Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 17 de 17
Filter
Add filters








Year range
1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2146-2153, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887034

ABSTRACT

Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the most important active components of the "king of herbs" Panax ginseng, which is an important angiogenic protective agent. The research results have shown that Rg1 has a wide range of cardiovascular pharmacological effects in vivo and in vitro, mainly through promoting the proliferation of smooth muscle cells, inhibiting endothelial cell aging, antioxidant stress, inhibiting inflammatory response, activating key factors of angiogenesis, improving vasodilation and other ways. Many miRNAs participate in the process of Rg1 promoting angiogenesis, mediate the regulation of the specific expression of downstream related targets to promote angiogenesis and vascular remodeling, and have the potential to become new clinical biomarkers and therapeutic targets. New preparation technologies and materials are used to make up for the weakness of Rg1's blood-brain barrier permeability, and further promote and enrich the clinical application of Rg1.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802313

ABSTRACT

Objective:The homogeneity regularity of "imprinting templates" of compound preparation of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) was revealed, which provided the basis for effectively controlling the quality of compound preparation of TCM, by clarifying the dynamic changeability in number and content of volatile ingredients in different batches of Houttuyniae Herba. Method:The volatile oil of Houttuyniae Herba was extracted by steam distillation.The volatile components in 11 batches of Houttuyniae Herba were determined by GC-MS(electron ionization, ion source temperature of 230℃, detection range of m/z 40-500) combined with literature and ChemicalBook database.The relative content of each component was calculated by peak area normalization method and analyzed by the total quantum statistical moments of fingerprint. Result:There were only 15 common ingredients in the volatile oil from 11 batches of Houttuyniae Herba, accounting for 3.35%of total number and 73.94%of total content, while the number of non-common ingredients was 433, accounting for 96.65%of total number.However, the RSD of total quantum first moment of GC-MS fingerprint was 6.8%, the RSD of total quantum second moment was 14.8%(RSD of standard deviation was 7.4%), and the RSD of similarity of total quantum statistical moment was 3.8%.The type and content of volatile ingredients in Houttuyniae Herba were heterogeneous, but their chromatographic behavior of GC-MS fingerprint was uniform, the whole "imprinting templates" was similar. Conclusion:The total quantum statistical moment(similarity) of TCM fingerprint is applicable to quality control of dynamic Chinese medicines, which will play a breakthrough role in the study of homogeneity and stability of material reference and compound preparation for ancient classical formulas.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777462

ABSTRACT

The Chinese medicine is mostly derived from plants or animals, highly polymorphic, with dynamic components which are reflected by the characteristic peaks and fingerprint peaks in chromatographic fingerprints. The chromatopharmacokinetics method for determined components is not applicable due to dynamic changes of chromatopharmacokinetics. Based on the preliminary study, dynamic pharmacokinetics mathematical model for multiple components in Chinese medicine was set up and verified by Buyang Huanwu Decoction as the model drug, applying the principle of the total quantum statistical moment(TQSM), superimposing or subtracting the relevant statistical parameters in blood samples and blank samples. This provided a new method for the chromatopharmacokinetic study of Chinese medicine. HPLC was used to determine the TQSM parameters in blood and blank sample fingerprints of Buyang Huanwu Decoction at each point, and the overall TQSM parameters of drug-containing blood sample and blank samples were obtained with addition calculation of TQSM; while the initial TQSM of the pure drug can be obtained with subtraction calculation. The metabolic and absorption equilibrium constants were calculated iteratively to a steady state using the estimated metabolic equilibrium constants, then the metabolic chromatopharmacokinetic parameters in rats were obtained: VUC_T 1.262×10~8 mAu·s, MRT_T 37.48 h, VRT_T 9.016×10~2 h~2, CL_T 25.79 mL·h~(-1)·kg~(-1), Vs 1.586×10~2 mL·kg~(-1), t_(T,0.5) 6.15 h, respectively. This suggested that 95% of the compounds in whole recipe were metabolized and secreted from the body after 0-96.33 h. The experiment verified that the established mathematical model and the total quantum moment statistics parameters can represent the dose-time relationship of Buyang Huanwu Decoction, which can be used to study on in vivo metabolism dynamics for Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacokinetics , Rats
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-707064

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the extraction kinetic deviation of the chlorogenic acid (ChA) in Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos through established extract kinetic model of closed system of Chinese materia medica. Methods The content of ChA (W0) and ρ2in Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos were determined by HPLC; The V1and V2were measured by water absorbing further to calculate V0; The value of M, N, L, α, β, and π were estimated by curve fitting using SPSS19.0 edition; The extraction kinetic parameters k, k1′, k2′, ρ1, tmax, cmax, AUC, P%, and D% were calculated by Excel; their similarity was calculate by the total quantum statistical moment similarity (TQSMS). Results The V0, V1,and V2for Lonicerae Japonicae Flos were 18.69, 9.50, and 30.20 mL, respectively. The W0for the ChA in Lonicerae Japonicae Flos were 3.75%, and ρ2was 0.884; The V0, V1, and V2for Lonicerae Flos were 12.79, 7.80, and 37.00 mL, respectively. The W0for the ChA in Lonicerae Flos were 5.67%, and ρ2was 1.020; The extraction kinetic profiles for ChA in Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos were fitted three compartment model. The main kinetic parameters as k were 0.1101, 0.3755 h-1; k1′ were 3.632, 3.288 h-1; k2′ were 53.12, 55.28 h-1; ρ1were 2.731, 2.751; tmaxwere 0.299 5, 0.216 3 h; cmaxwere 0.134 0, 0.252 7 mg/mL; AUC were 3.405, 1.560 h; P% were 35.73% and 44.57%; D% were 0.916 2% and 2.680 7%, respectively. Their TQSMS was 0.963 8, which indicated that the extraction kinetics of ChA in Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos had good similarity. Conclusion The extraction kinetic model described the dissolution behavior and deviation of extraction kinetic profiles for ChA in Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos objectively and effectively. This research can provide some references for further study on extraction processes and preparation of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-698629

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Changes in the immune function of different tissues after long-time exhaustive exercise stress and probiotics intervention are still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To observe the morphological changes and cell membrane protective effects of different tissues and organs in rats after exhaustive exercise and probiotics intervention. METHODS: Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly allocated into quiet control group, exercise control group, quiet administration group and exercise administration group. Rats in the exercise control and exercise administration groups underwent 6 weeks of exhaustive training, at a speed of 19.3 m/min, slope of 5o, once daily, 6 days weekly. Rats in the quiet administration and exercise administration groups were given 107CFU/mL probiotics via gavage,10.0 mL/(kg?d).The histopathological changes were observed under light microscope and Na+/K+-ATPase, Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase and T-ATPase in the liver, intestine and stomach were tested after 6 weeks of training. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After exhaustive exercise, the liver, stomach and intestinal tissue presented with structure disorders, swelling and inflammatory cell infiltration and an decrease in the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase, Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase and T-ATPase. After probiotic solution administrated, the structure of liver, stomach and intestine arranged closely and clearly, with no obvious congestion and edema. However, there were a few inflammatory cells and slight ulcers, and the activities of Na+/K+-ATPase, Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase and T-ATPase were increased. These findings show that probiotic solution can protect the liver, stomach and intestinal tissue from injury caused by long-time exhaustive exercise, and maintain the integrity and fluidity of cell membrane by increasing Na+/K+-ATPase, Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase and T-ATPase activities.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-852891

ABSTRACT

The "black" of Chinese materia medica (CMM) has been criticized all the time. The Maillard reaction exists widely in the course of food processing, which affects the product's color and odor. The suitable conditions of Maillard reaction also exist in the processing of CMM preparation. The Maillard reaction has significant impact to the study of CMM's material basis. So the Maillard reaction and its products in the processing of CMM preparation should be studied. Taking the Danggui Buxue Decoction for instance, the chemical composition of the prescription was consulted by the TCMSP of Northwest A&F University, and then the constituents were classified, the possibility of the Maillard reaction occured in the processing of CMM preparation was analyzed. New ideas on study of material basis of CMM will be put forward.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-258501

ABSTRACT

The effect of Chinese medicine (CM) compound prescription is the combined action results of single herbs based on the basic theory of Chinese medicine, and its function embodies the characteristics of multi components, multi targets and comprehensive effects. It is difficult to study the therapeutic material, establish quality standards or determine Q-marker, so we can't strictly monitor the quality of the whole process of CM. The identification of Q-marker has a profound influence on the whole process of the pharmaceutical engineering of CM. The scattered effect of CM multi-components is regarded as the integral action of the parent nucleus group by the metabolic rule of co-network compatibility and rainbow potential (CCRP). The rule can be used to communicate the individual components and macro components, to reveal the metabolism of CM in organism body and basic law of information exchange, thus revealing the action law of CM on human body. Through the systematic analysis of the Q-marker's guidance to the development of CM and its relationship with the metabolic rule of CCRP, we try to provide some ideas for the identification of Q-marker.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-230039

ABSTRACT

The study focused on the in vitro release of Buyanghuanwu (BYHW) elementary osmotic pump sustained release tablets. Its band similarity was calculated by the total quantum statistical moment. Meanwhile, in vitro release characteristics were analyzed to discuss the existence of supramolecular imprinting templates. The results show that the same imprint templates may exist in different structures of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)'s multi-components. The BYHW sustained release tablets prepared by elementary osmotic pump can meet the objectives of "overall control, synchronous release". However, the supramolecular imprinting templates in TCM compound prescriptions should be further explored, the overall and synchronous release of different components was controlled through imprinting templates, so as to seek the more suitable sustained release preparation technology for multiple components of TCM, and make it in line with the characteristics of TCM.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-231003

ABSTRACT

Controlled sustained-release preparation (CSRP) is a definitely important source of innovative medicines, however, its further researches and development are limited due to the complexity of Chinese medicine (CM) compositions, and a series of unclear key problems like the apparent properties from physical and chemical aspects. Combined with the CM characteristics of the multiple components and synergistic effect, a series of bottleneck problems in the preparation of CSRP were analyzed. Then the mechanism and influences of supermolecular chemical theory in the CSRP about the multiple-components overall-control were explored under the guideline of "overall control, synchronous dissolution" in CSRP, based on the previous explications about supramolecular chemistry theories and with the application of single component precision controlling technologies. The supermolecular mechanism of multi-component overall control and synchronous release of the CSRP was investigated, providing an useful academic reference for the research and development of the CSRP and laying the theoretical and technical foundation for the manufacturing process of CSRP.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237748

ABSTRACT

More and more disputes have happened to confront us continuously since the separation of Japanese(wild) honeysuckle flower in Chinese Pharmacopoeia in 2005. The state pharmacopeia committee decided to separate Japanese(wild) honeysuckle flower into two species for japanese(wild) honeysuckle flower, but didn't define their the convincing reasons still did not provide to us as a result that two medicines are not described the differences in natural properties, efficiency and indication, usage and dosage, as well as not given a resolving methodand specific solution. It was known for us that in the history of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), the phenomenenphenomena of the "one drug from multi-species" and "one species for multi-drug" are very ordinary thingswere ubiquitous. Whether separation of the drug species are separated shall be decided to by clinical efficiency. Through Chinese pharmacopoeia (2015 edition) issue of Chinese Pharmacopoeia the 2015 issue of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, we still cannot find a scientific solution for the dispute of for Japanese (wild) honeysuckle flower, perhaps because of insufficient reorganization of TCM clinical medication regularities, such as "treatment of different diseases with same drug", " treatment of the same disease with different drugs" and "treatment of the same syndrome with multi-prescriptions", and "one prescription treating multiple syndromes"; lack of in-depth analysis for multi-component TCM compounds and autonomisation of "supermolecular template" for organs and meridians; less attention to the advance of efficacy and safety evaluation technologies for multi-component TCM compounds; impacts from the medication mode of "one ingredient-one composition-one effect"; as well as insufficient research methods for bioequivalent evaluation in preclinic and clinic studies . The dispute for species combination or separation for Japanese(wild) honeysuckle flower was apparently caused by regional economy, drug biological equivalent of efficacy and safety, but arising from clinical principles for systematical syndrome treatment with TCM, or concepts in the treatment of diseases with TCM or western medicines. This paper focused on current studies on Japanese(wild) honeysuckle flower in the combination with TCM clinical medication regularities, such as "treatment of different diseases with same drug", "treatment of the same disease with different drugs" and "treatment of the same syndrome with multi-prescriptions", and "one prescription treating multiple syndromes", expounded the specific pharmacological regularity of "heterogeneous equivalence" of Japanese (wild) honeysuckle flower, and put forward methods for studying bioequivalence of Japanese(wild) honeysuckle flower, in order to solve the combination and separation of Japanese(wild) honeysuckle flower and lay a foundation for promoting the development of Chinese herbal medicine industry.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307131

ABSTRACT

To analyze the research status of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) processing and key scientific issues to be resolved by using characteristic of TCM biological supramolecules and reaction theories of 'Qi chromatography' to human being, and then put forward the solution countermeasures. Based on the previous explications of theories of the Chinese medicine with supramolecular chemistry as 'Qi chromatograpy', biological supramolecular chemistry theory was used to explain the root of the problem in TCM processing and form the countermeasures for supramolecular chemistry research in the processing of TCM decoction pieces. TCM is a huge complex biological supramolecular body, so the processing of TCM is in view of the processing of huge complex biological supramolecular body. In nature, it is a TCM pharmaceutical technology with chemical changes of the subject and object of biological supramolecular body with or without auxiliary materials, under the condition of high temperature and high humidity. Supramolecular chemistry was throughout the processing of TCM, so the use of supramolecular technology was appropriate in research. TCM decoction pieces were the product of subject and object molecular changes after supramolecular chemistry reaction, with changes in physical and chemical properties of the subject and object molecules, such as bound water overflow, chemical bond rupture, dehydration, carbonization, and reaction with auxiliary materials. Changes in drug property and drug efficacy after processing depended on the degree of subject and object "imprinting template" change, which can be measured by 'Qi chromatography' function of supermolecular imprinting template in human body. In this paper, the research ideas, methods, variety attribution, processing principle, quality standard and clinical application were analyzed to find out the sticking point of the problems, and form the countermeasures with supramolecular chemistry as the core. The processing of TCM is a chemical technology of biological supramolecular body based on the function of supermolecular 'imprinting template' (medical element) of human meridian-viscera, and its reaction products (decoction pieces) showed determinacy when used alone and compatibility when used together, which may constitute a compatible drug delivery system of TCM in clinical application.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304849

ABSTRACT

The (anaphylactoid) hypersensibility mechanism of ″imprinting templates″ characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injection supramolecules was clarified to lay the foundation to build safety evaluation method. Based on the previous publication on special impact of Chinese medicine theories on supramolcular chemistry, combined with the natural origination of (anaphylactoid) hypersensitized special rules as well as the sensitization phenomenon of cordate houttuynia injection, the impact of the structure characteristics of ″imprinting templates″ in TCM injection supramolecules on its (anaphylactoid) hypersensibility was clarified. In Chinese medicine injections, the supramolecular structures can independently be generated, showing overall apparent (anaphylactoid) hypersensibility nature, and their structure characteristics were dependent on the strength. In addition, (anaphylactoid) hypersensitive critical supramolecular structure was present. When it was administrated by ″injection″, it's structure was not easy to be destroyed, often showing apparent immunogenicity, whereas if it was administrated by ″oral″, the structure would be destroyed by the gastrointestinal tract, showing weaker or no apparent immunogenicity. Therefore, there are differences in (anaphylactoid) hypersensibility between ″injection″ and ″oral″ administration of TCM. TCM injections would produce the supramolecules between ″molecular society″ by independent reaction of supramolecular ″imprinting template″ (chemical determinants), showing apparent immune process of recognition, copying, and storage. Single molecule is a special example for this. The screening of anaphylactoid (sensitinogen) includes the single ingredients and their forming supramolecules for TCM injection. This is the unique feature for safety evaluation of Chinese medicine injection.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-305315

ABSTRACT

The solubility parameter determination of astrageloside from Buyang Huanwu decoction with inverse gas chromatography (IGC) method evaluation was investigated in this paper. Di-n-octyl phthalate Kwai alternative sample was used to carry out methodological study. The accuracy of the measured correlation coefficient was 0.992 1. Experimental precision measured by IGC experiments showed that the results were accurate and reliable. The sample was uniformly coated on the surface of an inert carrier and N2 gas was carrier gas, a variety of polar solvents such as isopropanol, toluene, acetone, chloroform, cyclohexane as probes. TCD detector temperature was 150 degrees C, gas room temperature was 120 degrees C. Similar headspace method was used whichever over 1 μL gas into the GC measurement, Retention time t(R), t(0) and all the parameters of air and probes molecules within the column were tested. Astragaloside solubility parameter was (21.02 ± 2.4) [J x cm(-3)] ½, literature value was 19.24 [J x cm(-3)] ½, and relevant coefficient was 0.984 5. IGC method is effective and accurate to measure ingredients solubility parameter.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Gas , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Saponins , Chemistry , Solubility
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279241

ABSTRACT

The paper, based on the previous publication as special impact of Chinese medicine theories on supramolcular chemistry, aims to analyze the natural origination for the Chinese medicine and to explain the special impact of "Qi chromatography" reaction on "imprinting templates" in supramolcular host of human being with Chinese medicine, in order to reveal the CM's properties of "medical element" with "imprinting templates" autonomisation generally took place in natural supramolecules, and also to discover that the CM's pharmacology are satisfied with its own approaches different form western pharmacology. It was decided, for CM's pharmacology guided by CM's theories, to "Qi chromatography" relations between the CM's ingredient groups and the meridian zang-fu viscera. The supramolcular chemistry played an all-through role in procession of making macro-regularities and special presentation on behavior of "Qi chromatography" impulse owning to the matching action of all kinds of ingredients on the meridian zang-fu viscera with similar "imprinting templates". The CM's pharmacology were guided by CM's theories, owing to its interpretation of supramolecular chemistry. The pharmacology was achieved to construct up completely on base of classical chemical single molecular bonds whereas the CM's pharmacology be configured to big building by way of "imprinting templates" as multi-weak bonds among "supramolecular society". CM's pharmacology was supramolcular pharmacology dealt with "molecular society" on the base of western pharmacology, and employed to double research approaches both math-physical quantitative representation on macroscope and qualitative analyses in microscope.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Humans , Meridians , Molecular Imprinting , Qi
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351295

ABSTRACT

In this paper, based on the special influence of supramolecular chemistry on the basic theory of Chinese medicines ( CM) , the authors further analyzed the history of meridian tropism and natural origins of CM organisms and explained CM ingredients and the universal regularity of the automatic action of the supramolecular "imprinting templates" hole channel structure. After entering human bodies, CMs, as the aggregation of supramolecular "imprinting templates" , automatically seek supramolecular subjects that are matched with their "imprinting templates" in human meridians and organs for the purpose of self-recognition, self-organization, self-assembly and self-replication, so as to generate specific efficacy in meridians and organs, which is reflected as the meridian tropism phenomena at macro level. This regularity can be studied by in vitro and in vivo experimental studies. In vitro methods are mostly supra molecular structure analysis and kinetic and thermodynamic parameter calculation; Whereas in vivo methods are dominated by the analysis on object component distribution, chromatopharmacodynamic parameters and network chromatopharmacodynamic parameters; Particularly, the acupoint-medicine method can simplify to study the supramolecular subject-object relations. Consequently, CM's'meridian tropism reveals the universal regularity for interactions of macromolecular and micromolecular "imprinting templates" of subjects and objects in natural organisms. As the first barrier for the material base of the CM theory and breakthrough in the modernization of the basic CM theory, meridian tropism plays an important role in studies on basic theories of the basic CM theory.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Drug Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Meridians
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-854737

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a new analytical method of ingredients transformation during the Chinese material medica (CMM) compound extraction: chromatographic fingerprints division total quantum statistical moment (CFDTQSM) method. Methods: The expression was set up by CFDTQSM method in order to analyze the fingerprint information of Huanglian Jiedu Decoction (HJD), and to explain the ingredients transformation during the CMM compound extraction. Results: It has been concluded by studying the extracting solution of HJD that the ingredients were stabilized after decocting for 160 min. And compared with the extraction process of single herb, some ingredients are restrained in HJD, some are advanced and some new ingredients are produced. Conclusion: The CFDTQSM method could be used to the study on the ingredients transformation during the CMM compound extraction, and the study on extraction time.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-300234

ABSTRACT

The paper aimed to elucidate the specific impact of supramolecular chemistry on the Chinese medicine theories (CMT) in their modernization, after had summarized up the research status of supramolecular chemistry and analyzed the possible supramolecular forms of Chinese medicine (CM), as well as considered the problems in modernization of CM theories. On comparison of the classical chemistry that delt with chemical bonds among atoms, the supramolecular chemistry was rather concerned with varietes of weak noncovalent bonds intermolecules, and reflected the macro-apparent chemical properties of each molecules, and was the most appropriate chemical theories to explain the CMT and microcosmic materials. The molecules in the human body and Chinese material medica (CMM) formed supramolecules by way of self-assembly, self-organization, self-recognition and self-replication, with themselves or with complexation, composition, chelation, inclusion, neutralization etc. Meridian and Zang-fu viscera in CMT might be a space channel structure continuously consisted of unique molecules cavity that was imprinted with the supramolecularly template inside and outside of cells, through which the molecules in CMM interacted with the meridian and Zang-fu viscera. When small molecules in human body imprinted with macromolecules in meridian and Zang-fu viscera, in other words, they migrated along within imprinting channels of meridian and Zang-fu viscera on behavior of "Qi chromatography" impulsed by the heart beat, finally showed up on macroscopic the anisotropy of tissue and organ, as described namely as visceral manifestation in Chinese medical science. When small molecules in CMM interacted with imprinting channel on meridian and Zang-fu viscera, the natural properties and efficacy regularities of CMM was reflected on macroscopic. Therefore, the special representation forms of basic CMT is based on the macroscopic expression of "Qi chromatography" abided by imprinting effect regularities, and on whether the imprinted template of small molecules matched with cavity template of macromolecules in meridian and Zang-fu viscera, only is the adequate representation of supramolecular chemistry for them. The CMM materials is the mixture including single molecules and supramolecules. The compatibility for CM prescriptions can significantly change the function rules. Therefore in the study of basic CMT, we should pay special attention to the laws of supramolecular chemistry. It is the most essential differences of the CMT from the modern medicine which established by the laws of single molecular theories.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Drug Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Humans , Meridians , Nanotechnology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL