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Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1265-1270, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780218


In this study, we accurately collected the embryonic parenchyma cells and endocarp stone cells of Arctii Fructus at five different growth stages by laser microdissection. Quantitative analyse of caffeic acid, arctiin and arctigenin in these cells were performed using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). The results showed that a large amount of arctiin was produced and accumulated in embryonic parenchyma cells from the late flowering stage to mature stage, while much lower content of arctiin was produced and accumulated in endocarp stone cells at these stages. It suggested that the biosynthetic pathways of arctiin were different in embryonic parenchyma cells from endocarp stone cells of Arctii Fructus. Arctigenin was found to be produced and accumulated in both embryonic parenchyma cells and in endocarp stone cells from the late flowering stage to mature stage, but it reached a peak in endocarp stone cells at late flowering stage, then decreased slowly. The concentration of arctigenin was far less than that of arctiin regardless of embryonic parenchyma cells or endocarp stone cells. These results have validated the new method for analysis of dynamic accumulation of arctiin in Arctii Fructus by UFLC-MS/MS with frozen sections and microdissection.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775405


Fructus Arctii is a traditional Chinese medicine. The main counterfeit species are the seeds of Arctium tomentosum, Onopordum acanthium, Silybum marianum, Saussurea costus, Amorpha fruticosa. Traditional identification methods or molecular barcoding techniques can identify Fructus Arctii and its counterfeit species. However, the identification of the mixture of it and its spurious species is rarely reported. In this paper, we sequenced the ITS2 sequences of Fructus Arctii and 5 kinds of spurious species mix powder by high-throughput sequencing to identify the mixed powder species and providing new ideas for the identification of Fructus Arctii mix powder. The total DNA in mixed powder was extracted, and the ITS2 sequences in total DNA was amplified. Paired-end sequencing was performed on the DNA fragment of the community using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The sequence was analyzed by the software FLASH, QIIME and GraPhlAn etc. The results showed that the high quality ITS2 sequences of 39910 mix samples were obtained from the mixed samples, of which the total ITS2 sequence of the samples genus was 34 935. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the samples contained Fructus Arctii, A. tomentosum, O. acanthium, S. marianum, S. costus and A. fruticosa. Using ITS2 sequences as DNA barcodes, high-throughput sequencing technology can be used to detect the Fructus Arctii and its spurious specie in mixed powder, which can provide reference for the quality control, safe use of medicinal materials of Fructus Arctii and the identification of mixed powder of traditional Chinese medicine.

Arctium , Chemistry , Classification , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA, Plant , Genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Genetics , Drug Contamination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Fabaceae , Fruit , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Milk Thistle , Onopordum , Phylogeny , Saussurea
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1918-1923, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780074


Traditional Chinese medicine Baitouweng have a long history of application. The pharmacopoeia included dry roots of Pulsatilla chinensis (Bge.) Regel of Ranunculaceae. There are easily confused species in the market circulation, such as P. cernua (Thunb.) Bercht. et Opiz., P. dahurica (Fisch.) Spreng., P. turczaninovii Kryl. et Serg., and P. chinensis (Bge.) Regel var. kissii (Mandl) S. H. Li et Y. H. Huang, etc. In this study, using the method of metagenomics, based on high-throughput sequencing technology, the ITS2 sequence of mixed samples of five species of Baitouweng medicinal materials was sequenced. First, the total DNA extraction of medicinal materials mixing powder, and the ITS2 fragment of total DNA was amplified by PCR. Second, the Illumina MiSeq platform was used to carry out Paired-end sequencing for DNA fragments. Last, using FLASH, QⅡME and GraPhlAn software to arrange and analyze, and clustering analysis with the sequences of uploaded to GenBank by our group in the early stage. The results showed that a total of 53 024 sequences of ITS2 were obtained from the mixed samples, there are 52 295 effective sequences, there are a total of 49 079 of five species of medicinal materials of P. Miller. After the representative sequences and the sequence of uploaded to GenBank by our group in the early stage were clustering analysis, 5 species of Baitouweng medicinal materials were clustered into one branch separately, presenting monophyletic. The results showed that using the high-throughput sequencing technology, using ITS2 sequence as DNA barcode, the mix powder of 5 species of Baitouweng medicinal materials could be effectively identified. It provides a new method and thought for the origin identification of mixed Chinese medicinal materials.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-253312


The latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2) is a kind of protein expressed by EBV-infected cells. This study was aimed to investigate whether the stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with peptides induces EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). The peptides were mixture of LMP2 protein and available for people with different HLA types. Peripheral blood sample was collected from a patient with EBV-associated hemophagocytic syndrome. The mononuclear cells were isolated and cultured to obtain dendritic cells (DCs). Immature DCs were pulsed with MIX-LMP2 and added with different maturation-promoting factors. The auto-T lymphocytes were stimulated weekly with the harvested mature DCs loaded with MIX-LMP2, and totally for two times. Part of isolated lymphocytes was cultured without any stimulation as control. T-cell receptor (TCR) beta spectratyping was used to analyze the distribution of different T cell subgroups before and after culture. The phenotype of T lymphocytes was determined by flow cytometry. The IFN-gamma assay was used to estimate specific cytoxic activity of the cultured T cells. The results showed that the distribution of TCRbeta was changed according to analysis of TCR spectratypes. From the distribution of gene families of TCRbeta, the T lymphocytes were oligoclonal before culture, but shifted to a polyclonal after culture in vitro like the normalization of TCR diversity, suggesting the subgroups of lymphocyte could return to normal. The percentage of CD3+, CD3+CD8+ CD3+ CD45RA- CD45 RO+ on T lymphocytes from freshly isolated mononuclear cells were 70.73%, 42.99%, 27.56% respectively. After being stimulated twice with DC loaded with MIX-LMP2, they further increased to 95.17%, 52.54% and 81.41%. The percentages of CD3-CD56+ NK cells and CD4+CD35+ FOXP3+ regulation T cells seldom changed, from 2.12%, 0.03% to 2.35%, 0.02% respectively. The increase of CD3+CD45RA-CD45RO+ cells obviously indicated that most naive T cells could be activated. ELISA for IFN-gamma showed that when DCs loaded with LMP2 peptide were used as target cells, IFN-gamma level secreted by the T cells stimulated with LMP2 peptide-pulsed DCs was 805+/-16 pg/ml and 1729+/-49 pg/ml, the IFN-gamma level secreted by T cells stimulated twice with LMP2 peptide-pulsed DCs was 956+/-23 pg/ml and 2325+/-58 pg/ml respectively at effector-target ratios of 10:1 and 10:2. They were both significantly higher than that secreted by T cells without any stimulation (441+/-27 pg/m and 557+/-19 pg/ml) (p<0.05). But DCs unpulsed with LMP2 peptide were used as target cells, there were no significant differences between the T cells stimulated with LMP2 peptide-pulsed DCs and the T cells without stimulation (p>0.05). It is concluded that the antigen specific T cells recognizing EBV epitopes can be obtained by using DCs pulsed with MIX-LMP2 peptide in vitro, meanwhile the distribution of T cell subgroups can be changed and normalized.

Antigens, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Cells, Cultured , Coculture Techniques , Cysteine Endopeptidases , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Dendritic Cells , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Allergy and Immunology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Allergy and Immunology , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Cell Biology , T-Lymphocytes , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology