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1.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1138-1142, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911334

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the role of ErbB2 interacting protein (Erbin) in sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) in mice and the relationship with nod-like receptor thermoprotein domain associated protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes.Methods:Sixty SPF-grade healthy male wild-type C57BL/6 mice and 60 Erbin (-/-)C57BL/6 mice, aged 8-10 weeks, weighing 20-25 g, were divided into 4 groups ( n=30 each) by a random number table method: wild-type sham operation group (WT+ Sham group), wild-type SAE group (WT+ SAE group), Erbin (-/-) sham operation group (EKO+ Sham group) and Erbin (-/-) plus SAE group (EKO+ SAE group). The model of SAE was established by cecal ligation and perforation in anesthetized mice.Open field test (total distance moved) was performed at 7 days after establishing the model, new object recognition test (recognition index) was performed at 8 days after establishing the model, and Morris water maze test (time of staying at target quadrant) was performed at 10 days after establishing the model.The mice were sacrificed, and hippocampal tissues were removed for microscopic examination of pathologic changes (by HE staining) and for determination of neuron count, expression of NLRP3, caspase-1 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) (by Western blot), the number of NLRP3 positive cells (by immunohistochemistry), and contents of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-18 (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The cell survival rate was calculated. Results:Compared with group WT+ Sham, the time of staying at target quadrant was significantly shortened, the recognition index and cell survival rate were decreased, the contents of IL-1β, IL-18 and TNF-α and the number of NLRP3 positive cells were increased, and the expression of NLRP3, caspase-1 and ASC was up-regulated in group WT+ SAE ( P<0.05). Compared with group EKO+ Sham, the time of staying at target quadrant was significantly shortened, the recognition index and cell survival rate were decreased, the contents of IL-1β, IL-18 and TNF-α and the number of NLRP3 positive cells were increased, and the expression of NLRP3, caspase-1 and ASC was up-regulated in group EKO+ SAE ( P<0.05). Compared with group WT+ SAE, the time of staying at target quadrant was significantly shortened, the recognition index and cell survival rate were decreased, the contents of IL-1β, IL-18 and TNF-α and the number of NLRP3 positive cells were increased, and the expression of NLRP3, caspase-1 and ASC was up-regulated in group EKO+ SAE ( P<0.05). There was no significant difference in total distance moved between the four groups ( P>0.05). Conclusion:Erbin can exert endogenous protection by inhibiting the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes in mice with SAE.

2.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1124-1127, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911331

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the changes in glucose metabolism in the prefrontal cortex during long-term cognitive dysfunction induced by neuropathic pain in developing rats.Methods:SPF healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 4 weeks, weighing 80-100 g, were used in this study.The model of neuropathic pain was established by using spared nerve injury in anesthetized rats.The mechanical paw withdrawal threshold (MWT) was measured at 1 day before establishing the model (T 0) and 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 56 days after establishing the model (T 1-7). According to the results of MWT compared between T 5 and T 0, the rats were divided into neuropathic pain group (group NP) and non-neuropathic pain group (group NNP). Open field test and novel object recognition test were performed at T 7 to assess anxiety-like behavior and cognitive function.Positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging was performed to determine the standard uptake value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in the prefrontal cortex.Then the rats were sacrificed, and prefrontal cortex was removed for determination of the expression of glucose transporter 3 using Western blot and immunofluorescence. Results:Compared with the baseline at T 0, the MWT at T 1-2 in group NNP and at T 1-7 in group NP were significantly decreased ( P<0.05). Compared with group NNP, the MWT at T 1-7 were significantly decreased, the time of staying at the central region at T 7 was shortened, the percentage of time for exploring the novel object was decreased, the percentage of novel object exploration was decreased, the standard uptake value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in prefrontal cortex was decreased, and the expression of glucose transporter 3 in prefrontal cortex was down-regulated in group NP ( P<0.05). Conclusion:Long-term cognitive dysfunction induced by neuropathic pain may be related to decreased glucose metabolism in the prefrontal cortex of the developing rats.

3.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1000-1004, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911317

