0410 was cloned, sequenced and expressed. The integrated plasmid pBC-Hygro-glaA carrying the glaA was constructed and transformed into A. niger F0410. Transformants with multiple copies of glaA integrated in the chromosome were selected by 150 microg/mL hygromycin B and identified by real-time PCR. Two to three multiples of glaA in the chromosome were found to be optimal for higher expression of glucoamylase. Shake-flask fermentation under optimal conditions showed that glucoamylase secreted by the transformant GB0506 was 17.5% higher than parental strain F0410 at the end of fermentation. In conclusion, increasing copy number of glaA by chromosomal integration significantly improves the yield of glucoamylase in the industrial strain of A. niger.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus niger , Genetics , Cloning, Molecular , Glucan 1,4-alpha-Glucosidase , Genetics , Plasmids , Recombinant Proteins
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-329970

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To determine the positional changes of condyle and mandible in children treated successfully with Fränkel function regulator.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>30 Angle's class II patients including 15 boys and 15 girls treated with Fränkel function regulator were selected. Superimposition of the pretreatment and posttreatment lateral cephalograms of all the patients was done on the stable bone structure of the anterior cranial base and mandible. Cartesian coordinate system was used to measure the positional changes of condyle and mandible over time by computer.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There was significant inferior displacement of condyle, gonion and pogonion after treatment with reference to stable bone structure of anterior cranial base. Anterior displacement of pogonion in boys was also significant. There was significantly superior and posterior displacement of condyle and posterior displacement of gonion after treatment with reference to stable bone structure of mandible.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Fränkel function regulator can stimulate condylar growth and do favor to mandibular remolding.</p>


Subject(s)
Activator Appliances , Cephalometry , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Malocclusion, Angle Class II , Therapeutics , Orthodontic Appliances, Functional
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL