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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928080

ABSTRACT

This study systematically sorted out the existing studies about Tianshu Capsules in the treatment of migraine(syndrome of blood stasis blocking collaterals, syndrome of ascendant hyperactivity of liver Yang), and conducted comprehensive clinical evaluation through "6+1" dimensions of safety, effectiveness, economy, innovation, suitability, accessibility, and characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) to embody the advantages and characteristics and clarify the precise clinical position of Tianshu Capsules. The value of each dimension was calculated via health technology assessment, the multi-criteria decision analysis(MCDA) mo-del and CSC v2.0 software. The results were graded into four levels of A, B, C, or D from high to low. According to the available studies, Tianshu Capsules had low and controllable risks, with the safety rated as A. The drug has obvious clinical significance in the treatment of migraine(syndrome of blood stasis blocking collaterals, syndrome of ascendant hyperactivity of liver Yang), with the effectiveness rated as A. It has clear economic results, with the economy rated as B. The clinical innovation, service system innovation, and industrial innovation are all good, and thus the innovation of Tianshu Capsules is grade A. The drug can meet clinical medication demand of medical care and patients, and thus its suitability is grade A. In view of the reasonable drug price, affordability, and availability, the accessibility is grade A. The prescription originated from the Daxiong Pills recorded in the classic Comprehensive Recording of Sage-like Benefit. In clinical trials, 4 675 patients have used Tianshu Capsules, which indicates rich experience in human administration, and the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine is grade B. The statutory drug information complies with national stan-dards, and the non-statutory information is standard and accurate. Based on the comprehensive evaluation results of various dimensions of evidence, the clinical value of Tianshu Capsules in the treatment of migraine(syndrome of blood stasis blocking collaterals and syndrome of ascendant hyperactivity of liver Yang) is class A. According to the Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Management Guidelines of Drugs(trial version 2021) issued by the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, we recommend that Tianshu Capsules treating migraine can be transformed into relevant policy results for clinical medication management according to procedures.


Subject(s)
Capsules , Humans , Liver , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Migraine Disorders/drug therapy , Syndrome
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928079

ABSTRACT

This clinical value-oriented comprehensive evaluation of drugs was carried out in accordance with Guidelines for Management of Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation of Drugs(trial version 2021), with the qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods adopted. Based on the evidence-based medicine, epidemiology, clinical medicine, pharmacoeconomics, mathematical statistics, and health technology evaluation(HTA), the clinical value of Ginkgolide Injection was evaluated from the "6+1" dimension by giving weight to the criterion level and index level and calculating with multi-criteria decision analysis(MCDA) model and CSC v2.0. After entering the market, Ginkgolide Injection has been subjected to phase Ⅳ clinical trial, spontaneous reporting system(SRS)-based data monitoring, systematic review and Meta-analysis, acute toxicity and long-term toxicity assays, active monitoring, and RCTs, and the evidence of safety was sufficient. The results of active monitoring showed that the incidence of adverse reactions was 0.09%(rare), mainly manifested as flushing, dizziness, rash, nausea, and vomiting. According to the nested case-control study, the adverse reactions of this drug had nothing to do with the product batch, implying that the drug quality was controllable. The adverse reactions mainly resulted from the pharmacodynamic reactions. Because the drug was effective in resisting platelet aggregation, the resulting adverse reactions such as flushing, dizziness, headache, and phlebitis were caused by vasodilation. Skin rash and gastrointestinal symptoms were mainly attributed to the patients' sensitivity to drugs and their own allergic constitution. According to the sufficiency of evidence and the incidence of adverse reactions in the safety research, the safety of Ginkgolide Injection was grade A. The results of Meta-analysis showed that Ginkgolide Injection combined with conventional western medicine was superior to conventional western medicine in improving the clinical effective rate, neurological function score, and activity of daily living score of patients with cerebral infarction. The validity evidence was evaluated according to the PICO principle to be high. According to the GREAD evaluation principle, the quality of such evidence as clinical effective rate, National Institute of Health stroke scale(NIHSS), and Barthel Index(BI) was evaluated, and the results demonstrated that the evidence quality of clinical effective rate and activity of daily living score was medium. The effectiveness of Ginkgolide Injection was grade A. According to the economic report of Ginkgolide Injection, it had short-term and long-term pharmacoeconomic advantages in the treatment of ischemic stroke, and the economic evidence value was good. According to the CASP economic evaluation checklist, the overall quality evaluation results of the economic report are basically clear. To be specific, the economic evidence quality was high. Based on the comprehensive economic evidence quality and economic value, the economy of this drug was grade A. The innovation of this product was evaluated from three aspects: clinical innovation, enterprise service system innovation, and industrial innovation. Ginkgolide Injection could be used 24 h after intravenous thrombolysis for improving patients' neurological function without increasing bleeding, indicating its important clinical innovation. There were many innovations in ensuring drug supply, especially at the grass roots, drug safety, effectiveness, and reasonable price, which has provided reference for establishing enterprise philosophy, managing drug resources, developing process and technology, and determining enterprise management and marketing. Therefore, its innovation was grade A. The drug had no special medication plan in use, exhibiting good suitability for doctors, nurses, and patients. The suitability was grade B. Compared with similar drugs, its price was at a medium level, meaning good affordability, sufficient production capacity, and easy accessibility. Its accessibility was therefore grade B. This drug belonged to Chinese medicinal injection. The large-sample real-world research revealed rich human use experience, so it was grade C for the traditional Chinese medicine characteristic. According to the comprehensive evaluation, the clinical value of Ginkgolide Injection in the treatment of cerebral infarction fell into class A. It is suggested that it can be transformed into the relevant policy results of basic clinical medication management according to the procedure.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Cerebral Infarction/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Ginkgolides/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928078

ABSTRACT

Based on Guidelines for the Management of Clinical Comprehensive Evaluation of Drugs(trial version 2021), this study aims to sort out the clinical evidence of Huangkui Capsules(HC) in the treatment of chronic kidney diseases in aspects of safety, effectiveness, economy, innovation, suitability, accessibility, and characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine( "6+1" dimensions) from real-world data, secondary literature evaluations, questionnaires, and public data, with the methods in evidence-based medicine, epidemiology, pharmacoeconomics, and health technology. Furthermore, with multi-criteria decision analysis(MCDA) model and CSC v2.0, the clinical value of the medicine is comprehensively assessed. All the above are to highlight the advantages and characteristics of HC and lay a basis for scientific decision-making by the medical management department. The dimensions are graded A, B, C, or D. According to the conclusions from phase Ⅳ clinical trial, spontaneous reporting system(SRS), systematic review and Meta-analysis, acute toxicity and long-term toxicity tests, it mainly results in the adverse reactions of nausea, abdominal distension, vomiting, pruritus, rash, and good prognosis in patients. According to the available research, the safety evidence is sufficient and the risk is controllable, so the safety of this medicine is grade B. According to Meta-analysis, HC in combination with conventional drugs in the treatment of chronic kidney disease is superior to conventional drugs alone in reducing urinary protein, serum creatinine concentration, and blood urea nitrogen. In addition, HC combined angiotensin receptor blocker(ARB) or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor(ACEI) is outstanding in improving total clinical effective rate, reducing 24 h urinary protein quantity, urinary albumin excretion rate, serum creatinine concentration, triglyceride, and total cholesterol in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy as compared with ARB or ACEI alone. As for chronic nephritis, the application together with ARB or ACEI can raise the total effective rate, reduce 24 h urinary protein content, serum creatinine concentration, and blood urea nitrogen, and delay the progress of the disease. HC boasts high-quality evidence in treating chronic kidney disease, diabetic nephropathy, and chronic nephritis. It has obvious clinical significance in treating chronic kidney disease and thus its efficacy in this aspect is grade B. It has outstanding clinical significance for diabetic nephropathy and chronic nephritis and corresponding and the effectiveness is grade A. As for the pharmacoeconomic value, HC combined with ARB or ACEI is more economical in the treatment of chronic kidney disease than Bailing Capsules combined with ARB or ACEI, with high-quality evidence, and thus the economy of the formula is grade B. HC is a key solution to the high urinary protein in patients with hypotension and chronic kidney disease. The innovation is evidenced by the methods to ensuring drug supply, community-level supply, drug safety, effectiveness, and reasonable price, as wells as the aspects of enterprise philosophy, equipment management, research and development in process and technology, enterprise management and marketing. Thus, the prescription is grade A in innovation. The suitability, as evidenced in drug administration, technical management, drug storage, information service, and medication, is grade B. The course of the medicine is affordable, and it is accessible in a wide range of areas and hospitals. Thus, the accessibility is grade A. HC was developed from an in-hospital preparation, with application in numerous patients and thus large-scale real-world data. As a result, HC is grade B in terms of characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine. After comprehensive evaluation, the clinical value of HC in treating chronic kidney disease is class B, and that for diabetic nephropathy and chronic nephritis is class A. The result is of great reference value for the basic clinical medication management.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Capsules , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Humans , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/drug therapy
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928077

ABSTRACT

This study systematically sorted out the evidence data of the safety, effectiveness, economy, innovation, suitability, accessibility, and characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) of Reyanning Mixture in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infection(heat-toxin attacking lung syndrome) with the qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods adopted. Based on evidence-based medicine, epidemiology, clinical medicine, evidence-based pharmacy, pharmacoeconomics, and health technology evalua-tion(HTA), the clinical value of Reyanning Mixture was evaluated using multi-criteria decision analysis(MCDA) model, Chinese patent medicine clinical evidence, and value evaluation software(CSC v2.0). The SRS monitoring data, Meta-analysis, and other safety evidence showed that the main adverse reactions of Reyanning Mixture were nausea, diarrhea, and rash, and no serious adverse reactions were found. The pharmacovigilance system was sound, and the system was perfect. There was no recall, notification, or interview for unqualified products. Based on the existing research, the evidence was sufficient, and the risk was controllable. Hence, its safety was grade A. Meta-analysis showed that in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infection, Reyanning Mixture combined with Amoxicillin Capsules was better than Amoxicillin Capsules alone in shortening the complete fever relief time and improving the cure rate. Besides, it was superior to Shuanghuanglian Granules in shortening the complete fever relief time, cough relief time, nasal congestion relief time, and pharyngeal congestion relief time. The Meta-analysis was conducted based on AMSTAR standard, and its ove-rall quality was proved good. The evidence quality in GRADE system evaluation was medium and low. The quality of evidence was medium, and the clinical value was obvious. Hence, its effectiveness was grade A. The results of pharmacoeconomic research showed that compared with Amoxicillin Capsules, Reyanning Mixture alone or in combination with Amoxicillin Capsules had cost-effectiveness advantages in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infection, and the results were stable in sensitivity analysis. According to the CASP economic evaluation checklist, the research problems were clear and the results were reliable. As revealed by the comprehensive evaluation, the evidence quality was sufficient and the result was clear. Its economy was grade B. Reyanning Mixture had multiple therapeutic targets like anti-virus, anti-bacteria, antipyresis, and anti-cough, with good clinical innovation. There were many innovative initiatives in ensuring drug supply, especially at the grass roots, drug safety, and effectiveness, and also multiple innovative contributions to production technology, quality control, scientific and technological research and development, and enterprise management and marketing. Therefore, its innovation was grade B. The dosage form of Reyanning was mixture, which made it convenient for storage and transportation. The usage was easy to be mastered and accepted by doctors and nurses, exhibiting good suitability for clinicians, nurses, pharmacists, and patients who received this drug and basically meeting the needs of clinical medication. The suitability was grade B. The average daily cost of this drug was 8.082 yuan, and the price was low. The treatment cost accounted for a small proportion of the annual disposable income of urban and rural residents, indicating that it was affordable. Reyanning Mixture was available in 31 provinces, cities and autonomous regions, covering 6 910 hospitals. The allocation of hospitals at all levels was more than 50%. There was no shortage or supply restriction of medicinal material resources. The annual production capacity was sufficient to meet the supply demand, so its accessibility was grade A. Reyanning Mixture, sourced from "pneumonia Ⅲ", has been subjected to a real-world study of its clinical application, with 4 367 cases involved, and the characteristic of TCM was grade B. The comprehensive evaluation results demonstrated that the clinical value score of Reyanning Mixture in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infection(heat-toxin attacking lung syndrome) was 0.80, making it rated class A. According to the Guidelines for Management of Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation of Drugs(trial version 2021), it is recommended to convert it into the relevant policy results of basic clinical medication management according to the procedures.


Subject(s)
Hot Temperature , Humans , Lung , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Syndrome
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928076

ABSTRACT

This study aims to comprehensively summarize articles on the treatment of coronary heart disease angina pectoris with heart blood stasis syndrome(CHD-AP-HBSS) by Guanxin Shutong Capsules(GSC), and comprehensively evaluate the evidence and value of the formula in "6+1" dimensions based on multi-criteria decision analysis(MCDA) model and Guidelines for Management of Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation of Drugs(trial version 2021) with quantitative and qualitative methods, which is expected to highlight the clinical characteristics and advantages of the prescription and serve as a reference for medical and health departments. The dimensions are grade A, B, C, or D. In terms of safety, according to the reports from the spontaneous reporting system of National Center for ADR Monitoring, and literature analysis, GSC mainly results in the adverse reactions of mild or moderate nausea, diarrhea, rash, palpitation, and headache, with favorable prognosis in patients. Nevertheless, severe adverse reactions have been reported after marketing. Thus, additional evidence for its safety should be accumulated, and the current safety is grade B. Meta-analysis proves that GSC in combination with conventional treatment is superior to conventional treatment alone in alleviating AP and symptoms indicated by electrocardiogram(ECG). Therefore, the effectiveness of the medicine is grade A. As for the pharmacoeconomic value, based on the assumption that the per capita disposable income in 2020 is the willingness-to-pay threshold, it is more economical for CHD-AP patients to use GSC combined with conventional treatment than conventional treatment alone. However, as the currently available clinical parameters fail to support the difference in indirect cost between the two groups, the accuracy in the cost of intervention plan needs to be further improved. Therefore, the economy of the prescription is grade B. GSC has been awarded 13 national invention patents and 1 utility model patent, and won a lot of national and provincial patent awards, marking the enterprise service awareness and innovativeness. As a result, it is grade A in aspect of innovation. A questionnaire on the suitability of GSC suggests that publicity and promotion influence patients' choice and thus additional efforts should be made in this aspect. The suitability of this formula is grade B. Both rural and urban residents can afford the medicine for the whole course and the price is close to that of similar Chinese patent medicines. In addition, it is accessible regardless of season and place, so accessibility is grade A. As a Mongolian empirical formula destined to treat heart stabbing pain, it has the effects of activating blood and resolving stasis, dredging channels and activating collaterals, and moving Qi to relieve pain, and boasts the empirical evidence of more than 2 000 human cases. With prominent characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine, it is grade B. Based on the MCDA model and CSC v2.0, GSC is comprehensively class A in the treatment of CHD-AP-HBSS. The result can serve as a reference for basic clinical medication management.


Subject(s)
Angina Pectoris/drug therapy , Capsules , Coronary Disease/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Humans
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928075

ABSTRACT

The present study systematically sorted out the existing research on Qilong Capsules in the treatment of ischemic stroke with Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome and comprehensively evaluated its clinical evidence and value to highlight the advantages and characteristics of products and provide references for the decision-making of national pharmaceutical management departments. Based on the evidence-based medicine, epidemiology, clinical medicine, evidence-based pharmacy, and pharmacoeconomics, the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of "6+1" dimensions of safety, effectiveness, economy, innovation, suitability, and accessibility, as well as characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) was performed with multi-criteria decision analysis(MCDA) mo-del using the information, such as public data, literature data, pharmaceutical research, and questionnaire survey, and CSC v2.0 was used to calculate the clinical value of Qilong Capsules. The evaluation results were grade A, B, C, or D. Spontaneous reporting system(SRS) monitoring data, literature reports, clinical trials, and other multi-source safety evidence showed that the main adverse reactions of this drug included dry mouth, nausea, and rash, and no severe adverse reactions was found. The evidence was sufficient with small and controllable known risks, and the safety was grade A. Meta-analysis showed that Qilong Capsules combined with conventional western medicine in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke was superior to the control group in improving neurological deficits, clinical total response rate, patients' activities of daily living, and hemorheological indexes. The level of evidence was high with manifest clinical significance, and the effectiveness was grade A. The results of pharmacoeconomic research showed that Qilong Capsules combined with conventional western medicine in the treatment of ischemic stroke were advantageous in cost-effectiveness as compared with conventional western medicine alone, but the incremental effect was not significant. The quality evaluation results of the economic report were comparatively clear, and the economy was grade B. Aiming at major cerebrovascular diseases in the society and giving full play to the advantages of TCM, Qilong Capsules focused on the inheritance of classics and scientific and technological innovation, and innovation was grade B. The results of the questionnaire survey showed that the technical characteristics and drug application could meet the medication needs of clinical doctors and patients, and the suitability was grade B. The price level of this drug was comparatively high and the affordability was good since the treatment cost accounted for a small proportion of disposable income. The drug accessibility was good with a wide range of drug sales, sufficient production capacity, and sustainable medicinal materials resources, and was grade B. This drug was derived from the classic prescription Buyang Huanwu Decoction with rich experience of human application, which could regulate Qi and blood circulation, and the section of TCM characteristics was grade B. Based on the evidence evaluation results of "6+1" dimensions of Qilong Capsules, the comprehensive evaluation of clinical value was class A. It is suggested that it can be transformed into relevant policy results of basic clinical medication management according to procedures.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Capsules , Humans , Ischemic Stroke , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Qi
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927998

ABSTRACT

The present study evaluated the efficacy and safety of Xiangju Capsules in the treatment of sinusitis. CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, CBM, Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMbase, Web of Science and ClinicalTrials.gov were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials(RCTs) of Xiangju Capsules in the treatment of sinusitis, and Meta-analysis was performed on the included articles using RevMan 5.3. Twenty-nine articles were included, involving 4 331 cases, including 2 196 cases in the experimental group and 2 135 cases in the control group. Meta-analysis results showed that the conventional therapy combined with Xiangju Capsules showed better significant efficiency(RR=1.30, 95%CI[1.15, 1.47], P<0.000 01), total response rate(RR=1.19, 95%CI[1.16, 1.23], P<0.000 01), and Lund-Mackay scores(MD=-1.23, 95%CI[-1.39,-1.07], P<0.000 01) than conventional therapy alone. The conventional therapy combined with Eucalyptol-limonene-pinene Enteric Soft Capsules and Xiangju Capsules showed better total response rate(RR=1.14, 95%CI[1.07, 1.21], P<0.000 1) and VAS scores than conventional therapy combined with Eucalyptol-limonene-pinene Enteric Soft Capsules(MD_(headache)=-1.29, 95%CI[-1.48,-1.10], P<0.000 01; MD_(congestion)=-1.08, 95%CI[-1.21,-0.95], P<0.000 01; MD_(olfactory dysfunction)=-1.05, 95%CI[-1.23,-0.87], P<0.000 01; MD_(facial disorder)=-1.38, 95%CI[-1.49,-1.27], P<0.000 01). The conventional therapy combined with clarithromycin and Xiangju Capsules displayed a better total response rate(RR=1.15, 95%CI[1.08, 1.21], P<0.000 01) than conventional therapy combined with clarithromycin, while no significant difference was observed in the significant efficiency(RR=1.27, 95%CI[0.98, 1.65], P=0.07). The significant efficiency(RR=2.16, 95%CI[1.47, 3.18], P<0.000 1) and total effective rate(RR=1.48, 95%CI[1.28, 1.72], P<0.000 01) of clarithromycin combined with Xiangju Capsules in patients with sinusitis and CT scores(MD=-1.87, 95%CI[-2.01,-1.74], P<0.000 01) was significantly better than clarithromycin alone. Trial sequential analysis(TSA) showed that the cumulative sample size of the main outcome indicators had met expectations. The main adverse reactions included drowsiness, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, which had no direct relationship with Xiangju Capsules. Based on the available data and methods, the combination of Xiangju Capsules with multiple treatments showed significant efficiency and total response rate in the treatment of sinusitis, and improved CT scores, VAS scores, and Lund-Mackay scores, without serious adverse reactions. The efficacy and safety of Xiangju Capsules in the treatment of sinusitis still need to be verified by a large-sample, well-designed, and internationally standardized clinical trial scheme.


Subject(s)
Capsules , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Sinusitis/drug therapy
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927966

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the pharmacoeconomic value of Qidong Yixin Oral Liquid in the treatment of viral myocarditis(Qi-Yin deficiency syndrome) by supplementing Qi, nourishing the heart, calming the mind, and relieving palpitation, the present study performed the Meta-analysis based on the published papers on Qidong Yixin Oral Liquid by AMSTAR and carried out pharmacoeconomic evaluation using TreeAge Pro by the cost-effectiveness analysis. The results showed that the quality of the included papers was good. After four weeks of treatment, Qidong Yixin Oral Liquid combined with the conventional treatment regimen was superior to the conventional treatment in improving creatine kinase isoenzyme, and the difference was statistically significant. Furthermore, the treatment cost was also higher than that of conventional treatment, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of CNY 95.89, accounting for 0.30% of per capita disposable income. The results of sensitivity analysis showed that the research results were robust. Therefore, based on the assumption that the per capita disposable income in 2020 was the threshold of patients' willingness to pay, it is more economical for patients with viral myocarditis to use Qidong Yixin Oral Liquid combined with conventional secondary prevention regimen than conventio-nal secondary prevention regimen alone. The economic evaluation of Qidong Yixin Oral Liquid in the treatment of viral myocarditis will help physicians and patients choose optimal treatment options, improve rational clinical medication, and provide references for the efficient allocation and utilization of medical resources in China.