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the effect of esketamine on acute kidney injury (AKI) in the rats with sepsis and the role of autophagy.Methods:Forty SPF healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 200-240 g, were divided into 5 groups ( n=8 each) by a random number table method: control group (Con group), esketamine group (Con+ Ket group), sepsis group (lipopolysaccharide [LPS] group), sepsis plus esketamine group (LPS+ Ket group), and sepsis plus esketamine plus 3-methyladenine (3MA) group (LPS+ Ket+ 3MA group). The model of AKI was established by intraperitoneal injection of LPS in anesthetized rats.Normal saline 10 ml/kg was intraperitoneally injected in Con group.In Con+ Ket group, normal saline 10 ml/kg was intraperitoneally injected, and 30 min later esketamine 10 mg/kg was injected via the tail vein.LPS 10 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected in LPS group.In LPS+ Ket group, LPS 10 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected, and 30 min later esketamine 10 mg/kg was injected via the tail vein.In LPS+ Ket+ 3MA group, LPS 10 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected, and 30 min later esketamine 10 mg/kg and 3-MA 15 mg/kg were injected via the tail vein.The rats were anesthetized at 24 h after intraperitoneal injection of LPS and then sacrificed, and renal tissues were removed for microscopic examination of the pathological changes which were scored and for determination of contents of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), caspase-1, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and IL-18 (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and expression of LC3, P62 and Beclin-1 (by Western blot). Results:Compared with Con group, the score for pathological damage to renal tissues and contents of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-18 were significantly increased, LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ ratio was decreased, the expression of Beclin-1 was down-regulated, and the expression of P62 was up-regulated in LPS group ( P<0.05). Compared with LPS group, the score for pathological damage to renal tissues and contents of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-18 were significantly decreased, LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ ratio was increased, the expression of Beclin-1 was up-regulated, and the expression of P62 was down-regulated in LPS+ Ket group ( P<0.05). Compared with LPS+ Ket group, the score for pathological damage to renal tissues and contents of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-18 were significantly increased, LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ ratio was decreased, the expression of Beclin-1 was down-regulated, and the expression of P62 was up-regulated in LPS+ Ket+ 3MA group ( P<0.05). Conclusion:Esketamine can reduce AKI and autophagy is involved in the process, which is related to inhibiting the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and decreasing inflammatory responses in rats with sepsis.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911246

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the effect of activating adenosine A2B receptors on autophagy during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) and the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/serine/threonine protein kinase (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway in rats.Methods:Forty-eight clean-grade healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 220-280 g, were divided into 4 groups ( n=12 each) using a random number table method: sham operation group (group Sham), myocardial I/R group (group I/R), adenosine A2B receptor agonist BAY 60-6583 group (group BAY) and BAY 60-6583+ PI3K inhibitor LY 294002 group (group BAY+ LY). Myocardial I/R was induced by occlusion of the anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery for 30 min followed by 120-min reperfusion.BAY 60-6583 1 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected at 5 min before reperfusion in group BAY.BAY 60-6583 1 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected at 5 min before reperfusion and LY 294002 10 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected at 10 min before reperfusion in group BAY+ LY.Blood samples were obtained at the end of reperfusion for determination of concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) in serum (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The animals were sacrificed, and myocardial tissues were obtained for measurement of the percentage of myocardial infarct size (by Evan Blue and TTC double-staining) and for determination of the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3Ⅰ), LC3Ⅱ, Beclin-1 and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) (by Western blot). The ratio of LC3Ⅱ/LC3Ⅰ was calculated. Results:Compared with group Sham, the serum LDH and CK-MB concentrations and percentage of myocardial infarct size were significantly increased, the expression of p-Akt was down-regulated, the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3Ⅱ was up-regulated, and the ratio of LC3Ⅱ/LC3Ⅰ was increased in group I/R ( P<0.05). Compared with group I/R, the concentrations of serum LDH, CK-MB and percentage of myocardial infarct size were significantly decreased, the expression of p-Akt was up-regulated, the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3Ⅱ was down-regulated, and the ratio of LC3Ⅱ/LC3Ⅰ was decreased in the group BAY ( P<0.05), and no significant change was found in the parameters mentioned above in group BAY+ LY ( P>0.05). Compared with group BAY, the concentrations of serum LDH, CK-MB and percentage of myocardial infarct size were significantly increased, the expression of p-Akt was down-regulated, the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3Ⅱ was up-regulated and the ratio of LC3Ⅱ/LC3Ⅰ was increased in group BAY+ LY ( P<0.05). Conclusion:Activating adenosine A2B receptors can decrease autophagy of myocardial cells during myocardial I/R injury, and the mechanism may be related to activating PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in rats.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911197

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the relationship between the over-expression of endocannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) and macrophage pyroptosis in mice.Methods:Bone marrow-derived macrophages of mice were transfected by lentivirus vector and successfully screened out two stable cell lines: lentivirus LV5 negative control cells (LV5-NC) and lentivirus LV5CB2R overexpressing cells (OE). Two cell lines were respectively divided into 3 groups ( n=18 each) using a random number table method: control group (LV5-NC-C group, OE-C group), LPS/ATP group (LV5-NC-LPS/ATP group, OE-LPS/ATP group) and CB2R specific agonist HU308 group (LV5-NC-HU308 group, OE-HU308 group). Cells in group C were commonly cultured.In LPS/ATP group, cells were incubated with LPS at a final concentration of 0.5 μg/ml for 5 h, and then incubated with ATP at the final concentration of 5 mmol/L for 1 h. In group LPS/ATP+ HU308, cells were incubated for 5 h with LPS at the final concentration of 0.5 μg/ml and HU308 at the final concentration of 10 μmol/L and then with ATP at the final concentration of 5 mmol/L for 1 h. The expression of CB2R, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3), caspase-1, and gasdermin D (GSDMD) mRNA was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction, the expression of caspase-1 was detected by Western blot, and the concentrations of interleukin-18 (IL-18) and IL-1β in the culture medium were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results:In each cell line, compared with group C, the expression of NLRP3, caspase-1 and GSDMD was significantly up-regulated, and the concentrations of IL-18 and IL-1β were increased in group LPS/ATP ( P<0.05). Compared with group LPS/ATP, the expression of NLRP3, caspase-1 and GSDMD was significantly down-regulated, the concentrations of IL-18 and IL-lβ were decreased in group HU308 ( P<0.05). There was no significant differences in the indicators mentioned above between group V5-NC-C and group OE-C, between group LV5-NC-LPS/ATP and group OE-LPS/ATP, and between group LV5-NC-HU308 and OE-HU308 ( P>0.05). Conclusion:Over-expression of CB2R gene cannot effectively inhibit the occurrence of macrophage pyroptosis, and only activation of CB2R can inhibit it in mice.

6.
Chinese Journal of Rheumatology ; (12): 461-466,c7-2, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910196

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effect and mechanism of different concentrations of metformin on bleomycin (BLM)-induced systemic sclerosis (SSc) mice model.Methods:C57BL/6 mice were divided into the normal group, the model group, the high, the medium and the low metformin (MET) treatment groups randomly. All mice were sacrificed after BLM and metformin treatment for 4 weeks. Local skin was exminedby histopathological staining method to measure the thickness of dermis and collagen, and immunohistochemistry and real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were used to detect the protein and mRNA levels of Interleukin (IL)-17, forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Flow cytometry was used to detect the percentage of effector T cell (Teff) and regulatory cells (Treg) in splenic mononuclear cells. The data such as dermal collagen thickness, α-SMA, IL-17, Foxp3, Teff and Treg levels were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. The data such as dermal collagen thickness, α-SMA, IL-17, Foxp3, Teff and Treg levels were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance, and least significant difference (LSD)- t or Kruskal-Wallis test was used for comparison between groups. Results:Compared with the normal group, remarkable fibrotic lesions appeared in the skin of mice in the model group, and the levels of T-helper cells (Th)1, Th2, Th17, and T follicular helper cells (Tfh) cells were increased, accompanied by a significant decrease in the level of Treg cells. After high-dose metformin treatment, the dermal thickness [(131±25) μm], collagen thickness [(119±18) μm], and α-SMA [(3.0±0.5)/HPH] were significantly reduced( F=14.390, P<0.01; F=40.245, P<0.01; F=44.626, P<0.01). Th1[(27.00±6.68)%], Th17[(0.56±0.20)%], Tfh[(6.4±1.6)%] cells ware significantlyreduced ( F=32.390, P<0.01; F=16.083, P<0.01; F=16.546, P<0.01), and Treg[(11.23±1.52)%] cells were significantly increased ( F=10.171, P<0.01). Conclusion:Metformin can effectively reverse the local skin changesin BLM-induced SSc mouse model, and show immune regulation and anti-fibrosis effects by restoring the Teff/Treg balance.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885066

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the role of miR-146a in hippocampal inflammatory responses in postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in mice.Methods:One hundred and sixty clean-grade male C57BL/6 mice, aged 12-16 weeks, weighing 22-28 g, were divided into 5 groups ( n=32 each) using a random number table method: control group (group C), group POCD, miR-146a agomir group (group Ag), miR-146a antagomir group (group At) and negative control group (group NC). The mice were subjected to an intramedullary fixation for tibial fracture under 1.5% isoflurane anesthesia to establish POCD model.At 2 days before operation, miR-146a agomir 0.5 nmol (0.1 nmol/μl) was injected into bilateral hippocampi in group Ag, miR-146a antagomir 2.5 nmol (0.5 nmol/μl) was injected in group At, miR-146a negative control solution 2.5 nmol (0.5 nmol/μl) was given in group NC, and the animals in group C did not receive any treatment.At 1 day before operation and at 1, 3 and 7 days after operation, open-field test was performed to evaluate spontaneous motor activity, and contextual fear conditioning test was performed to evaluate cognitive ability 15 min later.At 1 and 3 days after operation, the animals were sacrificed and hippocampi was removed for determination of expression of CD11b (a marker for activation of microglia) in hippocampal CA1 region by immunofluorescence staining.At 6, 12 and 24 h after operation, the expression of miR-146a was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the expression of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), nuclear factor kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was determined by Western blot and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and IL-6 contents were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results:There was no significant difference in the total exploring distance in the open-field test or percentage of freezing time in tone-fear conditioning test at each time point among the five groups( P>0.05). Compared with group C, the percentage of freezing time in the contextual fear conditioning test was significantly decreased at 1, 3 and 7 days after operation, the expression of CD11b at 1 and 3 days after surgery and expression of miR-146a, IRAK1, TRAF6, NF-κB p65 and TNF-α were up-regulated and the contents of IL-1 β and IL-6 were increased at 6, 12 and 24 h after operation in group POCD ( P<0.05). Compared with group NC, the percentage of freezing time in the contextual fear conditioning test was significantly increased at 1, 3 and 7 days after operation, and the expression of CD11b was down-regulated at 1 and 3 days after surgery, and the expression of miR-146a, IRAK1, TRAF6, NF-κB p65 and TNF-α was up-regulated and IL-1β and IL-6 contents were decreased at 6, 12 and 24 h after operation in group Ag, and the percentage of freezing time in the contextual fear conditioning test was decreased at 1, 3 and 7 days after operation, the expression of CD11b at 1 and 3 days after surgery was up-regulated, the expression of miR-146a was down-regulated and IRAK1, TRAF6, NF-κB p65 expression was up-regulated at 6, 12 and 24 h after operation, TNF-α expression was up-regulated and IL-1β and IL-6 contents were increased at 12 and 24 h after operation in group At ( P<0.05). Conclusion:miR-146a is involved in the process of hippocampal inflammatory responses, and the mechanism may be related to the inhibition of IRAK1-TRAF6-NF-κB signaling pathway in mice.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885037

