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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915762

ABSTRACT

no abstract available.

2.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 77-85, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914028

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of gastric tumors in the mid-to-upper stomach is a technically challenging procedure. This study compared the therapeutic outcomes and adverse events of ESD of tumors in the mid-to-upper stomach performed under general anesthesia (GA) or monitored anesthesia care (MAC). @*Methods@#Between 2012 and 2018, 674 patients underwent ESD for gastric tumors in the midbody, high body, fundus, or cardia (100 patients received GA; 574 received MAC). The outcomes of the propensity score (PS)-matched (1:1) patients receiving either GA or MAC were analyzed. @*Results@#The PS matching identified 94 patients who received GA and 94 patients who received MAC. Both groups showed high rates of en bloc resection (GA, 95.7%; MAC, 97.9%; p=0.68) and complete resection (GA, 81.9%; MAC, 84.0%; p=0.14). There were no significant differences between the rates of adverse events (GA, 16.0%; MAC, 8.5%; p=0.18) in the anesthetic groups. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the method of anesthesia did not affect the rates of complete resection or adverse events. @*Conclusions@#ESD of tumors in the mid-to-upper stomach at our high-volume center had good outcomes, regardless of the method of anesthesia. Our results demonstrate no differences between the efficacies and safety of ESD performed under MAC and GA.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926108

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Non-celiac gluten sensitivity is characterized by intestinal and extra intestinal symptoms associated with the consumption of gluten-containing food. Since biomarkers for non-celiac gluten sensitivity are lacking, its prevalence is estimated based on self-reported symptoms. However, no data exist on self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity in the Korean population. Thus, we aim to investigate the prevalence of self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity in the Korean population and to determine its demographic and clinical characteristics. @*Methods@#This study surveyed Korean participants aged 18-80 years who visited gastroenterology outpatient clinics at 9 tertiary hospitals in South Korea from January 2016 to February 2017. They were questioned regarding symptoms related to gluten ingestion: degree of discomfort (visual analog scale score), frequency, time of symptom onset, and duration. Abdominal discomfort caused by 11 differentkinds of gluten-containing Korean food items was investigated. @*Results@#More non-celiac gluten sensitivity self-reporters were identified among those with irritable bowel syndrome (33.6%) than among controls (5.8%). Major gastrointestinal symptoms included bloating (75.0%), abdominal discomfort (71.3%), and belching (45.0%).Common extra-intestinal symptoms included fatigue (20.0%) and headache (13.7%). More than half of those who self-reported nonceliac gluten sensitivity (66.3%) developed symptoms within 1 hour of food ingestion, and symptoms were localized in the upper abdomen (37.5%) and entire abdomen (30.0%). @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that if there are gluten-related symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome, the possibility of accompanying non-celiacgluten sensitivity should be considered.

4.
Intestinal Research ; : 127-157, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891105

ABSTRACT

Although surgery was the standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers, endoscopic resection is now a standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers without regional lymph node metastasis. High-definition white light endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, and image-enhanced endoscopy such as narrow band imaging are performed to assess the edge and depth of early gastrointestinal cancers for delineation of resection boundaries and prediction of the possibility of lymph node metastasis before the decision of endoscopic resection. Endoscopic mucosal resection and/or endoscopic submucosal dissection can be performed to remove early gastrointestinal cancers completely by en bloc fashion. Histopathological evaluation should be carefully made to investigate the presence of risk factors for lymph node metastasis such as depth of cancer invasion and lymphovascular invasion. Additional treatment such as radical surgery with regional lymphadenectomy should be considered if the endoscopically resected specimen shows risk factors for lymph node metastasis. This is the first Korean clinical practice guideline for endoscopic resection of early gastrointestinal cancer. This guideline was developed by using mainly de novo methods and encompasses endoscopic management of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, early gastric cancer, and early colorectal cancer. This guideline will be revised as new data on early gastrointestinal cancer are collected.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875407

ABSTRACT

Dysphagia is difficulty in swallowing that can be caused by a number of disorders that involve either the oropharynx or the esophagus.Specific endoscopic treatment for dysphagia depends on its etiology, whether the dysphagia is caused by mechanical narrowing or a motor disorder. Variable endoscopic treatment strategies can be used to manage dysphagia. Patient with dysfunction of the upper esophageal sphincter may benefit from esophageal dilationor injection of botulinum toxin. Pneumatic balloon dilation, injection of botulinum toxin, peroral endoscopic myotomy can be considered as treatment options for esophageal motility disorders. Endoscopic dilation is the treatment choice of esophageal stricture, while intraluminal steroid injection and temporary stent can be considered in refractory benign esophageal stricture. Self-expandable metal stent insertion can be considered for dysphagia with malignant cause.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900433

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) increase gastric pH and alter the gut microbiome. An increased risk for infectious diseases has been reported in PPI users. However, little is known about the association of PPI use with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) incidence risk. @*Methods@#We conducted a population-based cohort study using data from a nationwide representative sample of the Korean general population followed up for 10 years (January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2013). We identified PPI prescriptions and considered PPI as a timevarying variable. Proportional hazards regression model was used for incident PLA comparing PPI use versus non-use. Propensity score matching was also conducted. @*Results@#During the 4 209 229 person-years of follow-up, 58 595 participants had at least 1 PPI prescription and 541 patients developed liver abscess. The age-, sex-, residential area-, and income-adjusted hazard ratio for PLA incidence with PPI use was 4.19 (95% CI, 2.54-6.92). The association was observed in fully adjusted models (hazard ratio 3.88; 95% CI, 2.33-6.44). The positive association between PPI use and PLA was consistent in all subgroups analyzed and in propensity score matching group. @*Conclusion@#The present data indicate that PPI use is associated with an increased PLA risk. Therefore, it is necessary to prescribe PPIs with clear indication and to avoid improper use of PPIs.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900412

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) enables the comprehensive evaluation of the esophageal motor function. However, protocols are not uniform and clinical practices vary widely among institutions. This study aims to understand the current HRM practice in Korea. @*Methods@#The survey was sent via email through the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. The questions covered descriptive information, preparation, techniques, analysis, and reporting of esophageal HRM. @*Results@#The survey was completed in 32 (74.4%) out of 43 centers, including 24 tertiary and 8 secondary referral centers. Of the 32 centers, 25 (78.1%) performed HRM in a sitting position, while 7 centers (21.9%) reported performing HRM in a supine position. All the centers utilized single wet swallows as a standard, but the volume, frequency, and interval between swallows varied widely. Sixteen centers (50.0%) applied adjunctive tests, including multiple rapid swallows (n = 16) and rapid drink challenges (n = 9). Parameters assessed and documented in the report were similar. In addition to the assessment of the esophagogastric junction and esophageal body, 27 centers (84.8%) and 18 centers (56.3%) included measurements for the upper esophageal sphincter and the pharynx, respectively, in the HRM protocol. @*Conclusions@#We found a variation in the available HRM practice among centers, even though they broadly agreed in the data analysis. Efforts are needed to develop a standardized protocol for HRM measurement.

8.
Intestinal Research ; : 127-157, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898809

ABSTRACT

Although surgery was the standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers, endoscopic resection is now a standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers without regional lymph node metastasis. High-definition white light endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, and image-enhanced endoscopy such as narrow band imaging are performed to assess the edge and depth of early gastrointestinal cancers for delineation of resection boundaries and prediction of the possibility of lymph node metastasis before the decision of endoscopic resection. Endoscopic mucosal resection and/or endoscopic submucosal dissection can be performed to remove early gastrointestinal cancers completely by en bloc fashion. Histopathological evaluation should be carefully made to investigate the presence of risk factors for lymph node metastasis such as depth of cancer invasion and lymphovascular invasion. Additional treatment such as radical surgery with regional lymphadenectomy should be considered if the endoscopically resected specimen shows risk factors for lymph node metastasis. This is the first Korean clinical practice guideline for endoscopic resection of early gastrointestinal cancer. This guideline was developed by using mainly de novo methods and encompasses endoscopic management of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, early gastric cancer, and early colorectal cancer. This guideline will be revised as new data on early gastrointestinal cancer are collected.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892729

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) increase gastric pH and alter the gut microbiome. An increased risk for infectious diseases has been reported in PPI users. However, little is known about the association of PPI use with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) incidence risk. @*Methods@#We conducted a population-based cohort study using data from a nationwide representative sample of the Korean general population followed up for 10 years (January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2013). We identified PPI prescriptions and considered PPI as a timevarying variable. Proportional hazards regression model was used for incident PLA comparing PPI use versus non-use. Propensity score matching was also conducted. @*Results@#During the 4 209 229 person-years of follow-up, 58 595 participants had at least 1 PPI prescription and 541 patients developed liver abscess. The age-, sex-, residential area-, and income-adjusted hazard ratio for PLA incidence with PPI use was 4.19 (95% CI, 2.54-6.92). The association was observed in fully adjusted models (hazard ratio 3.88; 95% CI, 2.33-6.44). The positive association between PPI use and PLA was consistent in all subgroups analyzed and in propensity score matching group. @*Conclusion@#The present data indicate that PPI use is associated with an increased PLA risk. Therefore, it is necessary to prescribe PPIs with clear indication and to avoid improper use of PPIs.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892708

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) enables the comprehensive evaluation of the esophageal motor function. However, protocols are not uniform and clinical practices vary widely among institutions. This study aims to understand the current HRM practice in Korea. @*Methods@#The survey was sent via email through the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. The questions covered descriptive information, preparation, techniques, analysis, and reporting of esophageal HRM. @*Results@#The survey was completed in 32 (74.4%) out of 43 centers, including 24 tertiary and 8 secondary referral centers. Of the 32 centers, 25 (78.1%) performed HRM in a sitting position, while 7 centers (21.9%) reported performing HRM in a supine position. All the centers utilized single wet swallows as a standard, but the volume, frequency, and interval between swallows varied widely. Sixteen centers (50.0%) applied adjunctive tests, including multiple rapid swallows (n = 16) and rapid drink challenges (n = 9). Parameters assessed and documented in the report were similar. In addition to the assessment of the esophagogastric junction and esophageal body, 27 centers (84.8%) and 18 centers (56.3%) included measurements for the upper esophageal sphincter and the pharynx, respectively, in the HRM protocol. @*Conclusions@#We found a variation in the available HRM practice among centers, even though they broadly agreed in the data analysis. Efforts are needed to develop a standardized protocol for HRM measurement.

11.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 368-378, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914978

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#When patients with early gastric cancer (EGC) undergo non-curative endoscopic submucosal dissection requiring gastrectomy (NC-ESD-RG), additional medical resources and expenses are required for surgery. To reduce this burden, predictive model for NC-ESDRG is required. @*Materials and Methods@#Data from 2,997 patients undergoing ESD for 3,127 forceps biopsyproven differentiated-type EGCs (2,345 and 782 in training and validation sets, respectively) were reviewed. Using the training set, the logistic stepwise regression analysis determined the independent predictors of NC-ESD-RG (NC-ESD other than cases with lateral resection margin involvement or piecemeal resection as the only non-curative factor). Using these predictors, a risk-scoring system for predicting NC-ESD-RG was developed. Performance of the predictive model was examined internally with the validation set. @*Results@#Rate of NC-ESD-RG was 17.3%. Independent pre-ESD predictors for NC-ESD-RG included moderately differentiated or papillary EGC, large tumor size, proximal tumor location, lesion at greater curvature, elevated or depressed morphology, and presence of ulcers. A risk-score was assigned to each predictor of NC-ESD-RG. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for predicting NC-ESD-RG was 0.672 in both training and validation sets. A risk-score of 5 points was the optimal cut-off value for predicting NCESD-RG, and the overall accuracy was 72.7%. As the total risk score increased, the predicted risk for NC-ESD-RG increased from 3.8% to 72.6%. @*Conclusions@#We developed and validated a risk-scoring system for predicting NC-ESD-RG based on pre-ESD variables. Our risk-scoring system can facilitate informed consent and decision-making for preoperative treatment selection between ESD and surgery in patients with EGC.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891547

ABSTRACT

Although surgery was the standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers, endoscopic resection is now a standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers without regional lymph node metastasis. High-definition white light endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, and image-enhanced endoscopy such as narrow band imaging are performed to assess the edge and depth of early gastrointestinal cancers for delineation of resection boundaries and prediction of the possibility of lymph node metastasis before the decision of endoscopic resection. Endoscopic mucosal resection and/or endoscopic submucosal dissection can be performed to remove early gastrointestinal cancers completely by en bloc fashion. Histopathological evaluation should be carefully made to investigate the presence of risk factors for lymph node metastasis such as depth of cancer invasion and lymphovascular invasion. Additional treatment such as radical surgery with regional lymphadenectomy should be considered if the endoscopically resected specimen shows risk factors for lymph node metastasis. This is the first Korean clinical practice guideline for endoscopic resection of early gastrointestinal cancer. This guideline was developed by using mainly de novo methods and encompasses endoscopic management of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, early gastric cancer, and early colorectal cancer. This guideline will be revised as new data on early gastrointestinal cancer are collected.