Subject(s)
Cost-Benefit Analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Economics, Pharmaceutical , Humans , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Qi , Yin Deficiency/drug therapy
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To delineate the onset and recurrence characteristics of noncardiogenic ischemic stroke patients in China.@*METHODS@#A prospective, multicenter and registry study was carried out in 2,558 patients at 7 representative clinical sub-centers during November 3, 2016 to February 17, 2019. A questionnaire was used to collect information of patients regarding CM syndromes and constitutions and associated risk factors. Additionally, stroke recurrence was defined as a primary outcome indicator.@*RESULTS@#A total of 327 (12.78 %) patients endured recurrence events, 1,681 (65.72%) were men, and the average age was 63.33 ± 9.45 years. Totally 1,741 (68.06%) patients suffered first-ever ischemic stroke, 1,772 (69.27%) patients reported to have hypertension, and 1,640 (64.11%) of them reported dyslipidemia, 1,595 (62.35%) patients exhibited small-artery occlusion by The Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification. Specifically, 1,271 (49.69%) patients were considered as qi-deficient constitution, and 1,227 (47.97%) patients were determined as stagnant blood constitution. There were 1,303 (50.94%) patients diagnosed as blood stasis syndrome, 1,280 (50.04%) patients exhibited phlegm and dampness syndrome and 1,012 (39.56%) patients demonstrated qi deficiency syndrome. And 1,033 (40.38%) patients declared intracranial artery stenosis, and 478 (18.69%) patients reported carotid artery stenosis. The plaque in 1,508 (41.36%) patients were of mixed. Particularly, 41.09% of them demonstrated abnormal levels of glycated hemoglobin levels.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Recurrence in minor and small-artery stroke cannot be ignored. Hypertension, dyslipidemia, abnormal HbA1c, intracranial artery stenosis and carotid plaque were more common in stroke patients. Particularly, phlegm-dampness and blood stasis syndromes, as well as qi deficiency and blood stasis constitutions, were still the main manifestations of stroke. (Trial registration at ClinicalTrials.gov No. NCT03174535).


Subject(s)
Aged , Constriction, Pathologic , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Hypertension , Ischemic Stroke , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Stroke/epidemiology , Syndrome
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906377

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the clinical diagnosis and treatment characteristics as well as the optimal schemes of Lianhua Qingwen Capsule in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in the real world. Method:The information of 454 patients receiving Lianhua Qingwen Capsule for URTI was collected from the electronic medical data warehouse constructed by the Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, which covered 16 large-scale tertiary Class A hospital information systems (HISs). The harvested information was subjected to descriptive analysis, Apriori algorithm-based analysis and Louvain (BGLL) algorithm-based complex network analysis to explore the clinical medication schemes. Result:The commonly adopted medication schemes were heat-clearing and detoxicating Chinese medicinal injections combined with expectorants, analgesic-antipyretic drugs, or antibacterial agents in western medicine. Besides, the combination with heat-clearing and phlegm-resolving Chinese medicinals, vitamins, or hypotensive, lipid-lowering, hypoglycemic, coronary circulation-improving, or antiplatelet aggregation drugs targeting the underlying diseases was also detectable. Conclusion:The complex network analysis based on BGLL clustering method can be used to find out the medication rules of Lianhua Qingwen Capsule for URTI. The traditional Chinese medicine has been widely employed for resolving phlegm and relieving cough due to its good efficacy. The combination with antibiotics follows the guidelines for the use of antimicrobial agents. Drug safety is one of the most concerned aspects in clinical drug combination. The uncovering of these rules has provided a direction for exploring the optimal treatments.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921933

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the potential related factors of falls and provide a reference plan for preventing falls for the middle-aged and elderly people.@*METHODS@#From November 2017 to July 2018, a total of 1 642 middle-aged and elderly people from 10 communities in @*RESULTS@#A total of 1 540 subjectswere included, including, 415 men and 1 125 women. Their average age was(63.02±7.15) years. The incidence of falls in recent one year was 12.14%(187 / 1 540). According to @*CONCLUSION@#For middle aged and elderly people, avoiding heavy drinking, eating more eggs, vegetables, and active strength exercise can effectively prevent falls. And people with family history of fracture and diabetes should pay more attention to the prevention of falls.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Fractures, Bone , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921769

ABSTRACT

Clinical comprehensive evaluation was conducted in "6+1" dimensions(safety, effectiveness, economy, innovation, suitability, accessibility, and characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine) to reflect the advantages and characteristics of Diemai-ling~® Kudiezi Injection in the treatment of cerebral infarction. This study adopted a combination of qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods. Based on the methodologies of evidence-based medicine, epidemiology, clinical medicine, evidence-based pharmacy, pharmacoeconomics, mathematical statistics, and health technology assessment(HTA), experts gave weight to the criterion layer and index layer, and multi-criteria decision analysis(MCDA) model and CSC v2.0 were used for calculations to evaluate the clinical value of Diemailing~® Kudiezi Injection. The existing evidence showed that active monitoring and a number of randomized controlled trials(RCTs) have been carried out after the listing of Diemailing~® Kudiezi Injection. Since the total incidence of adverse reactions is 0.099% and the incidence of adverse drug reactions(ADR) is rare, the safety evaluation is grade A. The evidence value of effectiveness demonstrated that Diemailing~® Kudiezi Injection combined with conventional western medicine improves the total effective rate of neurological deficit score and quality of daily life in the acute stage of cerebral infarction, which is superior to that in the conventional western medicine treatment group, and the level of evidence is high. Therefore, its efficacy is assessed as grade A. According to the results of economic research, when Diemailing~® Kudiezi Injection combined with conventional western medicine treatment is compared with conventional western medicine treatment, the Diemailing~® Kudiezi Injection group has a greater incremental effect, but the cost is affordable. Given the overall quality evaluation results of economic report is clear, it is evaluated as grade B. The innovation is grade A. The drug is favorable for clinical operation by medical staff and can be accepted by patients due to easy usage without special technical and management requirements. Since the drug exhibits good suitability for clinicians, nurses, pharmacists, and patients, it is evaluated as grade B. Considering its moderate price among similar drugs and good affordability and availability, it is evaluated as grade B. Diemailing~® Kudiezi Injection can evidently improve the clinical symptoms and neurological deficits of fire toxin syndrome of acute cerebral infarction, and this medicine belongs to ethnic medicine. Large-sample active monitoring research has been conducted with rich experience in human use. Therefore, the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine are evaluated as grade A. The comprehensive clinical evaluation of Diemailing~® Kudiezi Injection is class A. We suggest that it can be directly transformed into relevant policy results of basic clinical medication management by procedure.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Infarction/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Injections , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921768

ABSTRACT

This study systematically reviewed the existing research on Danhong Injection in the treatment of stroke with blood stasis syndrome. The methods of evidence-based medicine, epidemiology, clinical medicine, evidence-based pharmacy, drug economics, mathematical statistics, and health technology assessment(HTA) were employed to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the "6+1" dimensions(safety, effectiveness, economy, innovation, suitability, accessibility, and characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine) of Danhong Injection through questionnaire survey, public information, real world data, and secondary evaluation of literature. With the weights given by experts, the multi-criteria decision analysis(MCDA) model was employed to measure each dimension and highlight the clinical value of Danhong Injection. Multi-source safety evidence showed that Danhong Injection had been fully monitored and studied. The severity of adverse reactions was mostly moderate or mild, and the prognosis was good. So it was rated as grade A for safety. Compared with Ligustrazine Injection, Fufang Danshen Injection and conventional treatment of western medicine, Danhong Injection had obvious advantages in clinical response rate and NIHSS score improvement in the treatment of stroke with blood stasis syndrome. So it was rated as grade A for effectiveness. Compared with Ligustrazine Injection and Yinxing Damo Injection, Danhong Injection had a cost-effectiveness advantage in the treatment of stroke with blood stasis syndrome, and the economic results were good. According to the existing evidence, the Danhong Injection was rated as grade B for economy. Danhong Injection had won a number of national patents, which was rated as grade A for its good innovation in guaranteeing supply measures, scalability of production capacity, and production process. It had good suitability for clinicians, nurses, pharmacists, and patients using the drug, and met the needs of clinical medication, so it was rated as grade B for suitability. Danhong Injection is rich in medicinal materials, stable in price, and sustainable. However, its availability needed to be further improved due to the limitation of prescription use, so it was rated as grade B for accessibility. Danhong Injection can promote blood circulation, resolve blood stasis, warm vessels, and smooth collaterals. It had accumulated more than 30 000 pieces of empirical evidence for human use in the real world. It had prominent characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine and was rated as grade B. CSC v2.0 was used for calculation, and the clinical value of Danhong Injection was comprehensively evaluated as class A, which could be directly translated into relevant policy results of basic clinical medication management according to the Guidelines for the Management Clinical Comprehensive Evaluation of Drugs(trial version 2021).


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Injections , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Stroke/drug therapy
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921767

ABSTRACT

Through investigating the current research on the effect of Naoxintong Capsules in the treatment of cerebral infarction with Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome and coronary heart disease angina pectoris, this study conducted a clinical comprehensive evaluation in "6+1" dimensions [safety, effectiveness, economy, innovation, suitability, accessibility, and characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)], so as to highlight the advantages and clinical value of Naoxintong Capsules. By combining qualitative and quantitative methods, we used the multi-criteria decision analysis(MCDA) model to measure each dimension, and the results thereby were divided into four grades of A, B, C, and D in high-to-low order. Through literature review and evaluation, the adverse effects of Naoxintong Capsules are mainly caused by the gastrointestinal system. Since the safety risk is controllable based on current research, the safety evaluation is grade B. The effectiveness of Naoxintong Capsules combined with conventional western medicine in the treatment of cerebral infarction with Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome and coronary heart disease angina pectoris is evaluated as grade A, as compared with conventional therapy alone. The economy of Naoxintong Capsules, compared with Tongxinluo Capsules, is assessed as grade B. According to literature reports, Naoxintong Capsules exhibits outstanding clinical innovation in optimizing the current anti-platelet therapy strategy for patients with coronary heart disease after percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI), and the innovation is class A. Given the capsule formulation is convenient for storage and transportation, and its usage is easy for patients to grasp and accept, the suitability is grade B. The accessibility is grade A considering the price level, availability, and affordability, and the characteristics of TCM are evaluated as grade A from the perspectives of theoretical characteristics and human experience. The results of the comprehensive drug evaluation showed that the clinical value of Naoxintong Capsules is class A for treating cerebral infarction with Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome and coronary heart disease angina pectoris. According to the Guidelines for the Management of Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation of Drugs(trial 2021 version) issued by the National Health Commission, relevant policy results for basic clinical drug management can be formulated directly by procedure.


Subject(s)
Angina Pectoris , Capsules , Cerebral Infarction/drug therapy , Coronary Disease/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Qi
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921766

ABSTRACT

This study explored the clinical comprehensive evaluation of Mudan Granules, aiming to promote the safe, effective and rational use of Mudan Granules, reflect its clinical value and provide a basis for medical decision-making. The safety, effectiveness, economy, innovation, suitability, accessibility, and characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine of Mudan Granules were combed, and the multi-criteria decision analysis(MCDA) model was used to carry out comprehensive evaluation on each dimension. In terms of safety, multiple sources of evidence showed that the adverse reactions of Mudan Granules mainly involved gastrointestinal system, with controllable safety risk rated as grade B. In terms of effectiveness, Mudan Granules can significantly alleviate the diabetic peripheral neuropathy(Qi-deficiency and collateral stagnation syndrome), limb and trunk numbness, pain and sensory abnormalities and other clinical symptoms, exhibiting positive curative effect rated as grade A. In terms of economy, Mudan Granules combined with Mecobalamin and other conventional western medicines is economical compared with the western medicine alone group, which is supported by sufficient evidence and clear results, rated as grade B. In terms of innovation, Mudan Granules is the only Chinese patent medicine with the indication of benefiting Qi for activating blood circulation and dredging collaterals in the Medicine Catalogue for National Basic Medical Insurance, Industrial Injury Insurance, and Maternity Insurance. It has important clinical innovation and is evaluated as grade A. In the aspect of suitability, Mudan Granules has good suitability in ADR treatment, drug characteristics and usage, and is rated as grade B. In terms of accessibility, Mudan Granules has the price level comparable to that of similar drugs, with good affordability. The resources of medicinal materials for the preparation of Mudan Granules are abundant and available, which is rated grade B. Moreover, Mudan Granules, as a hospital preparation with both functions of tonification and purgation, reflects the combination between syndrome differentiation and disease differentiation as well as the combination between overall and local characteristics, and has prominent Chinese medicine features. According to the above dimensions, we suggest to classify Mudan Granules as a class A preparation which can be directly included the policy results of basic clinical drug administration.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Neuropathies , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pregnancy , Qi , Syndrome
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921765

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the safety, effectiveness, economy, innovation, suitability, accessibility, and characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine of Wenxin Granules in the treatment of arrhythmia(ventricular premature beat and atrial premature beat) with deficiency of Qi and Yin. The multi-criteria decision analysis(MCDA) model was adopted, and the criterion layer and index layer were weighted by experts. CSC v2.0 was used for clinical comprehensive evaluation. This study embodies the clinical value of Wenxin Granules, promotes its safe, effective and rational use, and provides a basis for national medical decision-making. The multi-source evidence shows that the major adverse reaction of Wenxin Granules is gastrointestinal damage. According to the available studies, Wenxin Granules has controllable risk and thus is rated as grade B in terms of safety. The systematic evaluation of effectiveness shows that compared with antiarrhythmic western medicine, Wenxin Granules demonstrates improved clinical efficacy and electrocardiogram efficacy, which is supported by high-quality evidence, and thus the effectiveness of Wenxin Granules is evaluated as grade A. Economic research shows that Wenxin Granules is more economical than antiarrhythmic western medicine, which is supported by sufficient evidence and clear results, and thus the economy of this preparation is rated as grade B. The indications and contraindications of Wenxin Granules are clear and detailed to different types of arrhythmia, which, together with the precise positioning and prominent clinical innovation and industrial innovation, rates it as grade A in terms of innovation. The suitability of drug storage, prescription circulation, dosage form and course of treatment basically meet the clinical medication needs of doctors and patients, and thus the suitability of Wenxin Granules is evaluated as grade B. Because of the few restrictions and the sustainable resources of medicinal materials, the accessibility of Wenxin Granules is evaluated as grade A. The prescription compatibility focuses on the pathogenesis characteristics of deficiency of Qi and Yin, and there are more than 3 000 cases studied. Therefore, the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine of Wenxin Granules are evaluated as grade B. Based on the evidence from all the above dimensions, Wenxin Granules has the clinical comprehensive value of class A and prominent characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine. It is suggested to include Wenxin Granules into the policy results related to basic clinical medication management according to the procedure.


