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1.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 92-97, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009899

ABSTRACT

-lactams, including penicillin, have been used for over 80 years in the treatment of group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections. Although -lactam-resistant GAS strains have not been identified in vitro tests, clinical treatment failures have been reported since the 1950s. The mechanism underlying the clinical failure of -lactam treatment in GAS infections remains unclear. Previous research has suggested that -lactam resistance in GAS in vivo is associated with reduced drug susceptibility of strains, bacterial inoculation effects, biofilm formation, the effect of coexisting bacteria, bacterial persistence, and bacterial internalization into host cells. This article reviews the main reports on -lactam treatment failure in GAS infections and analyzes the possible mechanisms of -lactam resistance in vivo. The findings aim to contribute to future research and clinical approaches in the field.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lactams , Penicillins , Streptococcal Infections/drug therapy , Treatment Failure
2.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 333-338, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981959

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2022, the World Health Organization reported an increase in group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections, such as scarlet fever, in multiple countries. The outbreak primarily affected children under 10 years old, and the number of deaths was higher than anticipated, causing international concern. This paper reviews the current state of the GAS disease outbreak, its causes, and response measures. The authors aim to draw attention from clinical workers in China and increase their awareness and vigilance regarding this epidemic. Healthcare workers should be aware of the potential epidemiological changes in infectious diseases that may arise after the optimization of control measures for coronavirus disease 2019 to ensure children's health.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Streptococcus pyogenes , COVID-19/epidemiology , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Scarlet Fever/epidemiology , Epidemics , Disease Outbreaks
3.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 364-370, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981698

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore correlation between imaging classification of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and axis angle of tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis of 739 middle-aged and elderly patients with KOA (1 026 knee joints) who underwent vertical X-ray examination of both lower limbs and lateral knee joints from September 2018 to December 2020. Among them, 63 patients with K-L 0 grade (95 knee joints), 100 patients with K-L 1 grade (130 knee joints), 161 patients with K-L 2 grade (226 knee joints), 187 patients with K-L 3 grade (256 knee joints), and 228 patients of K-L 4 grade (319 knee joints). According to relative position of knee joint center and line between hip joint center and ankle joint center, the affected knee was divided into varus group(844 knees joints) and valgus group (182 knees joints). According to Install-Salvati method, the affected knee was divided into three groups, such as high patella (patella height>1.2 mm, 347 knees joints), median patella (patella height ranged from 0.8 to 1.2 mm, 561 knees joints), and low patella (patella height<0.8 mm, 118 knees joints). Lower femur angle, upper tibia angle, femoral neck shaft angle, femoral tibial angle, joint gap angle, hip-knee-ankle angle, patella-femoral angle and patella height among different groups were observed and compared.@*RESULTS@#(1) In varus KOA group, there were statistical differnces in hip-knee-ankle angle, tibiofemoral angle, lower femoral angle, upper tibial angle, joint space angle, and femoral neck shaft angle of patients with different K-L grades (P<0.05). Hip-knee-ankle angle, tibiofemoral angle, lower femoral angle, upper tibial angle, joint space angle and K-L grade were significantly positively correlated at 0.01(P<0.05);femoral neck shaft angle and K-L grade showed negative correlation at 0.01(P<0.05). (2) In valgus KOA group, hip-knee-ankle angle, there were statistical differences in tibiofemoral angle, inferior femoral angle, superior tibial angle, joint space angle, and femoral neck shaft angle of patients with different K-L grades(P<0.05). Hip-knee-ankle angle, tibiofemoral angle, lower femoral angle, upper tibial angle, and femoral neck shaft angle showed negative correlation with K-L grades at level of 0.01 (P<0.05);joint gap angle and K-L grades showed significantly positive correlation at level of 0.01(P<0.05). (3) In high patella group, there were statistically differences in patellar height and patellar femoral angle of different K-L grades(P<0.05);there were no statistical difference in patella height and patellar femoral angle of different K-L grades in median patella group. There was no significant difference in patella heightin low patella group with different K-L grades(P>0.05), and there was statistical difference in patellofemoral angle(P<0.05). Patellar height and patella-femoral angle of high patella group were significantly positively correlated with K-L grades at the level of 0.01 (P<0.05);patella height and patella-femoral angle were not correlated with K-L grades in median patella group(P>0.05). There was no correlation between height of patella and K-L grade in low patella group (P>0.05). There was significant negative correlation between patella-femoral angle and K-L grade at level of 0.05 (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Inferior femoral angle, tibiofemoral angle, joint gap angle, hip-knee-ankle angle, femoral neck shaft angle and high patella are related to K-L classification of varus KOA, which could be used for early diagnosis and provide objective data for efficacy analysis of conservative treatment.