13.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 638-645, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889995

ABSTRACT

Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is one of the most clinically successful tunnel-based minimally invasive endoscopic treatments. The classic indications of POEM include achalasia of all types, including failed prior treatments, and expanded indications include the non-achalasia esophageal motility disorders, such as esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction, diffuse esophageal spasm, and jackhammer esophagus. For achalasia treatment, POEM has achieved a comparable surgical efficacy and a safety outcome and, therefore, has emerged as a first-line treatment. For non-achalasia esophageal motility disorders, POEM has also shown high clinical response rates. The complication rate of POEM for esophageal motility disorders is low and most complications are managed with conservative treatment. Currently, POEM is a representative procedure of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, which has shown a good clinical efficacy with low complication rates for esophageal motility disorders including achalasia. However, further studies are needed to treat non-achalasia motility disorder via POEM.

14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: An association between obesity and erosive esophagitis has been reported, but the effects of sarcopenia and obesity on erosive esophagitis are unknown. This study examined the relationship between obesity, sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity, and erosive esophagitis in a large population of asymptomatic men and women.METHODS: This study analyzed 32,762 subjects who underwent a comprehensive health check-up, which included upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, from August 2006 to December 2011 by a cross-sectional study. Sarcopenia was defined as a decrease in the appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM)/body weight value of two SD or more below the normal means for a younger reference group.RESULTS: The study was carried out on four groups according to obesity and sarcopenic status: normal, obesity, sarcopenic, and sarcopenic obese group. In a multivariable model, the risk of erosive esophagitis was higher in the obese (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.35, 95% CI 1.22–1.49), sarcopenic (aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.40–3.19), and sarcopenic obese groups (aOR 1.54, 95% CI 1.27–1.87) than in the normal group. The risk of erosive esophagitis was higher in the sarcopenic and sarcopenic obese groups than the obese group; the ORs were 1.63 (95% CI 1.08–2.47) and 1.22 (95% CI 1.01–1.46), respectively. In dose-response analysis, increasing sarcopenia severity showed a positive and graded relationship with the overall, Los Angeles (LA)-B or higher grade, and LA-C erosive esophagitis.CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that sarcopenia is strongly and progressively associated with erosive esophagitis.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dysbiosis is an important factor in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Several studies have reported promising results using probiotics for the treatment of IBS. This study evaluated the efficacy of novel probiotics isolated from Kimchi, a Korean fermented food, and the feces of healthy Vietnamese people in a murine model of IBS.METHODS: Lactobacillus paracasei DK121 was isolated from Kimchi, and L. salivarius V4 and L. plantarum V7 were isolated from the feces of healthy Vietnamese people residing in Korea. Forty rats were allocated to receive one of the study strains, a mixture of the strains, or the vehicle. After 5 days of administration, the rats were restrained in a cage to induce IBS. The effects of the probiotics on IBS were analyzed by evaluating the stool weights and stool consistency scores.RESULTS: The primary outcome was analyzed upon the completion of a three-week experiment. The rats in the V7 group showed lower stool weights than those in the control group at week 2 (median: 1.10 [V7] vs. 2.35 [control], p=0.04, Mann-Whitney U-test) and week 3 (median: 1.10 [V7] vs. 2.80 [control], p=0.017). The rats in the DK121 (median: 2.00, p=0.007), V7 (median: 2.00, p=0.004), and mixture (median: 1.50, p=0.001) groups showed better stool consistency scores at week 2 than the control group (median: 3.00).CONCLUSIONS: The novel probiotics have beneficial effects on defecation in a murine model of IBS. Human studies confirming the efficacy are warranted.

16.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837287

ABSTRACT

Although surgery was the standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers, endoscopic resection is now a standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers without regional lymph node metastasis. High-definition white light endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, and image-enhanced endoscopy such as narrow band imaging are performed to assess the edge and depth of early gastrointestinal cancers for delineation of resection boundaries and prediction of the possibility of lymph node metastasis before the decision of endoscopic resection. Endoscopic mucosal resection and/or endoscopic submucosal dissection can be performed to remove early gastrointestinal cancers completely by en bloc fashion. Histopathological evaluation should be carefully made to investigate the presence of risk factors for lymph node metastasis such as depth of cancer invasion and lymphovascular invasion. Additional treatment such as radical surgery with regional lymphadenectomy should be considered if the endoscopically resected specimen shows risk factors for lymph node metastasis. This is the first Korean clinical practice guideline for endoscopic resection of early gastrointestinal cancer. This guideline was developed by using mainly de novo methods and encompasses endoscopic management of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, early gastric cancer, and early colorectal cancer. This guideline will be revised as new data on early gastrointestinal cancer are collected.

17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835266

ABSTRACT

Esophageal anastomotic leak is the most common and serious complication followingesophagectomy. However, the standard treatment for anastomotic leaks remains unclear.Recently, endoscopic vacuum therapy has become an important non-surgical alternativetreatment method for patients with esophageal anastomotic leak. This treatment involvesthe endoscopic placement of a sponge connected to a nasogastric tube into the defectcavity or lumen. Subsequently, continuous negative pressure is delivered to the cavitythrough the tube. Several studies have reported a treatment success rate of 80% to 100%.In this study, we review the mechanism of action, the method of performing the procedure,its safety and efficacy, and prognostic factors for failure of endoscopic vacuum therapyin the management of patients with anastomotic leak, and on this basis attempted toconfirm the possibility of establishing a standardized treatment protocol using endoscopicvacuum therapy.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834119

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#A diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease is challenging in patients who have reflux symptoms but do not respond to proton pump inhibitors nor have reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia (HH) on endoscopy. This study examined the predictive role of the endoscopic findings, including the flap valve grade for pathologic acid exposure (PAE) to establish an endoscopic prediction model in patients with neither reflux esophagitis nor HH. @*Methods@#Five hundred seventy-eight patients who underwent upper endoscopy and 24 hours pH monitoring for reflux esophageal symptoms without evidence of reflux esophagitis and HH were analyzed. The gastroesophageal flap valve (GEFV), esophageal metaplasia, and chronic atrophic gastritis were assessed. The association between the endoscopic parameters and PAE was evaluated. @*Results@#Four hundred ninety-four patients were enrolled. The most common complaint was chest discomfort (42.3%) followed by globus (31.8%), dysphagia (7.9%), and heartburn (7.7%). PAE was present in 43 patients (8.7%). Multivariable analysis revealed PAE to be associated with the GEFV grade (p<0.001) and inversely associated with the chronic atrophic gastritis grade (p=0.005). Using these features, a predictive model was established and showed an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.705 (95% CI 0.619-0.790). The cutoff value of 12.0 had a sensitivity and specificity of 44.0% and 84.0%, respectively. @*Conclusions@#A loosened GEFV is associated with a risk of PAE in patients with neither reflux esophagitis nor HH, while atrophic gastritis is preventive. On the other hand, the endoscopic predictive model revealed a low sensitivity for detecting PAE. Thus, reflux testing needs to be performed further when gastroesophageal reflux disease is suspected, even without endoscopic evidence.

19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834087

ABSTRACT

Although surgery was the standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers, endoscopic resection is now a standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers without regional lymph node metastasis. High-definition white light endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, and image-enhanced endoscopy such as narrow band imaging are performed to assess the edge and depth of early gastrointestinal cancers for delineation of resection boundaries and prediction of the possibility of lymph node metastasis before the decision of endoscopic resection. Endoscopic mucosal resection and/or endoscopic submucosal dissection can be performed to remove early gastrointestinal cancers completely by en bloc fashion. Histopathological evaluation should be carefully made to investigate the presence of risk factors for lymph node metastasis such as depth of cancer invasion and lymphovascular invasion. Additional treatment such as radical surgery with regional lymphadenectomy should be considered if the endoscopically resected specimen shows risk factors for lymph node metastasis. This is the first Korean clinical practice guideline for endoscopic resection of early gastrointestinal cancer. This guideline was developed by using mainly de novo methods and encompasses endoscopic management of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, early gastric cancer, and early colorectal cancer. This guideline will be revised as new data on early gastrointestinal cancer are collected.

20.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833835

ABSTRACT

Esophageal achalasia is a primary motility disorder characterized by insufficient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and loss of esophageal peristalsis. Achalasia is a chronic disease that causes progressive irreversible loss of esophageal motor function. The recent development of high-resolution manometry has facilitated the diagnosis of achalasia, and determining the achalasia subtypes based on high-resolution manometry can be important when deciding on treatment methods. Peroral endoscopic myotomy is less invasive than surgery with comparable efficacy. The present guidelines (the “2019 Seoul Consensus on Esophageal Achalasia Guidelines”) were developed based on evidence-based medicine; the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association and Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility served as the operating and development committees, respectively. The development of the guidelines began in June 2018, and a draft consensus based on the Delphi process was achieved in April 2019. The guidelines consist of 18 recommendations: 2 pertaining to the definition and epidemiology of achalasia, 6 pertaining to diagnoses, and 10 pertaining to treatments. The endoscopic treatment section is based on the latest evidence from meta-analyses. Clinicians (including gastroenterologists, upper gastrointestinal tract surgeons, general physicians, nurses, and other hospital workers) and patients could use these guidelines to make an informed decision on the management of achalasia.

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