Subject(s)
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Qi , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Premature Complexes , Yin Deficiency
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921764

ABSTRACT

The clinical comprehensive evaluation of drugs is an important basis for the return of clinical value, decision-making of medical and health authorities, and allocation of medical resources. In July 2021, the National Health Commission issued the Guidelines for the Management of Clinical Comprehensive Evaluation of Drugs(trial version 2021), which required the evaluation to be implemented from the six dimensions(safety, effectiveness, economy, innovation, suitability, and accessibility), and made detailed arrangements for the clinical comprehensive evaluation of drugs. As Chinese patent medicine differs from chemical medicines in terms of effective components and action modes, the clinical comprehensive evaluation of Chinese patent medicine should highlight the characteristics and advantages of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) on the basis of general requirements of comprehensive clinical evaluation of drugs. At present, in the clinical comprehensive evaluation of Chinese patent medicine, unified report standards have not yet been generated, resulting in the uneven quality of existing reports. To standardize the clinical comprehensive evaluation report of Chinese patent medicine and improve its quality, the editorial team, based on the relevant policy documents of clinical comprehensive evaluation of drugs, formulated the clinical comprehensive evaluation report standards for Chinese patent medicine in combination with the previous practice and expert opinions. The report standards, containing seven sections with 15 items determined, focus on data source, evaluation content, evidence synthesis, quality control, and evaluation results supported with detailed interpretations to help researchers better understand and apply the report standards for clinical comprehensive evaluation of Chinese patent medicine, improve the report quality, and provide references for the decision-making by the national medical management authorities.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Information Storage and Retrieval , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nonprescription Drugs , Quality Control
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921730

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to provide researchers with a better understanding of the research status, progress and problems of Chinese medicine-induced kidney injury. The mapping knowledge domain(MKD) was chosen to visualize the research process, hotspots,and frontiers, thus providing a reference for follow-up research. The relevant articles were retrieved from China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI) from its inception to November 20, 2020, and 683 were finally included for visualization, with a knowledge map covering the keywords, research institutions and authors plotted by Cite Space. Since 2006, the annual number of published articles regarding Chinese medicine-induced kidney injury has steadily declined. The top five keywords sorted by frequency of co-occurrence were tubulointerstitial nephritis(TIN), aristolochic acid(AA), Akebiae Caulis, experimental research, and descriptive research. Akebiae Caulis appeared at the highest frequency of co-occurrence among Chinese medicines and exhibited the highest burst intensity. The burst ended in 2020, when the Chinese medicine with the highest burst intensity changed to Tripterygii wilfordii and its preparations. It could be seen that Akebiae Caulis was the hotspot in the research of Chinese medicine-induced kidney injury, and T. wilfordii became the research frontier. The current research has mainly focused on " organic anion transporters" and " metabolomics". The decline in articles about Chinese medicine-induced kidney injury was attributed to the reduced clinical case reports after the in-depth study of Chinese medicine-induced kidney injury. However, more clinical studies need to be conducted based on the concept and method of pharmacovigilance to construct a pharmacovigilance system of Chinese medicine for actively and passively monitoring and collecting the clinical cases with Chinese medicine-induced kidney injury, figuring out the incidence and characteristics of adverse reactions caused by Chinese medicine, and carrying out comprehensive and multi-dimensional safety research.


Subject(s)
China , Kidney , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Publications , Research Design
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921729

ABSTRACT

Multiple methods should be incorporated into the research on pharmacovigilance of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM for a comprehensive and objective evaluation. The arrival of the era of medical big data allows it to be deeply integrated into medical research. The real world study(RWS) represented by hospital information system(HIS) provides a data basis for exploring the pharmacovigilance of TCM. Prescription sequence analysis(PSA) and prescription sequence symmetry analysis(PSSA) developed based on the former serve as a methodological basis for clinical safety evaluation of Chinese patent medicines after marketing. By collating the related studies of HIS, PSA and PSSA and employing the propensity score matching( PSM) method and nested case-control study(NCCS), this paper formed a HIS-, PSA-and PSSA-based technical system for clinical safety evaluation of Chinese patent medicines in the real world, in order to provide a methodological demonstration for the future research on the pharmacovigilance of TCM.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pharmacovigilance , Prescriptions , Sequence Analysis
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921728

ABSTRACT

This paper discusses the rational use of traditional Chinese medicine based on chemical composition, body state and biological effect. The essence and connotations of traditional Chinese medicine are explained by modern scientific theory and technical means, and the mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of diseases is defined in modern medicine language, which is conducive to promoting rational and safe clinical use of drugs. Based on the chemical composition of traditional Chinese medicine,the selected genuine medicinal materials were collected and processed in a standardized way, and then used in the combination with other traditional Chinese medicines, with the aim to improve the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine in clinical indications, increase the advantages, eliminate the disadvantages, and adapt to flexible and safe clinical drug demands. Based on the body state elements, clinical diagnosis and treatment shall be patient-centered, and doctors shall distinguish the differences of pathogenesis, symptoms and diseases, and consider the drug contraindications of special groups. According to the " dose-effect-toxicity" relationship, doctors shall select the appropriate dosage form, control the drug dosage, balance the benefits and risks of drugs, and carry out appropriate medical treatment. Based on the biological effect elements and the regulatory mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine on the target and pathway of disease, traditional Chinese medicine shall strengthen the precise positioning, provide accurate treatment; evaluate the safety of traditional Chinese medicine combination, explore the adverse reaction mechanism, strengthen the clinical safety monitoring of traditional Chinese medicine, and guide the clinical rational use of drugs, in the expectation of ensuring the safe use of traditional Chinese medicine and maximize the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Contraindications, Drug , Drug Dosage Calculations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Practice Patterns, Physicians'
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