Subject(s)
Aged , Middle Aged , Humans , Patellofemoral Joint/diagnostic imaging , Osteoarthritis, Knee/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Knee Joint , Femur/diagnostic imaging , Tibia
4.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 324-327, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986855

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of propofol used for painless gastroscopy and colonoscopy on psychomotility recovery.@*METHODS@#One hundred adult patients undergoing painless gastroscopy and colonoscopy were recruited, aged 18-72 years, with American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical status Ⅰ-Ⅱ. According to age, the patients were divided into youth group (20-39 years old, 27 cases), middle age group (40-54 years old, 37 cases), and elder group (55-64 years old, 36 cases). Propofol was continuously infused according to the patients' condition to mantain the bispectal index (BIS) score 55-64. All the patients received psychomotility assesment 30 min before the operations when the discharge criteria were met including number cancellation test, number connection test and board test. The heart rate, blood pressure, saturation of pulse oximetry, electrocardiograph and BIS were monitored during the operation. The operating time, recovery time, total volume of propofol and discharge time were recorded. If the results obtained were inferior to those before operation, a third assessment was taken 30 minutes later until the results recovered or being superior to the baseline levels.@*RESULTS@#All the patients completed the first and second assessments, and 25 patients had taken the third assessment. There was no statistically significant difference in the results of psychomotility assessment when the patients met the discharge standard. Furthermore, the results were analyzed by grouping with age, and there was no statistical difference in the test results of the youth and middle age groups compared with the preoperative group, among which, the efficiency of the number cancellation test was significantly better than that before operation in the youth group (P < 0.05). However, in the elderly patients the number cancellation efficiency, number connection test and board test were significantly inferior to that before operation (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the accuracy of number cancellation compared with that before operation. The patients who needed the third test in the elder group were significantly more than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Compared with the preoperative results, there was no statistical difference in the test results of those who completed the third test.@*CONCLUSION@#The psychomotility function of the patients who underwent painless gastroscopy and colonoscopy was recovered when they met discharge criteria. The elderly patients had a prolonged recovery period.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Humans , Young Adult , Propofol , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Gastroscopy/methods , Conscious Sedation/methods , Colonoscopy/methods
5.
Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine ; (12): 2329-2338, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-998583

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the effects and possible mechanism of Wenshen Tongdu Formula (温肾通督方, WTF) on spinal cord injury. MethodsThirty-six C57BL/6 female mice were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group and WTF group, with 12 mice in each group. The spinal cord injury model was established in the model group and the WTF group using the modified Allen's method, while in the sham operation group the spinal cord was only exposed. Since the 1st day after surgery, 50 g/(kg·d) of WTF solution was given to the WTF group by gavage, while 20 ml/(kg·d) of normal saline was given to the sham operation and model group by gavage, all for 14 days. Before surgery and on the 1st, 7th, and 14th days after surgery, the motor function of the mice was evaluated using the inclined plane test and hind limb motor function score (by BMS). On the 3rd day after surgery, the nerve electrophy-siology was detected through electromyography and motor evoked potential; the spleen length was measured, and B cells in the spleen were sorted by magnetic beads; the differential expression of proteins were detected through proteomics technology; and the protein expression of mitochondrial outer membrane transport porin 20 (Tom20) and downstream cleaved caspase-3 in spleen B cells were measured using Western blotting. On the 14th day after surgery, MRI was used to observe the recovery of the spinal cord. ResultsCompared to those in the sham operation group at the same time, the BMS scores and subscores and the inclined plane test angle in the model group were reduced on the 1st, 7th and 14th days after surgery; the peak value of electromyogram and motor evoked potential were reduced, and the spleen length was shortened, while the expression of Tom20 and cleaved caspase-3 increased in splenic B cells increased (P<0.05). Compared to those in the model group at the same time, the BMS subscores on the 14th day and the angle of the inclined plane test on the 7th and 14th days after surgery increased in the WTF group; the peak value of electromyography and motor evoked potential, as well as the length of spleen increased, and the expression of Tom20 and cleaved caspase-3 decreased (P<0.05). The proteomics results showed that there were 100 differential proteins in the WTF group versus the model group, of which 37 were up-regulated and 63 were down-regulated. GO enrichment analysis showed that differential proteins mainly played their roles in oxygen binding, exogenous apoptosis negative feedback, zinc ion response, and oxygen transport. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that differential proteins were mainly concentrated in metabolic pathways, Huntington's disease, oxidative phosphorylation and other pathways. Subcellular localization showed that differential proteins were associated with mitochondria. Magnetic resonance imaging on the 14th day after surgery showed that the spinal cord structure of the mice in the sham operation group was intact, and the segments were clear, with normal spinal cord signal; the low signal area in the spinal cord injury area increased in the model group, and the spinal cord became significantly thinner; the injured segment had obvious depression in the WTF group, but the structure was more complete than that in the model group. ConclusionWTF may promote spinal cord injury repair by regulating immune function, and its mechanism may be related to inhibiting pyroptosis of spleen B cells.

6.
International Journal of Surgery ; (12): 486-493,C4, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989487

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects of metacarpal inclination angle and ulnar deviation angle on radius length shortening after internal fixation of distal radius fracture combined with ulnar styloid fracture.Methods:A retrospective case-control study was conducted to analyze the clinical data of 84 patients with distal radius fracture complicated with ulnar styloid fracture treated by Beijing Daxing District People′s Hospital from February 2018 to January 2022. According to whether the ulnar styloid fracture was fixed or not, the patients were divided into two groups: 18 patients with ulnar styloid fractures who were surgically fixed were in the fixation group, and 66 patients with ulnar styloid fractures who were not surgically fixed were in the non-fixation group. The perioperative indexes (operation time, intraoperative blood loss, surgical incision length), wrist joint function indexes [Gartland-Werley score, disability of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) score, forearm rotation, ulnar deviation, metacarpal flexion, radial deviation, dorsal extension, grip strength] and complications (bone nonunion, osteolysis, ulnar pain, internal fixation failure, lower ulnar and radial instability, postoperative infection) were compared between the two groups. The changes of metacarpal inclination angle, ulnar deviation angle and distal radius distance of the two groups were analyzed by generalized estimation equation (GEE). The patients were followed up for 12 months, they were divided into two groups: non-shortening group (radius shortening distance < 4 mm, n=61) and radius shortening group (radius shortening distance ≥ 4 mm, n=23) according to whether the radius shortening distance was ≥ 4 mm at the last follow-up. The influencing factors of postoperative radius shortening were evaluated by Logistic regression analysis. Results:Compared with the non-fixation group, the Gartland-Werley score(1.79±0.62 vs 4.65±0.97), DASH score (16.43±4.71 vs 28.72±6.06) and the incidence of complications (11.11% vs 39.40%) in the fixation group were significantly lower, and the forearm rotation angle [(81.29±6.60)° vs (70.79+ 5.15)°], ulnar deviation angle [(21.36±2.35)° vs (16.77±2.11)°], metacarpal flexion angle [(45.84±2.80)° vs (37.55±2.45)°] and dorsal extension angle [(50.23±5.16)° vs (40.65±3.580°] were significantly larger in the fixation group, all the differences were statistically significant ( P<0.05). GEE analysis and evaluation showed that treatment time, treatment plan and their interaction had significant effects on metacarpal inclination, ulnar deviation and distal radius ( P<0.05). The change of metacarpal inclination angle and ulnar deviation angle were independent influencing factors of radius shortening after internal fixation ( P<0.05). Conclusions:In the treatment of distal radius fracture combined with ulnar styloid fracture, internal fixation of distal radius combined with ulnar styloid process can improve wrist joint function, reduce the incidence of complications, and improve metacarpal inclination angle and ulnar deviation angle. A certain degree of radius shortening will occur after internal fixation. The changes of metacarpal inclination angle and ulnar deviation angle are the independent influencing factors of radius shortening after internal fixation.

7.
Journal of Geriatric Cardiology ; (12): 788-800, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Catheter-based pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is an effective and well-established intervention for symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). Nevertheless, late recurrences of atrial fibrillation (LRAF) occurring during 3 to 12 months are common, and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) in atrial tissue have been linked to the pathophysiological mechanisms and progression of PAF in a few studies. However, their expression patterns in peripheral blood and regulatory function in LRAF are not clear.@*METHODS@#In the present study, the expression profile of circulating circRNAs in three paired nonvalvular PAF patients with or without LRAF was investigated by high-throughput sequencing and validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Bioinformatics analyses, including Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, and circRNA/miRNA regulatory network, were performed to predict the functions and potential regulatory roles of differentially expressed (DE) circRNAs.@*RESULTS@#A total of 12,834 circRNAs, comprising 5,491 down-regulated and 7,343 up-regulated circRNAs, were found to be DE in blood smaples from the two groups in peripheral blood between LRAF and non-recurrence control individuals. The most enriched GO categories in terms of molecular function, biological process, and cellular component features were catalytic activity, cellular metabolic process, and intracellular part, respectively. The KEGG enrichment study revealed that the most important metabolic process controlled by DE circRNAs is endocytosis. In the circRNA/microRNAs interaction network, four up-regulated circRNAs (hsa_circ_0002665, hsa_circ_0001953, hsa_circ_0003831, and hsa_circ_0040533) and one down-regulated circRNA (hsa_circ_0041103) were predicted to play potential regulatory roles in the pathogenesis of LRAF.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This investigation discovered the expression pattern of circulating circRNAs that is indicative of PAF late recurrence, which may serve as risk markers or therapeutic targets for LRAF after PVI.

8.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 534-540, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981990

ABSTRACT

Currently, the main strategy for preventing neonatal group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection is prenatal screening combined with intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, which has effectively reduced the incidence of neonatal GBS early-onset disease. However, the burden of GBS infection is still significant. The intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis strategy has limitations such as inducing antibiotic resistance and inability to effectively prevent GBS late-onset disease. It is crucial to develop and evaluate other prevention strategies, while paying close attention to assessing penicillin allergy in pregnant women and how to prevent GBS infection in neonates with negative maternal GBS screening. In recent years, there has been some progress in GBS vaccines and related immunological research, and the use of specific vaccines is expected to significantly reduce GBS infection in neonates.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Streptococcal Infections/drug therapy , Streptococcus agalactiae
9.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1515-1519, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976280

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the mode of pharmacists’ participation in multi-disciplinary diagnosis and treatment (MDT), as well as the effects of pharmacists’ participation. METHODS Retrieved from Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, CNKI, CBM and Wanfang database, experimental studies and observational studies on the effects of MDT with pharmacists on clinical outcomes of patients were collected. After data extraction and quality evaluation, the results of included studies were analyzed descriptively. RESULTS A total of 10 studies were included, among which 3 were randomized controlled trials (RCT), 2 were non-RCT, 4 were cohort and 1 was case-control study; there were 2 422 patients in total. In terms of effectiveness, tumor progression-free survival, glycosylated hemoglobin, re-admission rate and length of stay and other indexes were all improved significantly after pharmacists participated in MDT. In terms of safety, the incidence of major bleeding events was significantly decreased after pharmacists participated in MDT. In terms of economy, hospitalization costs and total outpatient expenses were improved significantly after pharmacists participated in MDT, but medical cost was not improved significantly. In terms of humanistic outcomes, there was controversy over the conclusion of patient compliance after pharmacists participated in MDT. CONCLUSIONS Pharmacists, based on their own pharmaceutical care skills and methods, actively participate in MDT throughout the process, improving the clinical outcomes of patients and enhancing the safety of medication. There are still controversies regarding economic and humanistic outcomes.

10.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 186-189, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971294

ABSTRACT

Severe hypokalemia is defined as the concentration of serum potassium lower than 2.5 mmol/L, which may lead to serious arrhythmias and cause mortality. We report an unusual case of potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias induced by severe hypokalemia in a patient undergoing laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in Peking University Third Hospital due to irregular use of indapamide before operation. Indapamide is a sulfonamide diuretic with vasodilative and calcium antagonistic effects, which enhances sodium delivery to the renal distal tubules resulting in a dose-related increase in urinary potassium excretion and decreases serum potassium concentrations. The electrolyte disorder caused by the diuretic is more likely to occur in the elderly patients, especially those with malnutrition or long-term fasting. Hence, the serum potassium concentration of the patients under indapamide therapy, especially elderly patients, should be monitored carefully. Meanwhile, the potassium concentration measured by arterial blood gas analysis is different from that measured by venous blood or laboratory test. According to the previous research, the concentration of potassium in venous blood was slightly higher than that in arterial blood, and the difference value was 0.1-0.5 mmol/L. This error should be taken into account when rapid intravenous potassium supplementation or reduction of blood potassium level was carried out clinically. In the correction of severe hypokalemia, the standard approach often did not work well for treating severe hypokalemia. The tailored rapid potassium supplementation strategy shortened the time of hypokalemia and was a safe and better treatment option to remedy life-threatening arrhythmias caused by severe hypokalemia with a high success rate. Through the anesthesia management of this case, we conclude that for the elderly patients who take indapamide or other potassium excretion diuretics, the electrolyte concentration and the general volume state of the patients should be comprehensively measured and fully evaluated before operation. It may be necessary for us to reexamine the serum electrolyte concentration before anesthesia induction on the morning of surgery in patients with the history of hypokalemia. For severe hypokalemia detected after anesthesia, central venous cannulation access for individualized rapid potassium supplementation is an effective approach to reverse the life-threatening arrhythmias caused by severe hypokalemia and ensure the safety of the patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Hypokalemia/complications , Indapamide/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Diuretics/adverse effects , Potassium , Electrolytes/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects
11.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 930-939, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007867

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Clinical characteristics and outcome in COVID-19 with brucellosis patients has not been well demonstrated, we tried to analyze clinical outcome in local and literature COVID-19 cases with brucellosis before and after recovery.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively collected hospitalization data of comorbid patients and prospectively followed up after discharge in Heilongjiang Infectious Disease Hospital from January 15, 2020 to April 29, 2022. Demographics, epidemiological, clinical symptoms, radiological and laboratory data, treatment medicines and outcomes, and follow up were analyzed, and findings of a systematic review were demonstrated.@*RESULTS@#A total of four COVID-19 with brucellosis patients were included. One patient had active brucellosis before covid and 3 patients had nonactive brucellosis before brucellosis. The median age was 54.5 years, and all were males (100.0%). Two cases (50.0%) were moderate, and one was mild and asymptomatic, respectively. Three cases (75.0%) had at least one comorbidity (brucellosis excluded). All 4 patients were found in COVID-19 nucleic acid screening. Case C and D had only headache and fever on admission, respectively. Four cases were treated with Traditional Chinese medicine, western medicines for three cases, no adverse reaction occurred during hospitalization. All patients were cured and discharged. Moreover, one case (25.0%) had still active brucellosis without re-positive COVID-19, and other three cases (75.0%) have no symptoms of discomfort except one case fell fatigue and anxious during the follow-up period after recovery. Conducting the literature review, two similar cases have been reported in two case reports, and were both recovered, whereas, no data of follow up after recovery.@*CONCLUSION@#These cases indicate that COVID-19 patients with brucellosis had favorable outcome before and after recovery. More clinical studies should be conducted to confirm our findings.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Brucellosis , COVID-19 , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Case Reports as Topic
12.
JOURNAL OF RARE DISEASES ; (4): 492-500, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1004924

ABSTRACT

PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) is a rare condition characterized by disproportionate overgrowth of head, neck, trunk, or extremity, caused by PIK3CA gene mutation. This condition has negative impact on the physical appearance, functions, and psychosocial well-being of the patients. The condition causes social and economic burden, too. The gold standard for the diagnosis of PROS is the genetic testing using somatic tissue, but detecting low-level mosaic mutations of PIK3CA gene remains a challenge. There is no specific treatment now. Supportive management including surgery and other interventions have limited effects in improving cosmetic outcome and functions. Multidisciplinary collaboration is the key to the success of managing PROS. Targeted gene therapy is promising in improving the outcome for patients with severe PROS. Patients diagnosed with negative genetics test by the clinical measures are often ineligible for novel gene therapy. This article reviews the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatments of PROS, aiming to improve the current understanding of this rare condition.

13.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 436-439, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935408

ABSTRACT

This paper reviews the domestic and foreign studies published in 2020 on the application of influenza vaccine in populations at high risk. The importance of influenza vaccination in population at high risk has been proved by larger sample, multicentre, high-quality evidence-based studies. Influenza vaccination is the most cost-effective measure to prevent influenza. However, the coverage rate of influenza vaccine is very low in China, it is necessary to strengthen the health education to promote influenza vaccination in different populations. It is recommended to give influenza vaccination to the population in whom influenza vaccination has been proven safe and effective before influenza season. Research of the safety, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccine should be accelerated for the populations in whom such data are lacking or insufficient.


Subject(s)
Humans , China , Costs and Cost Analysis , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Vaccination
14.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 105-111, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935357

ABSTRACT

Proportion and rate have multiple and overlapping meanings, which blur their concepts. Based on the existence of the states and the occurrence of the events and their measuring process, we first put forward the concept of "cumulative number of states in point time". Considering the general meaning of "rate" in mathematics and the units of the elements in indexes, this paper puts forward the concept of "the change of cumulative number of states in point time", which is equal to the commonly acknowledged concept "number of incident event within observation period" or "absolute rate", and further constructs relative rate and proportion. Proportions can be classified into three types: time-point (or rate-type) constitutional proportion, time-period incidence proportion and their synthesis, time-period constitutional proportion. The essential difference between relative rate and time-period proportions is whether the observation period is regarded as a one-unit-length fixed period which would be further moved to the description of the indexes. Furthermore, the sources populations of relative rate and proportions are exclusively those at the beginning of the observation period. Thus, we established a unified identification route about ratios, proportions, and rates, the basic indicators of categorical data in populations. These are applicable to both fixed and dynamic populations. The paper aims to clarify the connotation of the indexes and the feasible understanding route and provide some reference for the population researchers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Incidence
15.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 301-308, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928971

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Adolescents are at high risk of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Currently, there is no clinical assessment tool for adolescent NSSI behaviors measurement with global consistency. The Ottawa Self-injury Inventory (OSI) is considered as a relatively comprehensive assessment tool for NSSI, but the questionnaire is discussed with excessive content and timecostly, which may affect the reliability of the measurement results for adolescent.Thus, this study, based on OSI, aims to revise the assessment tool for adolescent with NSSI that is suitable for both clinically and scientifically, referring to the diagnostic criteria for NSSI in the 5th Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM-5).@*METHODS@#This study was led by the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University and collaborated with 6 mental health service institutions in China from August to December 2020. Adolescent aged from 12 to 24 years old who had self-injury behavior and met the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for NSSI were continuously recruited in the psychiatric outpatient department or ward. After clinical diagnosis by an experienced attending psychiatrist or above, the general information and OSI were collected by questionnaires. SPSS 24.0 and AMOS structural equation model statistical softwares were used to conduct item analysis and exploratory factor analysis on the obtained data to complete the revision of the scale. Cronbach's alpha coefficient, split-half reliability, test-retest reliability, and content validity and structure validity were performed to analyze the reliability and validity and confirmatory factor analysis was carried out to test the structure validity for the revised scale.@*RESULTS@#A total of 234 adolescent with NSSI were enrolled, including 33 (14.1%) males and 201 (85.9%) females with the mean age of (16.2±2.6) years old. The most common clinical diagnoses were depression disorder (57.4%), bipolar disorder (20.9%), adolescent mood disorder (17.1%), etc. Nine items (item 2, 7, 11, 13, 23, 24, 10, 17, 18) in the functional scale of OSI were deleted according to extreme grouping method, correlation analysis, and principal component analysis in exploratory factor analysis. The revised functional scale for NSSI consisted of 15 items. The reliability analysis showed that the Cronbach's alpha coefficients of NSSI thought and behavior frequency, addiction characteristics, and function scales were 0.799, 0.798, and 0.835, respectively, and the split-half coefficients were 0.714, 0.727, and 0.852, respectively. The test-retest coefficients of the latter 2 scales were 0.466 and 0.560, respectively. The correlation coefficient between sub-items and total scores in each part of the scale showed good content validity. The exploratory factor analysis showed that a component was extracted from the frequency of thoughts and behaviors of NSSI, one component was extracted from the addictive characteristics, and three components were extracted from the functional part. The three functional subscales were social influence, external emotion regulation, and internal emotion regulation. The factor load of each item was >0.400.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The revised Chinese version OSI targeted the adolescent patients with mental disorders has relatively ideal reliability and validity. The scale shows high stability, dependability, and a reasonable degree of fit. It is a suitable assessment tool for clinical and scientific research on adolescent with NSSI.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Psychometrics/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 289-293, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936149

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effectiveness and feasibility of dexamethasone combined with oxybuprocaine hydrochloride gel on the prevention of postoperative sore throat after nasal endoscopy.@*METHODS@#In the study, 60 patients with American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical statuses Ⅰ to Ⅱ, aged 18 to 72 years, scheduled for elective nasal endoscope surgery under general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation were randomly divided into dexamethasone combined with oxybuprocaine hydrochloride gel group (G group, n=30) and control group (C group, n=30). The patients in the G group received dexamethasone 0.1 mg/kg before induction and the oxybuprocaine gel was applied to the endotracheal catheter cuff and the front end within 15 cm. The patients in the C group received the same dose of saline and the saline was applied to the endotracheal catheter cuff and the front end within 15 cm. Then, all the patients in the two groups received the same induction and anesthesia maintainance. The operation time, anesthesia time, emergence time, extubation time and departure time were recorded. The intraoperative infusion volume, blood loss volume, propofol, remifentanil, rocuronium dosage were also recorded. The adverse reactions such as intraoperative hypotension, bradycardia and postoperative agitation were recorded. The postoperative sore throat score was recorded at the end of operation and 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, and 24 h after operation.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the C group, the emergence time [(8.4±3.9) min vs. (10.8±4.7) min], extubation time [(8.8±3.7) min vs. (11.9±4.8) min], and departure time [(20.0±5.3) min vs. (23.0±5.8) min] were significantly shorter, and the propofol dosage [(11.8±1.8) mg/kg vs. (15.9±4.6) mg/kg], remifentanil dosage [(10.9±4.7) μg/kg vs. (14.1±3.6) μg/kg] were significantly less in the G group, and there was no difference of rocuronium dosage in the two groups. Compared with the C group the incidence of intraoperative hypotension [10%(3/30) vs. 30%(9/30)], bradycardia [16.7%(5/30) vs. 20%(6/30)] and postoperative agitation [6.7%(2/30) vs. 23.3%(7/30)] were significantly lower in the C group. The postoperative sore throat score at the end of operation, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h and 24 h after operation in the G group were significantly lower than in the C group respectively [0 (0, 1) vs. 1 (1, 2), 0 (0, 0) vs. 1 (1, 2), 0 (0, 0) vs. 1 (1, 2), 0 (0, 0) vs. 1 (0.75, 1), 0 (0, 0) vs. 1 (0, 1)].@*CONCLUSION@#Dexamethasone combined with oxybuprocaine hydrochloride gel was effective and feasible on the prevention of postoperative sore throat after nasal endoscopy.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bradycardia/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Endoscopy/adverse effects , Hypotension/drug therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Pain/drug therapy , Pharyngitis/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Procaine/analogs & derivatives , Propofol , Remifentanil , Rocuronium
17.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 166-169, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936129

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the completion time of endotracheal intubation and laryngeal mask implantation in operating room and on slope of ski resort, and to discuss the optimal method of estab-lishing artificial airway on slope of ski resort.@*METHODS@#The simulator was placed with the head under the feet on slope of ski resort. The artificial airway was established by tracheal intubation assisted by video laryngoscope (endotracheal intubation group) and laryngeal mask placement (laryngeal mask group) respectively by an anesthesiologist who wore full set of ski suits, helmets, goggles, gloves and ski boots. Each method was repeated 5 times, and the operation time of artificial airway establishment was recorded. While the simulated human was placed flat on the operating table in an operating room of a hospital, and the artificial airway was established by the same anesthesiologist using the same methods. Time was recorded and repeated for 5 times. The completion time of endotracheal intubation and laryngeal mask placement in the operating room and on the ski slope were compared.@*RESULTS@#The operating time of tracheal intubation in the operating room was longer than that of laryngeal mask placement [(79.8±10.4) s vs. (53.4±2.7) s, P=0.005], and the operating time of endotracheal intubation on the ski slope was longer than that of laryngeal mask placement [(209.2±32.7) s vs. (72.2±3.1) s, P=0.001]. The time of endotracheal intubation group on the slope of the ski resort was longer than that in the opera-ting room(t=-7.851, P=0.001). The time of laryngeal mask group on the slope was longer than that in the operating room (t=-19.391, P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#On ski slope, both of tracheal intubation assisted by video laryngoscope and laryngeal mask placement can quickly complete the establishment of artificial airway, but the time required is longer than that in the operating room. The time of laryngeal mask placement to establish artificial airway is shorter than that of tracheal intubation assisted video laryngoscope, which may have a certain advantage in ski rescue.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Laryngeal Masks , Laryngoscopes , Operating Rooms
18.
Cancer Research on Prevention and Treatment ; (12): 472-477, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986541

ABSTRACT

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are special materials formed by self-assembly of metal ions and organic ligands, with special physical and chemical properties, such as large specific surface area, excellent biocompatibility and strong pH sensitivity, etc. Through modification, they have synthesized nanomaterials with excellent performance, which have huge application prospects in treating tumors. This paper mainly reviews the properties of MOFs and their derived materials, and the application progress of MOFs in tumor drug-loaded therapy, photodynamic therapy and immunotherapy.

19.
Journal of Chinese Physician ; (12): 1800-1806, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992235

ABSTRACT

Objective:Based on a variety of bioinformatics databases, the molecular mechanism of Banxia Xiexin Decoction (BXXXD) in the intervention of gastric cancer cells pyroptosis was investigated, providing new ideas for the survival and prognosis of gastric cancer patients.Methods:Bioinformatics databases used in this study include Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP), Pubchem, String, Genecard, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), etc. Firstly, the common targets of " Banxia Xiexin Decoction→gastric cancer→pyroptosis" was obtained by the network pharmacology method of traditional Chinese medicine compound, and its Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) were analyzed. Secondly, the difference of gastric cancer chip was analyzed by GEO database, and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) volcano map and heat map were drawn. The common target of " Banxia Xiexin Decoction→Gastric cancer DEGs" was obtained by using Venn Diagram. The information of clinical gastric cancer patients was obtained through the TCGA database to compare the expression levels of relevant targets between the normal group and the gastric cancer group, and to analyze the relationship between the expression levels of each target and the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with gastric cancer.Results:There were 29 targets of Banxia Xiexin Decoction in the intervention of gastric cancer cells pyroptosis, which play a role in multi-biological processes, multi-cellular components, multi-molecular functions and multiple KEGG signaling pathways. The most important may be that in the cytoplasm, proteins of molecular targets bind to each other and positively regulate the biological processes of transcription pathways through the neural active ligand-receptor interaction signaling pathway. Further study showed that cholecystokinin B receptor (CCKBR), ATPase H + /K + transporting subunit alpha (ATP4A), ATP4B were the three common targets of " Banxia Xiexin Decoction → gastric cancer DEGs" . The expression of molecular targets CCKBR, ATP4A and ATP4B between normal group and gastric cancer group had statistical significance (all P<0.05). The expression level of CCKBR was correlated with age, T stage and M stage (all P<0.05), the expression level of ATP4A was correlated with age and T stage (all P<0.05), and the expression level of ATP4B was correlated with histological stage, T stage and N stage (all P<0.05). Conclusions:By using bioinformatics method, the relevant targets of Banxia Xiexin Decoction in the intervention of gastric cancer cells pyroptosis were obtained through a variety of databases, and the relationship between the targets and the clinicopathological characteristics of gastric cancer was preliminatively discussed, which provided a new research method for the intervention of traditional Chinese medicine in tumor diseases.

20.
Acta Anatomica Sinica ; (6): 303-308, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1015331

ABSTRACT

Objective To determine if there is atrophy of neuronal nuclei in the aging rat hippocampus.Methods The entire hippocampal formation in a cerebral hemisphere (on a random side) was removed from normal male SD rats aged 1, 2 and 3 years (each age-group 5 rats), serial sections (section thickness 40 |xm) were cut after embedding in a resin of glycol methacrylate, and 3-4 sections were systematically sampled and stained with periodic acid, Schiff' s reagent and hematoxylin. The nuclear sizes of hippocampal neurons were estimated with stereological methods, first, the nuclei were sampled in a uniform random way using the optical disector; then, a Feret diameter of the largest nuclear profile at its focal plane (optical section) was measured as the nuclear diameter, and the nuclear volume was measured at the clearest focal plane of the nucleolus with the nucleator. Results The mean diameters and volumes of the neuronal nuclei in the whole hippocampus were 8.7-9.2 |xm and 392-457 (Jim, respectively, in the 3 age-groups, without significant statistical difference between groups. There were no significant difference between groups, either, in the nuclear diameter or volume in each hippocampal region——the GA (hippocampus proper), dentate gyrus or subiculum. Conclusion In general, no age-related changes have been observed in the nuclear sizes of neurons in the whole hippocampus in the rat from middle to old age.

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