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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928138

ABSTRACT

Quality evaluation of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces is vital for the development of the downstream industries, and is an important channel for implementing the strategy of "higher quality, higher price, and priority for the high quality" for traditional Chinese medicine. At the moment, the quality of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces is mainly evaluated based on chemical component examination. Considering the weak preliminary research foundation and poor research conditions, traditional experience-based evaluation is undervalued in the quality rating of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces. However, traditional experience is a summary of the quality of Chinese medicinal materials based on clinical experience, which thus can be a potential basis for the quality evaluation of the decoction pieces. It is a challenge in the evaluation of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces to objectify the traditional experience-based evaluation from multiple aspects such as chemistry, effect, and characterization via modern techniques. Therefore, this study developed the "experience-ingredients-activity-electronic sensing" evaluation system for Chinese medicinal decoction pieces on the basis of experience-based assessment, chemical ingredients that can truly reflect the traditional experience, biological effect assessment, and electronic sensory evaluation, which is expected to quantify the traditional experience of quality evaluation of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces via chemistry, biology, and sensory simulation. The evaluation system can serve as a reference for clinical experience-based quality evaluation of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Electronics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Restraint, Physical
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906475

ABSTRACT

Qingxin Lianzi Yin (QXLZY), as an ancient classical formula for clearing the heart and nourishing the Yin, was composed of nine herbs (Scutellariae Radix, Ophiopogonis Radix, Lycii Cortex, Plantaginis Semen, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle, Nelumbinis Semen, Poria, Astragali Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma), coming from Prescriptions of the Bureau of Taiping People's Welfare Pharmacy. It could clear away the heart-fire, promote the interaction of the heart and kidney, replenish Qi and Yin, and stop strangury-turbidity. It was used to treat gonorrhea of urination, seminal emission, restlessness, wasting-thirst and so on. At present, the usage and dosage of QXLZY and its addition and subtraction are different in clinical practice. Most of the studies just focus on its clinical efficacy, and there is few review literature reflecting its historical evolution. Based on this, this paper systematically clarified the historical evolution, composition, preparation, interpretation, function, and modern clinical application of QXLZY. This work has been explained the historical evolution of QXLZY, and found that it was wildly used in modern clinical, especially suitable for the treatment of chronic urinary system diseases. At the same time, QXLZY also had significant therapeutic effects on neurasthenia, stomatitis, diabetic nephropathy and other aspects. Through the comprehensive analysis of ancient and modern literature, this work explores the true connotation of QXLZY from the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine theory, which can point out the direction of the clinical application and positioning of this famous classical formula after it comes into the market, and also can provide reference basis for its subsequent in-depth research and development.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906386

ABSTRACT

As an inflammatory skin disease with a gradually increasing prevalence,psoriasis has negatively impacted the quality of life of patients and has attracted widespread attention from the medical community. The pathogenesis of psoriasis can be affected by a variety of genetic,environmental, and immune factors,and cytokine-driven epidermal proliferation,abnormal differentiation,inflammation, and neovascularization contribute to the pathogenesis,involving the interaction between immune and skin cells. However, some pathogenesis is still a blind spot for research,which brings great challenges to clinical treatment. Therefore, the identification of effective targets for psoriasis is critical in the research on psoriasis. Signaling pathways, another hotpot in the research on psoriasis, play an important cellular transduction role in the pathological mechanism of psoriasis and serve as key transduction factors regulating the immune and inflammatory responses to psoriasis. With the in-depth research in the field of network pharmacology and molecular biology, single Chinese medicine and Chinese medicinal compound can exert a therapeutic role by regulating multiple signaling pathways related to psoriasis. In recent years,traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has achieved good clinical efficacy in the prevention and treatment of psoriasis,such as relieving pruritus,decreasing the area of skin lesions,improving anxiety, and preventing complications, which confirms the credibility of TCM in the understanding and treatment of psoriasis. Despite the rich theoretical and clinical research on the prevention and treatment of psoriasis,studies on the regulation of psoriasis-related signaling pathways and mechanisms of action by TCM are rarely reported. Therefore,the present study reviewed the available research in recent years and introduced the following six major signaling pathways related to psoriasis which are regulated by TCM: Janus kinase(JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription(STAT) signaling pathway,mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) signaling pathway,phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases(PI3K)/protein kinase B(Akt) signaling pathway,nuclear transcription factor-κB(NF-κB) signaling pathway,Wnt signaling pathway, and Notch signaling pathway.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906133

ABSTRACT

In traditional Chinese medicine, it is believed that the spleen is the foundation of acquired nature and the source of Qi and blood. All life activities of a person since birth depend on the water and grain essence transported by spleen and stomach. The liver helps the spleen to strengthen the movement, the liver and spleen cooperate with each other. The liver and the spleen are invigorated, so that the Qi and blood are sufficient. The external energy can nourish the limbs, muscles and fur. The Qi and blood can be supplied to the internal organs, meridians and bones, and the body can be nourished both inside and outside to strengthen the acquired foundation. Emotional dissatisfaction can lead to stagnation of liver Qi, loss of spleen Qi, failure to dredge Qi, and deficiency of spleen Qi, forming the syndrome of liver depression and spleen deficiency. Its clinical manifestations include the symptoms of liver Qi stagnation such as depression, stamina, and chest fullness, as well as symptoms of spleen deficiency such as anorexia, abdominal distension, loose stools. Xiaoyaowan is an effective classic prescription for the treatment of liver stagnation and spleen deficiency syndrome, which is based on the dosage form of Xiaoyaosan in Prescriptions of the Bureau of Taiping People's Welfare Pharmacy. It has the effect of relieving depression, nourishing blood and invigorating spleen. In modern research, it has been found that Xiaoyaowan has good curative effect in the treatment of endocrine diseases, liver diseases, immune diseases, and neurological diseases, etc. It was praised by the famous medical scientist YE Tian-shi in the Qing Dynasty as "the holy medicine for women", with a wide range of significant curative effects gynecology. Progress has been also made in pharmacological research. In this article, we have searched and consulted the relevant literature reports of Xiaoyaowan in recent years, summarized the key directions of the pharmacological research literature, and proposed deficiencies to provide relevant basis for the in-depth study of Xiaoyao pill in the future.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906071

ABSTRACT

Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease presented in the context of inflammation, and it mainly results from proliferation and differentiation defects of keratinocytes and abnormal immune response. However, some cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Although a variety of drugs and physiotherapies are applicable to this disease, they can only be utilized for a short-term period considering their transient effect, high cost, and serious adverse reactions. It is difficult to achieve satisfactory long-term results in the treatment of psoriasis. With the development of network pharmacology and molecular biology and the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the multi-component and multi-target characteristics of TCM have become prominent, promoting the in-depth research on TCM by doctors and scholars. Nevertheless, there is no detailed summarization on the mechanisms of TCM in interfering with T helper 17 (Th17)/regulatory T (Treg) cell balance to prevent and treat psoriasis. After reviewing the recent literature data, this paper has found that Chinese herbal monomers, active ingredients, and compounds obviously regulate the Th17/Treg axis in psoriasis. Th17 cells have a pro-inflammatory effect, while Treg cells are responsible for maintaining peripheral tolerance. They function in a mutually exclusive manner, and maintaining the Th17/Treg balance helps to effectively reduce inflammatory reaction and regulate immune homeostasis. As revealed by a series of clinical and experimental studies carried out based on the Th17/Treg axis in psoriasis, reducing the percentage of Th17 cells,increasing the percentage of Treg cells,and regulating the levels of related cytokines and transcription factors are conducive to alleviating inflammation and regaining immune homeostasis,which has provided new ideas for further elucidating the pathological mechanism of psoriasis and alternative plans for developing new treatments against psoriasis.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905868

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore effects of different extracts and monomers of <italic>Lepidium meyenii </italic>(Maca) on the proliferation of mouse splenic lymphocytes and induction of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-<italic>α</italic> (TNF-<italic>α</italic>) by observing their immunomodulatory effects. Method:An octadecylsilyl (ODS) column was used to enrich the methanol extract of <italic>L. meyenii</italic> in stages to obtain six fractions and three monomers. Different groups of extracts and monomers of <italic>L. meyenii </italic>at different doses were set up. Cell counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to detect the effect on the proliferation of mitogen-free, concanavalin A (Con A)-induced, and lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced mouse splenic lymphocytes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the levels of IL-2 and TNF-<italic>α</italic>. Result:<italic>L. meyenii </italic>extracts Fr<sub>3</sub> and Fr<sub>6</sub>, and monomers <italic>N</italic>-benzyl hexadecanamide and 1,2-dihydro-4-carboxaldehyde-3-benzyl-<italic>N</italic>-hydroxypyridine slightly promoted the proliferation of Con A-induced T lymphocytes and LPS-induced B lymphocytes (<italic>P</italic><0.01) as compared with the conditions in the model group. <italic>L. meyenii</italic> extracts and monomers significantly induced the secretion of IL-2 and TNF-<italic>α</italic> by splenic lymphocytes (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:<italic>L. meyenii</italic> extracts and monomers can achieve immunological enhancement by promoting the secretion of IL-2 and TNF-<italic>α</italic>, and facilitate the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes. The active components are presumedly macamides and pyridine alkaloids, and the specific mechanism still needs to be further explored.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905865

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the mechanism of Shugan Bushen Yulin decoction in inhibiting voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 2 (VDAC2) gene methylation, affecting sperm mitochondrial function, and improving sperm motility through the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) pathway. Method:Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into the blank group, model group, high- and low-dose Shugan Bushen Yulin decoction groups, and L-carnitine group, with eight rats in each group. Adenine (0.05 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) was administered by gavage for 14 d for inducing oligospermia and asthenospermia. Rats in the Shugan Bushen Yulin decoction groups were treated with intragastric administration of 32.4, 8.1 g·kg<sup>-1 </sup>Shugan Bushen Yulin decoction, respectively, while those in the L-carnitine group received 0.27 g·kg<sup>-1</sup> L-carnitine by gavage. Following the measurement of sperm motility using an automatic sperm analyzer, the pathological changes in testicular tissue were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Sperm mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by flow cytometry. The expression of VDAC2 in the testicular tissue was determined by immunofluorescence assay. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) was conducted for detecting VDAC2 mRNA expression in testicular tissue. The methylation of VDAC2 gene was examined using bisulfite sequencing. The cAMP expression in testicular tissue was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the PKA protein expression in testicular tissue by Western blot. Result:Compared with the blank group, the model group exhibited significantly decreased sperm density and motility (<italic>P</italic><0.01), increased mitochondrial membrane potential (<italic>P</italic><0.01), down-regulated VDAC2 mRNA and protein expression, PKA protein expression, and cAMP content in testicular tissue (<italic>P</italic><0.01), and elevated VDAC2 gene methylation (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, L-carnitine and Shugan Bushen Yulin decoction at the high and low doses all remarkably increased the sperm density and motility and mitochondrial membrane potential (<italic>P</italic><0.01), up-regulated VDAC2 mRNA and protein expression, PKA protein expression, and cAMP content in the testicular tissue (<italic>P</italic><0.01), and lowered the methylation of VDAC2 in testicular tissue (<italic>P</italic><0.01). The comparison with the L-carnitine group showed that the sperm density and motility and mitochondrial membrane potential in the low-dose Shugan Bushen Yulin decoction group declined significantly (<italic>P</italic><0.01). The VDAC2 mRNA and protein expression, PKA protein expression, and cAMP content in the testicular tissue were significantly down-regulated (<italic>P</italic><0.01), while the methylation of VDAC2 was significantly enhanced (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:Shugan Bushen Yulint decoction may inhibit VDAC2 gene methylation, increase VDAC2 expression, regulate cAMP/PKA pathway, and change mitochondrial membrane potential to enhance the sperm motility.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921774

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to qualitatively analyze the chemical components in Xiaoer Chiqiao Qingre Granules(XRCQ) by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/MS and identify its material basis. The absorbed components in plasma were combined for exploring the potential action mechanism by integrated network pharmacology. ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 μm) column and mobile phase system of 0.1% formic acid solution(A)-acetonitrile(B) were used for gradient elution, followed by high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in both positive and negative ion scanning modes. According to the precise relative molecular mass and MS/MS fragment ions, a total of 124 chemical components were identified in XRCQ by the comparison with references and literature reports, among which 29 compounds were completely confirmed by comparison with reference substances. Then, the main absorbed components of XRCQ in plasma were also analyzed and clarified by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/MS. BATMAN-TCM and SwissTargetPrediction were used for target prediction of absorbed components in plasma. Following the plotting of association network with Cytoscape 3.8.2, the core targets were subjected to GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and a component-target-pathway network was constructed. A total of eight main targets of XRCQ against fever in children were obtained together with eight absorbed components in plasma, including glycyrhydinic acid, hesperidin, emodin, reticuline, daidzein, magnolignan C, magnolignan A, and magnolaldehyde D. It was inferred that XRCQ might improve alimentary system abnormality, inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and endocrine disorder through tumor necrosis factor, PI3 K-AKT, and other signaling pathways. The present study comprehensively expounded the chemical profiles of XRCQ and the main absorbed components in plasma and predicted the potential mechanism of XRCQ based on integrated network pharmacology, which has provided certain theoretical reference for the clinical application of XRCQ.


Subject(s)
Child , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Network Pharmacology , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888184

ABSTRACT

Indolealkylamines(IAAs) are the main hydrophilic substances in toad skin, mainly including free N-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, bufotenine, bufotenidine, dehydrobufotenine, and binding bufothionine. In this study, the LPS-activated neutrophils were used to investigate the structure-activity relationship and anti-inflammatory mechanism of the above-mentioned five monomers from the toad skin in vitro. The neutrophils were divided into the control group, model group(1 μg·mL~(-1) LPS), positive drug group(100 μg·mL~(-1) indometacin), as well as the low-(50 μg·mL~(-1)), medium-(100 μg·mL~(-1)) and high-dose(200 μg·mL~(-1)) free N-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, bufotenine, bufotenidine, dehydrobufotenine, and binding bufothionine groups. The levels of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β in the neutrophil supernatant of each group was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) after LPS stimulation, followed by the detection of apoptosis in each group after Annexin V/PI staining. The protein expression levels of caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, beclin1, LC3-I, and LC3-Ⅱ were assayed by Western blot. The results showed that IAAs reduced the excessive secretion of inflammatory cytokines caused by LPS compared with the model group. Besides, the activity of each free IAAs(N-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, bufotenine, bufotenidine and dehydrobufotenine), especially bufotenine, was stronger than that of the binding bufothionine. As revealed by Annexin V/PI staining, LPS delayed the early apoptosis of neutrophils compared with the control group, while bufotenine promoted the apoptosis of neutrophils in a dose-dependent manner, which might be related to the elevated expression of apoptosis-related protein Bax/Bcl-2. In addition, LPS activated the autophagy pathways in neutrophils. This study confirmed the efficacy of IAAs in reducing the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in neutrophils induced by LPS for the first time. For instance, bufotenine exerts the anti-inflammatory effect possibly by inducing the apoptosis of neutrophils.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Bufonidae , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Neutrophils , Skin
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873346

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the effect of Zuoguiwan on the differentiation of CD4-CD8-T cells in thymus during the development of kidney-deficient fetal rats and the application value of kidney and essence-tonifying method, in order to explore the theoretical connotation of "kidney being the origin of congenital constitution". Method:Male and female rats were paired at a ratio of 2∶1, and three stress methods were combined to construct the kidney-deficient model. Pregnant rats were divided into control group, model group, thymosin group (0.003 g·kg-1), and low-dose Zuoguiwan group and high-dose Zuoguiwan group (2,8 g·kg-1). Normal saline was given to the control group, model group was used for modeling and given normal saline by gavage, thymosin group was given thymosin capsule solution by gavage, and low-dose Zuoguiwan group and high-dose Zuoguiwan group were given Zuoguiwan suspension by gavage. Embryos that were 16 days, 19 days and born on the first day (E16, E19, P1) were selected to calculate fetal rat thymus index. Electron microscope was used to observe thymic epithelial cell ultrastructure of fetal rats. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used to detect thymus thymosinβ4 (TMSβ4) and thymosinα1 (Tα1) content, fluid cytology detection of fetal rats on the surface of CD4, CD8, CD25, CD44 expression for identifying T cell type. Result:The morphology of thymus epithelial cells in the model group was irregular, the nucleus was deformed, and the chromatin of the nucleus was significantly increased. The results of ELISA showed that the content of TMSβ4 and Tα1 in thymus increased in the model group and the low-dose and high-dose Zuoguiwan groups. Flow cytometry showed that, compared with the control group, CD4-CD8-T cells were significantly increased in the model group at E16, E19 and P1 stages (P<0.05), suggesting that T cells were blocked during the development from DN to DP. CD4-CD8-CD25-CD44-T (DN4) was significantly increased (P<0.05), suggesting that T cell development was inhibited during DN4-DP transition. Compared with the model group, CD4-CD8-T cells were significantly reduced in low and high-dose groups (P<0.05) at E16, E19 and P1 stages. At the same time, DN4 was significantly reduced (P<0.05), suggesting that Zuoguiwan could promote the development of T cells from DN4 stage to DP stage as thymosin. Conclusion:Zuoguiwan can improve the structure of thymus epithelial cells in rats with kidney deficiency, and induce the differentiation of T cells in thymus from DN4 stage to DP stage by increasing the secretion of TMSβ4 and Tα1 in thymus of embryonic rats, indicating that Zuoguiwan can promote the development and maturation of T cells and regulate the immune status of fetal rats with kidney deficiency by tonifying kidney and spermatogenesis.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873029

ABSTRACT

Objective:There were 92 kinds of compound preparations containing Ophiopogonis Radix in the 2015 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, but there was no effective method to identify these compound preparations. Because Ophiopogonis Radix and Liriopes Radix are similar in appearance, it is easy to be confused in application. The aim of this study was to set up a thin layer chromatography (TLC) to identify compound preparations containing Ophiopogonis Radix and distinguish Ophiopogonis Radix and Liriopes Radix in the forms of decoction pieces and standard decoction. Method:In this study, decoction pieces of Ophiopogonis Radix and Liriopes Radix were collected and separately prepared as standard decoction. TLC was used to qualitatively identify decoction pieces and standard decoction of Ophiopogonis Radix and Liriopes Radix, and compound preparations containing Ophiopogonis Radix. In the TLC, the lower solution of chloroform-methanol-water (65∶35∶10) was selected as the developing agent and 10% sulfuric acid ethanol solution as the chromogenic agent. Result:The resolution of this TLC was good. Decoction pieces, standard decoction and preparations of Ophiopogonis Radix had the same characteristic strips, which were two bright white fluorescent strips under ultraviolet lamp (365 nm). But these two characteristic strips were not existed in the TLC of decoction pieces and standard decoction of Liriopes Radix. The corresponding components of both of these two strips were identified as mixture containing saponins by LC-MSn, including ophiopogonin Ra, Tb, ophiopogonin D', borneol glycoside, ophiopogonin C and Liriope muscari baily saponins C. Conclusion:The established TLC method, which has significant advantages such as high specificity and sensitivity, can be applied to the characteristic identification of decoction pieces and standard decoction of Ophiopogonis Radix, the identification of compound preparations containing Ophiopogonis Radix, and the distinction of Ophiopogonis Radix and Liriopes Radix, thus serving as an effective method to qualitatively identify Ophiopogonis Radix and its compound preparations.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828018

ABSTRACT

UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS was developed for the identification of chemical constituents in Qingfei Paidu Decoction, which will clarify its material basis. ACQUITY UHPLC HSS T3 chromatography column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 μm) was used with 0.1% formic acid(B)-acetonitrile(A) as the mobile phase in gradient elution. The decoction was detected by high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry equipped with an ESI ion source in positive and negative mode. Based on the accurate mass measurements, retention time, mass fragmentation patterns combined with comparison of reference and literature reports, a total of 87 major compounds including 43 flavonoids, 9 alkaloids, 4 triterpenoid saponins, 1 sesquiterpene, 2 coumarins, 10 phenolic acids and 18 other compounds were tentatively screened and characterized. UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS was employed to comprehensively elucidate the chemical components in Qingfei Paidu Decoction, which basically covered 20 Chinese medicines except gypsum in Qingfei Paidu Decoction. These collective results provide a scientific basis for further research on the quality control standard of Qingfei Paidu Decoction.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Coumarins , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Flavonoids , Mass Spectrometry
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801945

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ MS) method for the simultaneous determination of twelve components (wogonoside,baicalin,wogonin,chrysin,uteolin,caffeic acid,acetylcorynoline,corynoline,protopine,salicylic acid,uracil and adenosine) in Pudilan Xiaoyan oral liquid. Method: The analysis was performed on an Agilent Extend C18 column(3.0 mm×150 mm,3.5 μm),with a gradient elution by using the mobile phase of methanol-water(0.1%formic acid). The flow rate was 0.3 mL·min-1. Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization source (ESI),DMRM mode, and positive and negative ions alternate mode were adopted. Result: The 12 reference substances had a good specificity. Wogonoside,baicalin,wogonin,chrysin,uteolin,caffeic acid,acetylcorynoline,corynoline,protopine,salicylic acid,uracil and adenosine showed good linear relationships within the range of 0.062 24-16.24,33.95-530.4,0.013 64-3.558,0.001 157-0.302 4,0.001 199-0.313 0,0.014 64-3.821,0.000 739 5-0.038 59,0.060 83-3.174,0.002 443-0.637 4,0.021 80-1.138,0.022 99-6.000,0.006 046-1.578 μg·L-1,with a good precision,stability and repeatability. And the average recoveries were 98.9%,100.2%,106.9%,100.8%,101.7%,99.3%,94.6%,100.0%,100.5%,103.4%,96.8%,98.1%. Conclusion: This method was simple,sensitive and reliable. It laid a foundation to promote the quality control standard of Pudilan Xiaoyan oral liquid.

14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1793-1800, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-231691

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>To compare the clinicopathological features and prognosis between younger and aged patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We analyzed the outcome of 451 HCC patients underwent liver resection, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation, respectively. Then risk factors for aged and younger patients' survival were evaluated by multivariate analysis, respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The patients who were older than 55 years old were defined as the older group. The overall survival for aged patients was significantly worse than those younger patients. The younger patients had similar liver functional reserve but more aggressive tumor factors than aged patients. Cox regression analysis showed that the elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (Wald χ2 = 3.963, P = 0.047, hazard ratio [HR] =1.453, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.006-2.098), lower albumin (Wald χ2 = 12.213, P < 0.001, HR = 1.982, 95% CI: 1.351-2.910), tumor size (Wald χ2 = 8.179, P = 0.004, HR = 1.841, 95% CI: 1.212-2.797), and higher alpha-fetoprotein level (Wald χ2 = 4.044, P = 0.044, HR = 1.465, 95% CI: 1.010-2.126) were independent prognostic factors for aged patients, while only elevated levels of AST (Wald χ2 = 14.491, P < 0.001, HR = 2.285, 95% CI: 1.493-3.496) and tumor size (Wald χ2 = 21.662, P < 0.001, HR = 2.928, 95% CI: 1.863-4.604) were independent prognostic factors for younger patients.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Age is a risk factor to determine the prognosis of patients with HCC. Aged patients who have good liver functional reserve are still encouraged to receive curative therapy.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Mortality , Female , Humans , Liver Neoplasms , Mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Young Adult
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250458

ABSTRACT

Maca as one of the star products in the international health care market in recent years, had a wide range of application value and promoted to all over the world. However, the basic research of Maca was not deep, lack of systematic and clear efficacy studies. Market products hype its aphrodisiac effect, which greatly impact more systematic in-depth research and exploration. Therefore, this paper briefly summarizes advance research in recent years including the status quo of the resources, growth cultivation, phytochemical, pharmacological effect and other aspects, which can provide reference for rational development and utilization of Maca.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomedical Research , Humans , Lepidium , Chemistry , Classification , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Metabolism , Pharmacology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-247126

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>The complex of the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) and cAMP is an important transcriptional regulator of numerous genes in prokaryotes. The transport of mannitol through the phosphotransferase systems (PTS) is regulated by the CRP-cAMP complex. The aim of the study is to investigate how the CRP-cAMP complex acting on the mannitol PTS operon mtl of the Vibrio cholerae El Tor biotype.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The crp mutant strain was generated by homologous recombination to assess the need of CRP to activate the mannitol PTS operon of V. cholerae El Tor. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and the reporter plasmid pBBRlux were used to confirm the role that the CRP-cAMP complex playing on the mannitol PTS operon mtl.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In this study, we confirmed that CRP is strictly needed for the activation of the mtl operon. We further experimentally identified five CRP binding sites within the promoter region upstream of the mannitol PTS operon mtl of the Vibrio cholerae El Tor biotype and found that these sites display different affinities for CRP and provide different contributions to the activation of the operon.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The five binding sites collectively confer the strong activation of mannitol transfer by CRP in V. cholerae, indicating an elaborate and subtle CRP activation mechanism.</p>


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins , Genetics , Base Sequence , Cyclic AMP , Metabolism , Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Mannitol , Molecular Sequence Data , Operon , Phosphotransferases , Vibrio cholerae
17.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 754-757, 2007.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-232070

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of kidney-jing deficiency on the fertility of male mice and their male offspring.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty 6-week-old Kunming male mice and 300 female ones were randomly allocated to a blank control group, a model group and a kidney-tonifying group. The model and the kidney-tonifying groups were stressed by fear plus excessive sex to establish a kidney-jing deficiency model, and meanwhile the latter were given concentrated solution of Kidney-tonifying Recipe intragastrically at the dose of 0.16 ml/10 g. The control and the model groups were treated with physiological saline at the same dose for 21 days. Then all the male mice were mated with the healthy estrous females for 5 days. The sperm density and motility of each group of the male mice were examined, and their fertility was assessed by comparison of the pregnancy rate and the number of baby mice at each birth among their female mates. And the sperm density and motility of the male offspring were detected at 6 weeks.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The average number of baby mice at each birth in the model group was (7.00 +/- 1.73), significantly smaller than those in the control (9.43 +/- 1.27) and the kidney-tonifying group (8.80 +/- 1.10) (P < 0.05). The sperm density and motility of the model mice were (9.70 +/- 1.15) x 10(6) / ml and (66.72 +/- 10. 12) %, lower than those of the control ([14.08 +/- 1.15 x 10(6)/ ml and [81.75 +/- 3.56] %), and the kidney-tonifying group ([12.20 +/- 1.55] x 10(6)/ ml and [78.55 +/- 4.38] %) (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the latter two groups (P > 0.05). The sperm density and motility of the offspring of the model mice were (10.10 +/- 1.79) x 10(6)/ ml and (71.86 +/- 7.48) %, lower than those of the control ([15.30 +/- 1.83] x 10(6)/ ml and [79.86 +/- 5.68] %), and the kidney-tonifying group ([14.20 +/- 2.21] x 10(6)/ ml and [81.92 +/- 2.51] %) (P < 0.05), with no significant difference between the latter two groups (P > 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Fear plus excessive sex could reduce the fertility of male mice and even that of their male offspring. And kidney-tonifying therapy could counteract this effect.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Cats , Disease Models, Animal , Fear , Psychology , Female , Fertility , Physiology , Litter Size , Male , Materia Medica , Pharmacology , Mice , Predatory Behavior , Physiology , Random Allocation , Sexual Behavior, Animal , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility , Stress, Psychological
18.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 617-621, 2004.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-299887

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the analgesic efficacy and systemic anti-inflammation of preoperative cyclooxygenase-2 nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, rofecoxib, after total knee replacement (TKR).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty patients underwent elective knee replacement were randomly given oral rofecoxib 25 mg (group RE, n = 15) or placebo (group E, n = 15) 1 hour prior to surgery. All patients received epidural combined isoflurane anesthesia during surgery and patient-controlled epidural analgesia after surgery for 72 hrs (0.1 mg/ml morphine + 1.2 mg/ml bupivacaine + 0.02 mg/ml droperidol). Modified verbal rate scale was used to evaluate postoperative pain intensity. The outcomes included pain scores during rest and movement of knee joints and analgesia satisfaction. Daily morphine consumption was recorded. Circulation leucocyte and serum cytokine concentrations (including interleukin 6, interleukin 8, interleukin 10, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha) were determined before surgery, at the end of surgery, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h after surgery in two groups using RIA. The amount of intraoperative blood loss and postoperative drainage from the knees were measured.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The pain scores were significantly less in the group RE than in group E during rest and knee joints movement on the first and second postoperative day, with an improvement in total analgesia satisfaction (P < 0.05). The mean dose of morphine for first 24 h was (8.1 +/- 1.5) mg in the E group and (6.8 +/- 0.7) mg in the RE group (t = -2.71, P < 0.01). Leucocyte and neutrophil counts were much higher in group E than in group RE at 12 h, 24 h post-operatively (P < 0.05). Serum TNF-alpha concentration was significantly lower in group RE than group E at the end of surgery, 6 h, 12 h postoperatively, as well as IL6 at 48 h, IL8 at 24h after surgery (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in respect to the amount of intraoperative and postoperative blood loss between two groups (P > 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Preoperative cyclooxygenase-2-specific nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug rofecoxib increases analgesia satisfaction, reduces opioid requirement and demonstrates a systemic anti-inflammatory effect after TKR.</p>


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Aged , Analgesia, Epidural , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Lactones , Male , Middle Aged , Morphine , Pain, Postoperative , Drug Therapy , Premedication , Sulfones
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