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the changes in the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier in postoperative delirium rats.Methods:One hundred and forty-seven healthy female Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 3 months, weighing 240-300 g, were divided into 3 groups ( n=49 each) using a random number table method: control group (group C), anesthesia group (group A) and postoperative delirium group (group P). Group C received no treatment.Group A received 2-h anesthesia with 1.4% isoflurane.Group S underwent an exploratory laparotomy under 1.4% isoflurane anesthesia.The behaviors of rats in each group were tested at 24 h before surgery and 6, 9 and 24 h after surgery using buried food test, open field test and Y maze test.Sodium fluorescence was injected through the tail vein at 6, 9 and 24 h after surgery.Then the rats were sacrificed, the choroid plexus (CP) was obtained, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of bilateral cerebral ventricles was collected, and the expression of ZO-1, occludin, claudin1, E-cadherin and VE-cadherin in CP was detected using Western blot.FITC-dextran 10, 40 and 70 kDa was injected through the tail vein at 6 h after surgery, and then CSF was collected for determination of the concentrations of NaFI, 10, 40 and 70 kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled dextran (FITC-dextran) in CSF by fluorescence spectrophotometry.CP was obtained to observe the morphology of choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs) of bilateral cerebral ventricles with a transmission electron microscope. Results:Compared with group C and group A, the latency to eat food in buried food test was significantly prolonged, the time of staying at the central region was shortened, the percentage of the number of entries into novel arm and percentage of time of staying at novel arm in Y maze test were decreased, the freezing time in open field test was shortened, the expression of ZO-1, occludin and claudin1 in CP was down-regulated, the concentrations of NaFI and 10 kDa and 40 kDa FITC-dextranin CSF were increased ( P<0.05 or 0.01), the CPECs arranged at random and loose, the microvilli of CPECs were absent, the tight junction was blurred, and the gap became wider in group P. Conclusion:The occurrence of postoperative delirium is related to the change in blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907772

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the role of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in hydromorphone postconditioning on alleviating myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced apoptosis in rats.Methods:Forty healthy male SD rats were randomly(random number) divided into five groups, with 8 rats in each group:①sham group;②I/R group;③I/R+hydromorphone group (I/R+H group);④I/R+PI3K inhibitor group (I/R+W group); and⑤I/R+hydromorphone+PI3K inhibitor group (I/R+H+W group). The myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury model was established by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min and reperfusion for 120 min. After the experiment, the area of myocardial infarction was measured by 2, 3, 5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The amount of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage was estimated by colorimetry . The cardiomyocyte apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The protein expressions of p-Akt, Bcl-2 and Bax were detected by Western blot. Comparisons among groups were carried out by analysis of variance (ANOVA).Results:Compared with the sham group, the area of myocardial infarction, serum LDH leakage and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were significantly increased, p-Akt and Bax expression were upregulated, Bcl-2 expression was downregulated in the I/R group ( P<0.05). Compared with the I/R group, the area of myocardial infarction, serum LDH leakage and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were markedly decreased, p-Akt and Bcl-2 expression were upregulated and Bax expression was downregulated in the I/R+H group ( P<0.05). Compared with the I/R+H group, the area of myocardial infarction, serum LDH leakage and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were significantly increased, p-Akt and Bcl-2 expression were downregulated, and Bax expression was upregulated in the I/R+H+W group ( P<0.05). Conclusions:Hydromorphone postconditioning can alleviate cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by myocardial ischemia/reperfusion, and its protection mechanism may be related to the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869983

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the effect of valproic acid on the expression of M1/M2 microglia in the prefrontal cortex of rats with neuropathic pain (NP).Methods:Thirty-six clean-grade healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 6-7 weeks, weighing 200-230 g, were divided into 3 groups ( n=12 each) using a random number table method: sham operation group (group S), group NP, and valproic acid group (group V). The NP model was established by ligation of the L 5 spinal nerve (SNL) of anesthetized rats.Valproic acid 300 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected immediately after SNL and every day after ligation, once a day, for 3 consecutive days in group V, while the equal volume of normal saline was given instead of valproic acid in S and NP groups.The mechanical paw withdrawal threshold (MWT) was measured before ligation and at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after ligation.Sucrose preference test and forced-swim test were performed on day 28 after ligation.After the end of the behavior test, the prefrontal cortex was removed for determination of the expression of cluster of differentiation (CD) 16 and CD206 by Western blot.The ratio of CD206/CD16 was calculated. Results:Compared with group S, the MWT at each time point after ligation and rate of preference for sucrose were significantly decreased, the duration of immobility in forced-swim test was prolonged, the expression of CD16 and CD206 was up-regulated, and the ratio of CD206/CD16 was decreased in group NP ( P<0.05). Compared with group NP, the MWT at each time point after ligation and rate of preference for sucrose were significantly increased, the duration of immobility in forced-swim test was shortened, the expression of CD16 was down-regulated, the expression of CD206 was up-regulated, and the ratio of CD206/CD16 was increased in group V ( P<0.05). Conclusion:The mechanism by which valproic acid improves depression may be related to promoting the expression of M2 microglia and inhibiting the expression of M1 microglia in the prefrontal cortex of rats with NP.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869956

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the role of ErbB2-interacting protein (Erbin) in muramyl dipeptide (MDP)-induced inflammatory responses in the macrophages of mice.Methods:Erbin gene knockout RAW264.7 cell line (Erbin -/ -RAW264.7) was constructed by CRISPR/CAS9 gene-editing technology.RAW264.7 cells were cultured in vitro.Each type of cells was divided into 2 groups ( n=16 each)by a random number table method: RAW264.7 group, RAW264.7 plus MDP group, erbin -/ -RAW264.7 group, and erbin -/ -RAW264.7 plus MDP group.In each MDP group, cells were incubated with 10 μg/ml MDP for 6 h, then immunofluorescence was used to determine the expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, and the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α)and interleukin-6(IL-6)in the culture medium were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results:Compared with RAW264.7 group, the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 in the culture medium were significantly increased( P<0.05), NF-κB p65 moved to the nucleus, and the red fluorescence area was increased in RAW264.7+ MDP group.Compared with RAW264.7+ MDP group and Erbin -/- RAW264.7 group, the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 in the culture medium were significantly increased ( P<0.05), NF-κB p65 moved more markedly to the nucleus, and the red fluorescence area was increased in Erbin -/-RAW264.7+ MDP group. Conclusion:Erbin inhibits MDP-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages through inhibiting the activity of NF-κB p65 in mice.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869938

ABSTRACT

Objective:To construct and identify the lentiviral vector of adenosine RNAi-adenosine A2a receptor (A2aR) in rats.Methods:Three pairs of short hairpin RNA(shRNA)-A2aR sequences (shRNA-A2aR 1, shRNA-A2aR 2, shRNA-A2aR 3) were designed, and three pairs of double-stranded shRNA oligos were respectively inserted into the shRNA virus vector to gain three kinds of shRNA lentiviral recombinant plasmid.The recombinant plasmid, packaging vector, and shuttle vector were co-transfected into 293T cells to obtain virus liquid.The experiment was performed in two parts.Part Ⅰ The rat primary cardiomyocytes were divided into 3 groups ( n= 6 each) by a random number table method: vehicle group (V group), shRNA-A2aR 1 group and shRNA-A2aR 3 group.Each group was transfected with virus solution of MOI 10 for 48 h. The expression of A2aR was detected by Western blot to select the most efficient lentivirus vector.Part Ⅱ The cardiomyocytes were randomly divided into 6 groups ( n=36 each): vehicle group (V group), MOI5 group, MOI10 group, MOI15 group and MOI20 group.Each group was transfected with the corresponding MOI virus liquid (the most effective lentivirus vector). At 24, 48, and 72 h of transfection, the cell viability and cell death were observed with a fluorescent microscope, and the A2aR expression was detected by Western blot to determine the interference efficiency. Results:Part Ⅰ Two types of shRNA-A2aR lentiviral vectors (shRNA-A2aR 1, 3) were successfully constructed, among which shRNA-A2aR 3 virus solution with a titer of 3.5×10 8 TU/ml had the best effect.Compared with group V and group shRNA-A2aR 1, the expression of A2aR in cardiomyocytes was significantly down-regulated ( P<0.01), and the interference efficiency of shRNA-A2aR 3 was 73% in shRNA-A2aR 3 group.Part Ⅱ shRNA-A2aR 3 was selected to screen out the transfection plan.The cell survival rate in each group was more than 85% at 24 h of transfection, the cell survival rate was more than 80% at 48 h of transfection in MOI5 and MOI10 groups; the cell survival rate in each group was less than 70% at 72 h of transfection.Under an inverted fluorescent microscope, a slightly lower fluorescence density was found in MOI5 group, the fluorescent density was higher and the cell condition was better at 48 h of transfection in MOI10 group and at 24 h of transfection in MOI20 group, and the cardiomyocyte viability was significantly decreased, and dead cells were increased at 72 h of transfection in each group.The results of Western blot showed that the interference efficiency at 48 h of transfection in MOI10 group, 48 h in MOI15 group, 24 and 48 h in MOI20 group was all > 70%. Conclusion:MOI of 10, transfection for 48 h or MOI of 20, transfection for 24 h is the optimal transfection protocol.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869871

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the relationship between P2X 7 receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3)/interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) pathway in spinal neurons in the development of inflammatory pain (IP) in rats. Methods:SPF healthy adult male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g, were used in this study.Forty rats in which intrathecal catheters were successfully implanted were divided into 5 groups ( n=8 each) using a random number table method: control group (group CON), group IP, IP plus dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) group (group IP-DMSO), IP plus P2X 7 receptor antagonist A740003 group (group IP-A) and IP plus P2X 7 receptor agonist ATP group (group IP-ATP). Rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium 40 mg/kg.IP was induced by injecting complete Freund′s adjuvant 50 μl into the right ankle joint cavity, while group CON was injected with the equal volume of normal saline instead.On 1 day before establishing the model, immediately after establishing the model, and on 1, 2 and 3 days after establishing the model, 1% DMSO 10 μl was intrathecally injected once a day in group IP-DMSO, A740003 0.1 nmol(dissolved in DMSO 10 μl) was intrathecally injected once a day in group IP-A, and ATP 150 nmol(dissolved in DMSO 10 μl) was injected intrathecally once a day in group IP-ATP.The mechanical paw withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal paw withdrawal latency (TWL) were measured on 3 days after establishing the model.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations in right ankle tissues and IL-1β concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Then rats were sacrificed, and the lumber segments (L 4-6) of the spinal cord were removed for determination of the expression of NLRP3, casepase-1, IL-1β (by Western blot) and co-expression of P2X 7 receptors with neuron-specific nucleoprotein (NeuN) and NLRP3 and with NeuN (by immunofluorescence). Results:Compared with group CON, PGE2 contents in ankle tissues were significantly increased in group IP, and the MWT was significantly decreased, the TWL was shortened, the concentrations of IL-1β in CSF were increased, and the expression of NLRP3, caspase-1 and IL-1β was up-regulated in the other four groups ( P<0.05). Compared with group IP, the MWT was significantly increased, the TWL was prolonged, the concentrations of IL-1β in CSF were decreased, and the expression of NLRP3, caspase-1 and IL-1β was down-regulated in group IP-A ( P<0.05), the MWT was significantly decreased, TWL was shortened, the concentrations of IL-1β in CSF were increased, and the expression of NLRP3, caspase-1 and IL-1β was up-regulated in group IP-ATP ( P<0.05), and no significant change was found in the parameters mentioned above in group IP-DMSO ( P>0.05). P2X 7 was co-expressed with NeuN, and NLRP3 was co-expressed with NeuN. Conclusion:P2X 7 receptors in spinal neurons are involved in the development of inflammatory pain by activating NLRP3/IL-1β signaling pathway in rats.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869781

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the relationship between histone acetylation and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor subunit 2B (NR2B)-cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB)-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathway during sevoflurane-induced cognitive decline in aged mice.Methods:Forty-eight SPF healthy male C57BL/6J mice, aged 22 months, weighing 32-40 g, were divided into 4 groups ( n = 12 each) using a random number table method: control group (group C), sevoflurane group (group S), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) plus sevoflurane group (group DS) and histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat (SAHA) plus sevoflurane group (group SS). The 100% oxygen was inhaled for 2 h in group C. In S, DS and SS groups, 3.0% sevoflurane was inhaled for 2 h, Morris Water Maze (MWM) test was performed at 24 h after the end of sevoflurane inhalation.SAHA 50 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected in group SS, and the equal volume of DMSO was given instead in group DS at 2 h before sevoflurane inhalation and at 2 h before MWM test was performed every day.Animals were sacrificed after the MWM test, and hippocampi were isolated for determination of the expression of acetyl-H3 in the nucleus and NR2B, phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) and BDNF in cytoplasm by Western blot.Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the expression of NR2B and BDNF mRNA. Results:Compared with group C, the escape latency was significantly prolonged, and the percentage of time spent in target quadrant was decreased, and the expression of acetyl-H3, NR2B, p-CREB, BDNF, NR2B mRNA, and BDNF mRNA was down-regulated in S, DS and SS groups ( P<0.05). Compared with group S or group DS, the escape latency was significantly shortened, the percentage of time spent in target quadrant was increased, the expression of acetyl-H3, NR2B, p-CREB, BDNF, NR2B mRNA, and BDNF mRNA was up-regulated in group SS ( P<0.05). There was no significant difference in each parameter mentioned above between group S and group SD ( P>0.05). Conclusion:Histone acetylation is involved in the pathophysiological mechanism of cognitive decline induced by sevoflurane anesthesia by regulating NR2B-CREB-BDNF signaling pathway in aged mice.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869779

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the role of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) in macrophage pyroptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice.Methods:Macrophage line RAW264.7 cells of mice were routinely cultured and divided into 3 groups ( n=18 each) using a random number table method: control group (group C), LPS group and LPS plus CB2R agonist HU308 group (group HU308). Group C received no mediation, LPS at the final concentration of 1 μg/ml was added in the other groups.After incubation for 15 min, HU308 with the final concentration of 10 μmol/L was added in group LPS+ HU308.All groups were then incubated for 6 h. The expression of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3), caspase-1, caspase-11 and gasdermin D (GSDMD) mRNA was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction, the expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, caspase-11, GSDMD and C-terminal domain of human GSDMD (GSDMD-C) was detected by Western blot, and the concentrations of interleukin-18 (IL-18) and IL-1β in the supernatant were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.GSDMD-C/GSDMD ratio was calculated. Results:Compared with group C, the expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, caspase-11, GSDMD and GSDMD-C was significantly up-regulated, GSDMD-C/GSDMD ratio was increased, and the concentrations of IL-18 and IL-1β in the supernatant were increased in group LPS ( P<0.05). Compared with group LPS, the expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, caspase-11, GSDMD and GSDMD-C was significantly down-regulated, GSDMD-C/GSDMD ratio was decreased, and the concentrations of IL-18 and IL-1β were decreased in group HU308 ( P<0.05). Conclusion:CB2R is involved in macrophage pyroptosis induced by LPS in mice.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-863825

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of oxycodone hydrochloride injection pretreatment on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.Methods:Seventy-two male SD rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into 3 groups( n=24 each group): sham operation group (sham group), focal cerebral I/R group (I/R group), and oxycodone hydrochloride injection group (Oxy group). Focal cerebral I/R was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h followed by reperfusion. In the Oxy group, oxycodone hydrochloride 0.5 mg/kg was injected iv at 5 min before ischemia. While the same volume of saline (1 mL) was injected in the sham group and I/R group. The neurological deficit score (NDS) was assessed at 24 h of reperfusion, the rats were then sacrificed, and their brains were immediately removed for determination of brain water content and the infarct volume, and the histopathological changes were observed after HE staining. The levels of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10) in the ischemia cortex were quantified by ELISA. MPO activity in the ischemia cortex was assessed. Western blot was used to detect the expression of NF-κB in the ischemia cortex. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 software, multiple-group comparisons were performed using one-way ANOVA, and LSD- t test was used for pairwise comparison between groups. A P<0.05 was considered statistically significant different. Results:Compared with the sham group, NDS, brain water content, relative infarction volume and rate of nerve cell necrosis were significantly increased in the I/R and Oxy groups (all P<0.05). Levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, NF-κB and the activities of MPO were increased in the ischemia cortex (all P<0.05). Compared the Oxy group with the I/R group, NDS, brain water content, relative infarction volume and rate of nerve cell necrosis were significantly decreased [(1.7±0.9) vs (2.6±1.1);(79.2±2.4)% vs (84.7±4.2)%; (23.0±5.4)% vs (34.8±6.0)%; (25.2±12.4)% vs (54.8±14.8)%, all P<0.05]. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, relative expression of NF-κB, and the activities of MPO were significantly decreased in the ischemia cortex [(4.4±1.2) pg/mg vs (6.5±1.2) pg/mg; (5.4±0.7) pg/mg vs (7.8±0.8) pg/mg; (0.83±0.11) vs (1.23±0.33); (0.27±0.09) U/g vs (0.36±0.14) U/g, all P<0.05] , while the concentration of IL-10 was significantly increased [(20.9±4.5) pg/mg vs (9.2±1.6) pg/mg, t=6.036, P=0.000 1]. Conclusions:Oxycodone hydrochloride can attenuate focal cerebral I/R injury through inhibiting NF-κB activity.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-860889

ABSTRACT

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive disease characterized by persistent restricted airflow. Systemic inflammation and hyperventilation can cause diaphragmatic dysfunction. Conventional assessment methods of diaphragmatic function are invasive and lack of specificity. Recently, as a simple, noninvasive method of quantification of diaphragm contractile activity,ultrasound has attracted great attention. The progresses of ultrasound methods and application for assessing diaphragm function of patients with COPD were reviewed in this article.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-798820

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the causes of equinus deformity caused by intramuscular venous malformation onset posterior muscles of leg, and discuss the corresponding treatment methods.@*Methods@#A retrospective study was conducted on 69 cases of intramuscular venous malformations with equinus deformity from January 2012 to December 2017. Based on patient's main complain, physical examination and imaging data, the causes were divided into two categories: pain disorder and contracture disorder. Classification was on the basis of definite diagnosis of MRI. When the main complaint of medical history and physical examination indicated pain relief or passivity of the affected limb, and when the back extension of ankle joint was greater than 75 degrees, it was a pain disorder; when the medical history and physical examination indicated pain relief or passivity of the affected limb, the back extension of ankle joint was less than 15 degrees, it was a contracture disorder. Therapeutic methods included drug conservative treatment and surgical treatment. For the patients with pain disorder, the first choice was drug conservative treatment, and for the patients with contracture disorder, the first choice was surgery. Operative methods include simple venous malformation resection, venous malformation resection and Z-type Achilles tendon anastomosis lengthening. After operation patients received systematic functional rehabilitation exercise and calculated the satisfaction rate.@*Results@#13 cases of painful disorders were firstly treated by conservative medicine, but 4 cases were treated by operation after series of conservative treatments, satisfaction rate was 69.2%(9/13). 56 contracture cases were treated by operation, including 11 cases of simple venous malformation resection, 45 cases resection and Z-type anastomosis lengthening of Achilles tendon. All the patients were followed up for 6 months to 2 years after operation. 53 patients recovered to normal walking after operation, and 3 patients had mild limp, satisfaction rate was 94.6%(53/56). Patient satisfaction was 100%.@*Conclusions@#The equinus deformity caused by intramuscular venous malformation onset posterior muscles of leg affect the quality of life. Muscle/tendon contracture was the main cause. Correct surgical treatment combined with early rehabilitation exercise post operation can restore normal walking posture.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827745

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for women with advanced gestational age but normal measurement for nuchal translucency (NT).@*METHODS@#A total of 9371 singleton pregnancies with negative NT screening at early pregnancy were reviewed. Among these, 8627 cases were selected to be screened again by NIPT, and their indications and results were analyzed. The results were compared with those of with other high risk factors and young gestational age.@*RESULTS@#The incidence of fetal aneuploidies increased in women with advanced gestational age and ultrasound soft markers, in particular among those who were negative for NT screening but over the age of 37. The detection rate of pathological or likely pathological copy number variations was 1.88% among women who directly underwent invasive prenatal diagnosis because of the advanced age, but there was no correlation with the increase of age. 0.68% of the women where with negative NT screening and NIPT still need to undergo invasive prenatal diagnosis.@*CONCLUSION@#After NT screening in early pregnancy, NIPT can replace invasive prenatal diagnosis for those below the age of 37, though there is still a possibility of missed detection of pathogenic copy number variation. It is necessary to strengthen ultrasonic monitoring in later period.

20.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1071-1075, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-798065

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the effect of irisin preconditioning on global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats.@*Methods@#Thirty-six healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 8-10 weeks, weighing 250-300 g, were divided into 3 groups (n=12 each) using a random number table method: sham operation group (group S), global cerebral I/R group (group I/R) and irisin preconditioning group (group I). Global cerebral I/R was induced by occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries combined with hypotension (MAP maintained at 35-45 mmHg) in anesthetized rats.At 30 min before ischemia, irisin 10 μg/kg (diluted to 10 μg/ml in normal saline) was intravenously injected in group I, and the equal volume of normal saline was intravenously injected in S and I/R groups.Morris water maze test was performed at day 3 of reperfusion to assess the cognitive function.Rats were sacrificed after the end of morris water maze test, and brains were removed for determination of histopathologic changes in hippocampal CA1 region (using HE staining), neuronal apoptosis in hippocampal CA1 region (Tunel staining), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression (by Western blot), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the hippocampal tissues (by colorimetric assay), and contents of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in hippocampal tissues (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The cell necrosis rate and apoptotic rate were calculated.@*Results@#Compared with group S, the escape latency was significantly prolonged on 1-5 days in group I/R and on 1-3 days in group I, the time of staying at 1st quadrant was significantly shortened, the cell necrosis rate and apoptotic rate were increased, the expression of GFAP was up-regulated, and the activity of MPO and contents of TNF-α and IL-1β were increased in I/R and I groups (P<0.05 or 0.01). Compared with group I/R, the escape latency was significantly shortened on 1-5 days, the time of staying at 1st quadrant was prolonged, the cell necrosis rate and apoptotic rate were decreased, the expression of GFAP was down-regulated, and the MPO activity and contents of TNF-α and IL-1β were decreased in group I (P<0.05 or 0.01).@*Conclusion@#Irisin preconditioning can reduce the global cerebral I/R injury in rats, and the mechanism may be related to inhibiting activation of astrocytes in hippocampus and reducing inflammatory responses.

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