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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e37-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967454

ABSTRACT

Background@#The rate and composition of bacterial co-infection in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were evaluated when microbiological testing was conducted on the majority of patients. We also evaluated whether the use of empirical antibacterials was associated with mortality. @*Methods@#In this retrospective study, all of the adult patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in a single tertiary hospital in South Korea between February 2020 and December 2021 were included. Bacterial co-infection was assessed by sputum cultures, blood cultures, and molecular testing, including polymerase chain reaction sputum testing and urinary antigen tests. Mortality was compared between patients who received empirical antibacterials and those who did not. @*Results@#Of the 367 adult patients admitted during the study period, 300 (81.7%) had sputum culture results and were included in the analysis. Of these 300 patients, 127 (42.3%) had a history of antibiotic exposure. The co-infection rate within 48 hours was 8.3% (25/300):6.4% (11/173) of patients without prior antibiotic exposure and 11% (14/127) of patients with prior antibacterial exposure. The co-infected bacteria were different according to antibacterial exposure before admission, and multi-drug resistant pathogens were detected exclusively in the antibacterial exposed group. Among the patients without positive results for the microbiological tests, empirical antibacterials were used in 33.3% of cases (100/300). Empirical antibacterial therapy was not significantly related to the 30-day mortality or inhospital mortality rates in the study cohort before or after the propensity score-matching. @*Conclusion@#In this study including only patients underwent microbiological testing, bacterial co-infection was not frequent, and the co-infected organisms varied depending on previous antibacterial exposures. Given the rarity of co-infection and the lack of potential benefits, empiric antibacterial use in COVID-19 should be an important target of antibiotic stewardship.

2.
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 135-144, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966727

ABSTRACT

Background@#Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) has become the treatment of choice for the management of massive rotator cuff tears combined with cuff tear arthropathy, and many novel designs have been proposed to overcome the shortcomings of classic RTSA. This study sought to evaluate and compare RTSA outcomes among patients with cuff tear arthropathy treated by a medialized inlay humerus implant with a neck shaft angle of 155° or a lateralized onlay implant with a neck shaft angle of 145°. @*Methods@#A retrospective review of 32 inlay implants and 32 onlay implants was performed. The active range of motion (ROM), visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, motor power for elevation and external rotation, and functional scores including the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Constant score, and Korean Shoulder Scoring system were assessed before surgery, at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery, and at the last follow-up at least 24 months after surgery. Scapular notching, lateral humeral offset, and deltoid wrapping offset were assessed for radiographic evaluation. @*Results@#The preoperative demographic data of both groups showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). The mean follow-up period was 24.9 months. Significant improvements in forward flexion, functional scores, and pain VAS score were observed in both groups at the last follow-up. No significant differences in ROM or functional scores were found between two groups at each time point, except that the onlay implant group exhibited a significantly greater range of external rotation at 3 and 12 months after surgery and at the last follow-up. The rate of scapular notching and the final power improvement did not show significant differences between the groups. @*Conclusions@#Primary RTSA using inlay or onlay humerus implants was associated with recovery from pseudoparalysis and good clinical outcomes. However, RTSA with onlay humerus implantation led to clinically superior results in terms of external rotation.

3.
Korean Journal of Dental Materials ; (4): 121-130, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968034

ABSTRACT

The dental high-speed air turbine handpiece operates by rotating the impeller inside the handpiece with compressed air. However, even if the inflow of the powered compressed air is stopped, the impeller rotates due to inertial rotation and creates negative pressure inside the handpiece (backflow suction, commonly known as suck-back). Organic matter and microorganisms in the patient’s oral cavity flow into not only the inside of the handpiece but also other parts connected to the handpiece, causing contamination. In this study, the Zero Suck-back Control Box (ZSCB) device, which was developed to prevent the reverse suction of the handpiece, was applied to five different handpieces and tested. After driving the five different handpieces with or without ZSCB in the air, the presence or absence of suck-back was observed when they were stopped. In addition, when the handpiece was driven using the fluorescent solution to imitate the oral environment, the fluorescent solution flowing into the inside due to the reverse suction phenomenon was observed. It was evident that operating different handpieces with the ZSCB is effective in preventing the inhalation of external contaminants. In two different experiments conducted in this study, the use of ZSCB was shown to be effective in preventing regurgitation in both atmospheric and immersion conditions.

4.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 102-113, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925824

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to evaluate whether fluvoxamine reduces clinical deterioration in adult patients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and to identify risk factors for clinical deterioration in patients admitted to a community treatment center (CTC). @*Materials and Methods@#A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in a CTC, in Seoul, Korea from January 15, 2021, to February 19, 2021. Symptomatic adult patients with positive results of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 real timepolymerase chain reaction within 3 days of randomization were assigned at random to receive 100 mg of fluvoxamine or placebo twice daily for 10 days. The primary outcome was clinical deterioration defined by any of the following criteria: oxygen requirement to keep oxygen saturation over 94.0%, aggravation of pneumonia with dyspnea, or World Health Organization clinical progression scale 4 or greater. @*Results@#Of 52 randomized participants [median (interquartile range) age, 53.5 (43.3 - 60.0) years; 31 (60.0%) men], 44 (85.0%) completed the trial. Clinical deterioration occurred in 2 of 26 patients in each group (P >0.99). There were no serious adverse events in either group. Clinical deterioration occurred in 15 (6.0%) of 271 patients admitted to the CTC, and all of them were transferred to a hospital. In multivariate analysis, age between 55 and 64, fever and pneumonia at admission were independent risk factors for clinical deterioration. @*Conclusion@#In this study of adult patients with symptomatic COVID-19 who were admitted to the CTC, there was no significant differences in clinical deterioration between patients treated with fluvoxamine and placebo (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04711863).

5.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 405-420, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898647

ABSTRACT

During the 2019 domestic measles outbreak in Korea, measles occurred in healthcare workers with two doses of the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine, and the strict application of the Occupational Safety and Health Act required medical institutions to identify healthcare workers' immunity to measles and vaccinate the susceptible pockets. In response to the frontline medical institutions' request to review the measles recommendations and guidelines, the Korean Society of Infectious Diseases held a roundtable discussion on the causes of measles outbreak, timing of vaccinations, antibody tests, and booster vaccinations for healthcare workers, and financial support from the government and municipality as well as response strategies against the outbreak in healthcare settings. In Korea, the seroprevalence of measles is decreasing in the vaccine-induced immunity group during the maintenance of measles elimination over several years. The susceptible group against measles is in their 20s and 30s, and this may be because of waning immunity rather than nonresponse considering Korea's vaccine policy. The risk of measles nosocomial infection from community increases as these susceptible pockets actively engage in medical institutions.Thus, data on the immunity of low seroprevalence group in Korea are needed, further discussion is needed on the booster vaccination based on the data. Especially, antibody testing and vaccination in healthcare workers may be necessary to prevent the spread of measles in medical insutitutions, and further discussion is needed regarding specific testing methods, and the timing and frequency of test and vaccination.

6.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 528-538, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898646

ABSTRACT

Background@#Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacterales bacteremia is associated with significant mortality; however, no optimal antibiotic strategy is available. We aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes according to the antibiotic regimens and identify risk factors for mortality in patients with KPC-producingK. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli bacteremia. @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective cohort study included all adult patients with monomicrobial bacteremia (KPC-producing K. pneumoniae or E. coli) between January 2011 and March 2021 at a 2,700-bed tertiary center. @*Results@#Ninety-two patients were identified; 7 with E. coli bacteremia, and 85 with K. pneumoniae bacteremia. Thirty-day mortality was 38.0% (35/92). Non-survivors were more likely to have had nosocomial infection (88.6% vs. 63.2%, P = 0.01), high APACHE II scores (mean [interquartile range], 22.0 [14.0 - 28.0] vs. 14.0 [11.0 - 20.5],P <0.001), and septic shock (51.4% vs. 26.3%, P <0.001) and less likely to have been admitted to the surgical ward (5.7% vs. 22.8%, P= 0.04), undergone removal of eradicable foci (61.5% vs. 90.6%, P = 0.03), and received appropriate combination treatment (57.1% vs. 78.9%, P = 0.03) than survivors. No significant difference in mortality was observed according to combination regimens including colistin, aminoglycoside, and tigecycline. In multivariable analysis, high APACHE II scores (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 - 1.23, P <0.001), and appropriate definitive treatment (aOR, 0.25; CI, 0.08 - 0.74,P = 0.01) were independent risk factors for mortality. @*Conclusion@#High APACHE II scores and not receiving appropriate definitive treatment were associated with 30-day mortality. Mortality did not significantly differ according to combination regimens with conventional drugs such as aminoglycoside and colistin.

7.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 227-233, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903887

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic meningitis is defined as the presence of more than 10 eosinophils per μl in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or eosinophils accounting for more than 10% of CSF leukocytes in patients with acute meningitis. Parasites are the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide, but there is limited research on patients in Korea. Patients diagnosed with eosinophilic meningitis between January 2004 and June 2018 at a tertiary hospital in Seoul, Korea were retrospectively reviewed. The etiology and clinical characteristics of each patient were identified. Of the 22 patients included in the study, 11 (50%) had parasitic causes, of whom 8 (36%) were diagnosed as neurocysticercosis and 3 (14%) as Toxocara meningitis. Four (18%) patients were diagnosed with fungal meningitis, and underlying immunodeficiency was found in 2 of these patients. The etiology of another 4 (18%) patients was suspected to be tuberculosis, which is endemic in Korea. Viral and bacterial meningitis were relatively rare causes of eosinophilic meningitis, accounting for 2 (9%) and 1 (5%) patients, respectively. One patient with neurocysticercosis and 1 patient with fungal meningitis died, and 5 (23%) had neurologic sequelae. Parasite infections, especially neurocysticercosis and toxocariasis, were the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis in Korean patients. Fungal meningitis, while relatively rare, is often aggressive and must be considered when searching for the cause of eosinophilic meningitis.

8.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e181-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899953

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory disease in children is a Kawasaki disease like illness occurring after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in children. As the pandemic progresses, similar syndromes were also reported in adult with a decreased incidence.Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) can be characterized with shock, heart failure, and gastrointestinal symptoms with elevated inflammatory markers after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Herein, we describe the first case of MIS-A in South Korea. A 38-year-old man presented to our hospital with a 5-day history of abdominal pain and fever. He had been treated with antibiotics for 5 days at the previous hospital, but symptoms had worsened and he had developed orthopnea on the day of presentation.He suffered COVID-19 six weeks ago. Laboratory data revealed elevated white blood cell counts with neutrophil dominance, C-reactive protein, and B-type natriuretic peptide. Chest X-ray showed normal lung parenchyme and echocardiography showed severe biventricular failure with normal chamber size. We diagnosed him as MIS-A and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroid.

9.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e104-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899858

ABSTRACT

Background@#The temporal changes in the Staphylococcus aureus genotypes causing S. aureusbacteremia (SAB) and the corresponding clinical changes over the last decade in South Korea are rarely investigated. @*Methods@#A longitudinal study of adult SAB patients was conducted in a large referral hospital in Seoul, South Korea. Adult monomicrobial SAB patients were enrolled between August 2008 and December 2018. Genotyping was performed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing. Trends in changes were identified by linear regression analysis. @*Results@#Of 1782 adult SAB patients, the blood isolates of 1,778 (99.8%) and 1,634 (91.7%) were determined to be MLST and spa type, respectively. ST5 (–2.626%/year) and ST239 (–0.354%/year) decreased during the study period (P < 0.001 for both), but ST72 (2.009%/ yr)-and ST8 (0.567%/yr) increased (P < 0.001 for both). The most common genotype was changed from ST5 in 2008 (44.9%) to ST72 in 2018 (36.3%). Panton-Valentine leukocidinpositive spa-t008-MRSA (USA300) was found in 28.6%. Central venous catheter (CVC)-related SAB (–2.440%/yr) and persistent SAB (–1.016%/yr) decreased, but mortality and recurrence rates were unchanged. @*Conclusion@#Over the last decade, the hospital clones ST5 and ST239 have been replaced by community genotype ST72. This was associated with decreased CVC-related and persistent SAB. Increased USA300 was observed in community and hospital settings. Further research is required to identify the reasons for the ST72 epidemic and predict the impending epidemic of ST8 strains, including USA300.

10.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 227-233, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896183

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic meningitis is defined as the presence of more than 10 eosinophils per μl in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or eosinophils accounting for more than 10% of CSF leukocytes in patients with acute meningitis. Parasites are the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide, but there is limited research on patients in Korea. Patients diagnosed with eosinophilic meningitis between January 2004 and June 2018 at a tertiary hospital in Seoul, Korea were retrospectively reviewed. The etiology and clinical characteristics of each patient were identified. Of the 22 patients included in the study, 11 (50%) had parasitic causes, of whom 8 (36%) were diagnosed as neurocysticercosis and 3 (14%) as Toxocara meningitis. Four (18%) patients were diagnosed with fungal meningitis, and underlying immunodeficiency was found in 2 of these patients. The etiology of another 4 (18%) patients was suspected to be tuberculosis, which is endemic in Korea. Viral and bacterial meningitis were relatively rare causes of eosinophilic meningitis, accounting for 2 (9%) and 1 (5%) patients, respectively. One patient with neurocysticercosis and 1 patient with fungal meningitis died, and 5 (23%) had neurologic sequelae. Parasite infections, especially neurocysticercosis and toxocariasis, were the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis in Korean patients. Fungal meningitis, while relatively rare, is often aggressive and must be considered when searching for the cause of eosinophilic meningitis.

11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e181-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892249

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory disease in children is a Kawasaki disease like illness occurring after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in children. As the pandemic progresses, similar syndromes were also reported in adult with a decreased incidence.Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) can be characterized with shock, heart failure, and gastrointestinal symptoms with elevated inflammatory markers after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Herein, we describe the first case of MIS-A in South Korea. A 38-year-old man presented to our hospital with a 5-day history of abdominal pain and fever. He had been treated with antibiotics for 5 days at the previous hospital, but symptoms had worsened and he had developed orthopnea on the day of presentation.He suffered COVID-19 six weeks ago. Laboratory data revealed elevated white blood cell counts with neutrophil dominance, C-reactive protein, and B-type natriuretic peptide. Chest X-ray showed normal lung parenchyme and echocardiography showed severe biventricular failure with normal chamber size. We diagnosed him as MIS-A and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroid.

12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e104-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892154

ABSTRACT

Background@#The temporal changes in the Staphylococcus aureus genotypes causing S. aureusbacteremia (SAB) and the corresponding clinical changes over the last decade in South Korea are rarely investigated. @*Methods@#A longitudinal study of adult SAB patients was conducted in a large referral hospital in Seoul, South Korea. Adult monomicrobial SAB patients were enrolled between August 2008 and December 2018. Genotyping was performed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing. Trends in changes were identified by linear regression analysis. @*Results@#Of 1782 adult SAB patients, the blood isolates of 1,778 (99.8%) and 1,634 (91.7%) were determined to be MLST and spa type, respectively. ST5 (–2.626%/year) and ST239 (–0.354%/year) decreased during the study period (P < 0.001 for both), but ST72 (2.009%/ yr)-and ST8 (0.567%/yr) increased (P < 0.001 for both). The most common genotype was changed from ST5 in 2008 (44.9%) to ST72 in 2018 (36.3%). Panton-Valentine leukocidinpositive spa-t008-MRSA (USA300) was found in 28.6%. Central venous catheter (CVC)-related SAB (–2.440%/yr) and persistent SAB (–1.016%/yr) decreased, but mortality and recurrence rates were unchanged. @*Conclusion@#Over the last decade, the hospital clones ST5 and ST239 have been replaced by community genotype ST72. This was associated with decreased CVC-related and persistent SAB. Increased USA300 was observed in community and hospital settings. Further research is required to identify the reasons for the ST72 epidemic and predict the impending epidemic of ST8 strains, including USA300.

13.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 405-420, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890943

ABSTRACT

During the 2019 domestic measles outbreak in Korea, measles occurred in healthcare workers with two doses of the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine, and the strict application of the Occupational Safety and Health Act required medical institutions to identify healthcare workers' immunity to measles and vaccinate the susceptible pockets. In response to the frontline medical institutions' request to review the measles recommendations and guidelines, the Korean Society of Infectious Diseases held a roundtable discussion on the causes of measles outbreak, timing of vaccinations, antibody tests, and booster vaccinations for healthcare workers, and financial support from the government and municipality as well as response strategies against the outbreak in healthcare settings. In Korea, the seroprevalence of measles is decreasing in the vaccine-induced immunity group during the maintenance of measles elimination over several years. The susceptible group against measles is in their 20s and 30s, and this may be because of waning immunity rather than nonresponse considering Korea's vaccine policy. The risk of measles nosocomial infection from community increases as these susceptible pockets actively engage in medical institutions.Thus, data on the immunity of low seroprevalence group in Korea are needed, further discussion is needed on the booster vaccination based on the data. Especially, antibody testing and vaccination in healthcare workers may be necessary to prevent the spread of measles in medical insutitutions, and further discussion is needed regarding specific testing methods, and the timing and frequency of test and vaccination.

14.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 528-538, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890942

ABSTRACT

Background@#Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacterales bacteremia is associated with significant mortality; however, no optimal antibiotic strategy is available. We aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes according to the antibiotic regimens and identify risk factors for mortality in patients with KPC-producingK. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli bacteremia. @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective cohort study included all adult patients with monomicrobial bacteremia (KPC-producing K. pneumoniae or E. coli) between January 2011 and March 2021 at a 2,700-bed tertiary center. @*Results@#Ninety-two patients were identified; 7 with E. coli bacteremia, and 85 with K. pneumoniae bacteremia. Thirty-day mortality was 38.0% (35/92). Non-survivors were more likely to have had nosocomial infection (88.6% vs. 63.2%, P = 0.01), high APACHE II scores (mean [interquartile range], 22.0 [14.0 - 28.0] vs. 14.0 [11.0 - 20.5],P <0.001), and septic shock (51.4% vs. 26.3%, P <0.001) and less likely to have been admitted to the surgical ward (5.7% vs. 22.8%, P= 0.04), undergone removal of eradicable foci (61.5% vs. 90.6%, P = 0.03), and received appropriate combination treatment (57.1% vs. 78.9%, P = 0.03) than survivors. No significant difference in mortality was observed according to combination regimens including colistin, aminoglycoside, and tigecycline. In multivariable analysis, high APACHE II scores (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 - 1.23, P <0.001), and appropriate definitive treatment (aOR, 0.25; CI, 0.08 - 0.74,P = 0.01) were independent risk factors for mortality. @*Conclusion@#High APACHE II scores and not receiving appropriate definitive treatment were associated with 30-day mortality. Mortality did not significantly differ according to combination regimens with conventional drugs such as aminoglycoside and colistin.

15.
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 364-370, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832005

ABSTRACT

Background@#There is controversy over how to surgically treat symptomatic superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears in middle-aged patients with concomitant rotator cuff tears. The aim of the study was to compare the clinical and imaging outcomes of SLAP repair versus biceps tenodesis (BT) each combined with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR). @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed 35 patients older than 45 years who underwent arthroscopic surgery to manage concomitant SLAP tears and rotator cuff tears. In addition to ARCR, 17 patients underwent SLAP repair, whereas 18 patients underwent BT.Shoulder range of motion (ROM), visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Constant score, and University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) score were used for clinical assessment. The integrity of rotator cuff repair and change of superior labrum-biceps complex were evaluated by postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). @*Results@#There was significant improvement in the pain VAS and all functional scores in both groups (p < 0.001) at a mean followup of 29.4 ± 11.4 months (range, 24–84 months) postoperatively. Shoulder ROM showed significant improvement postoperatively (p < 0.05). No significant difference in outcomes could be found between the 2 groups after surgery. The retear rate of rotator cuff repair on MRI was 11.8% in the SLAP repair group and 11.1% in the BT group. @*Conclusions@#In middle-aged patients with combined SLAP lesions and rotator cuff tears, both SLAP repair and BT can be safe adjuncts to ARCR.

16.
Clinics in Shoulder and Elbow ; : 109-117, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831934

ABSTRACT

Repair of the rotator cuff tear is a joint-tightening procedure that can worsen joint stiffness. This paradoxical phenomenon complicates treatment of rotator cuff tear with joint stiffness. As a result, there is controversy about how and when to treat joint stiffness. As many treatments have been published, this review discusses the latest findings on treatment of rotator cuff tear with joint stiffness.

17.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 438-448, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831843

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We evaluated the usefulness in kidney transplant (KT) candidates of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays for predicting the development of post-transplant CMV infections. @*Methods@#All adult recipients admitted for living-donor KT between March 2014 and March 2015 were prospectively enrolled except donor CMV-seropositive and recipient seronegative (D+/R–) recipients. All the enrolled patients underwent CMV-specific ELISPOT assays before transplant, and a researcher blinded to the results of these assays examined the patients for CMV infection at least 6 months post-transplant. @*Results@#Of 133 KT recipients, 44 (33%) developed CMV infections. When we used the cut-off determined by receiver operator characteristic curve, 16 of the 34 patients (47%) with negative pp65-specific ELISPOT results (< 11 spots/200,000 cells) developed CMV infections, whereas 28 of the 99 patients (39%) with positive pp65-specific ELISPOT results at baseline (≥ 11 spots/200,000 cells) developed CMV infections after KT (p = 0.02). Based on the multivariable Cox regression model, negative pp65-specific ELISPOT assay results was an independent risk factor for CMV infection (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 3.46; p = 0.047) as well as age (AHR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.08; p = 0.007). @*Conclusions@#Pre-transplant CMV-specific ELISPOT assay appears to predict the development of CMV infections after KT in recipients at moderate risk such as CMV-seropositive recipients (Clinical Trial Registration Number NCT 02025335).

18.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 513-521, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741412

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the morphologic-metabolic (M-M) dissociation sign based on computed tomography (CT) and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in discriminating invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA) from invasive non-mucinous adenocarcinomas (ADCs) of the lung. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective study. Among surgically resected solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN)-type ADCs (< 3 cm in diameter), 35 patients with IMAs and 329 with invasive non-mucinous ADCs were included. Morphologic malignancy was established if the tumor with lobulated or spiculated margin on CT presented a tumor shadow disappearance rate of < 0.5. The M-M dissociation sign was determined when a malignant-morphologic nodule on CT showed maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) < 3.5 on PET/CT. RESULTS: Among 35 IMAs (size: 21 ± 7 mm, SUVmax: 1.8 ± 2.0) and 329 invasive non-mucinous ADCs (size: 21 ± 6 mm, SUVmax: 4.6 ± 4.2), the M-M dissociation sign was observed in 54% of IMAs (19/35) and 10% of invasive non-mucinous ADCs (34/329) (p < 0.001). The diagnostic performance of the sign in discriminating IMA from invasive non-mucinous ADCs showed a sensitivity of 54.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 36.7–71.2), specificity 89.7% (95% CI, 85.9–92.7), positive predictive value 35.8% (95% CI, 26.5–46.5), and negative predictive value 94.9% (95% CI, 92.8–96.4). Multivariate analyses revealed metabolic benignity (odds ratio [OR] 2.99; 95% CI, 1.01–8.93; p = 0.047) and M-M dissociation sign (OR 6.35; 95% CI, 2.76–14.62; p < 0.001) to be significant predictors of SPN-type IMAs. CONCLUSION: Identification of the absence of M-M dissociation sign is an accurate indicator for excluding IMA from SPN-type lung ADCs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous , Diagnosis , Ethics Committees, Research , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Lung , Mucins , Multivariate Analysis , Positron-Emission Tomography , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Solitary Pulmonary Nodule
19.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 427-434, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914558

ABSTRACT

The characteristics of cholera epidemics that have occurred in Korea since the country's liberation in 1945 are described. The cholera outbreak in 1946 was the last classical one that occurred in Korea. In the 1960s, El Tor cholera replaced classical cholera worldwide which is characterized by lower volumes of and less frequent diarrhea, a lower case fatality rate, and a higher percentage of people who carry cholera without symptoms. There were 11 cholera epidemics in Korea between 1963 and 2001. Except for 2 patients in 2002, all cases originated from, or were associated with, other countries until 2016. In 2016, cholera was transmitted to three individuals within Korea. The number of cases, the number of deaths, and the case fatality rate decreased markedly after the 1946 cholera epidemic. The highest case fatality rate since 1946 was 9% in 1969, and there have been no deaths due to cholera since 1995. Introduction of infection from outside the country, infection by Vibrio cholerae carrier-residents within the country, and intentional spread were all considered to be possible sources of the initial infection that triggered the epidemics.

20.
Clinics in Shoulder and Elbow ; : 128-134, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Patients with rotator cuff tears are usually afflicted with shoulder pain and disability. However, it is unclear which factors are related to shoulder pain in patients with rotator cuff tears. This study was therefore undertaken to determine the factors correlated with shoulder pain in patients with painful rotator cuff tears, but without any history of trauma.@*METHODS@#We evaluated a cohort of 745 patients with painful rotator cuff tears having no trauma history, and analyzed the relationship between pain and multiple factors including demographic data, tear characteristics, and passive range of motion. Pain was analyzed with a questionnaire concerning the visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain. Tear characteristics were determined by evaluating tear size, muscle atrophy, number of torn tendons, and presence of arthritis. Multivariate linear regression analysis and chi-squared test were applied to evaluate the relationship between the VAS for pain and variable factors.@*RESULTS@#Shoulder pain was associated with young age (p=0.01), male sex (p=0.01) and the presence of diabetes mellitus (p0.05) also showed no correlation with VAS for pain.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Young age, male sex and the presence of diabetes mellitus correlated positively with preoperative shoulder pain in patients with painful rotator cuff tears without a trauma history. Combined treatment of pain management and risk factor correction could be helpful to control preoperative shoulder pain.

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