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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883166

ABSTRACT

Objective:To understand the etiology and clinical characteristics of hospitalized severe community-acquired pneumonia(SCAP) in Changchun, and provide scientific basis for its etiology diagnosis and targeted treatment.Methods:The study subjects included 618 children with clinical diagnosis of SCAP who were hospitalized from January 2016 to December 2019.We collected pharyngeal swabs and alveolar lavage fluid from children.Virus isolation, bacterial culture, time-of-flight mass spectrometry, PCR/RT-PCR, colloidal gold method and Optochin test were used to detect the antigen, nucleic acid and protein profiles in the specimen.Results:There were more boys than girls in hospitalized children with SCAP.The peak age of onset was 7 to 12 months.Most cases occurred in winter and spring.The highest detection rate of SCAP virus was 56.15%(347/618); 73.49%(255/347) were positive for one virus, among which the top five were respiratory syncytial virus (27.8%), influenza A virus (23.9%), influenza B virus (16.1%), rhinovirus (12.2%) and metapneumovirus (10.2%). Two viruses were positive for 19.88%(69/347); three viruses were positive for 4.32%(15/347); four viruses were positive for 2.31%(8/347). Atypical microbial infections were 29.77%(184/618), of which Mycoplasma pneumoniae accounted for 95.65%(176/184). Bacterial infections were 17.31%(107/618), mainly Streptococcus pneumoniae(39.25%, 42/107) and Staphylococcus aureus(24.30%, 26/107). The mixed infection of multiple pathogens was 7.61%(47/618), among which the mixed infection rates of Mycoplasma pneumonia with Streptococcus pneumoniae, virus were 40.43% and 34.04%, respectively.High fever, faster breathing, and perioral cyanosis were risk factors for SCAP, with OR and 95% CI of 7.71 and 4.56-13.04, 2.43 and 2.02-2.93, 3.53 and 2.56-4.86, respectively.Viral co-infection occurred in 36.96%(34/92) of complications such as heart failure, toxic encephalopathy, and myocardial damage; Mycoplasma pneumoniae and other pathogens co-infected 35.29% of children with pleural effusion. Conclusion:The pathogens of SCAP in Changchun are mainly viruses notably, respiratory syncytial virus is the dominant pathogen, followed by Mycoplasma pneumoniae.The bacterial pathogen is mainly Streptococcus pneumoniae.High fever, faster breathing, and cyanosis around the mouth are risk factors for severe pneumonia.Multi-pathogen mixed infection is prone to serious complications.

2.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1070-1076, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876579

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To investigate the improvement e ffects of Zingiber officinale decoction (ZOD) on doxorubicin (DOX)-induced mitochondrial function injury of H 9c2 cardiomyocytes. METHODS :Taking H 9c2 cardiomyocytes as research object,the effects of different concentrations of ZOD (0.125,0.25,0.5,1,2,4,8 mg/mL,by crude drug ,the same below )on its survival rate were investigated by CCK- 8 assay. The effects of low ,medium and high concentrations of ZOD (0.125,0.25,0.5 mg/mL)on the morphology of H 9c2 cardiomyocytes after DOX (5 μmol/L)induced mitochondrial dysfunction were detected by high content living cell imaging system. The relative number of cells ,the relative fluorescence intensity of living cells and the relative fluorescence intensity of dead cells were analyzed quantitatively. The effects of ZOD (0.5 mg/mL)on related indexes of mitochondrial respiratory function (oxygen consumption rate ,extracellular acidification rate ,baseline oxygen consumption rate , baseline extracellular acidification rate ,stress oxygen consumption rate and stress extracellular acidification rate ) and energy metabolism(basic respiration level ,maximum respiration level ,ATP production level ,H+ proton leakage level ,spare respiration level and non-mitochondrial respiration level )were detected by bioenergy analyzer. RESULTS :After treated with 0.125,0.25,0.5 mg/mL ZOD ,the survival rate of H 9c2 cardiomyocytes were increased significantly (P<0.01)or had no statistical significance (P>0.05). After DOX induced mitochondrial dysfunction of H 9c2 cardiomyocytes,pretreated with 0.125,0.25,0.5 mg/mL(or 0.5 mg/mL)ZOD,the morphology of H 9c2 cardiomyocytes returned to normal and showed regular fibrous adherent distribution. The relative cell number ,fluorescence intensity of living cells ,oxygen consumption rate ,extracellular acidification rate ,baseline oxygen consumption rate ,baseline extracellular acidification rate ,stress oxygen consumption rate ,stress extracellular acidification rate,basic respiration level ,maximal respiration level ,ATP production level ,spare respiration level and non-mitochondrial respiration level were all significantly increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01),while relative dead cell fluorescence intensity and H + proton leakage level were significantly decreased (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS : ZOD can improve the respiratory function and mitochondrial energy metabolism of H 9c2 cardiomyocytes,so as to improve mitochon drial function injury.

3.
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(4): 393-399, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154630

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of febuxostat on renal function in CKD stage 3 diabetic nephropathy patients. Methods: Patients in our hospital with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3 diabetic nephropathy (DN) complicated by high serum uric acid (360 µmol/L) were recruited. Patients were then divided into treatment group and control group according to the random number table method. All the patients received low purine diet, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, and adequate routine hypoglycemic treatment. Febuxostat was employed only in the treatment group. The levels of blood uric acid (sUA), serum creatinine (Scr), cystatin C (cys-c), eGFR, 24-hour urine protein quantification, albuminuria, and creatinine ratio (ACR) were evaluated in all patients before and after treatment at 4, 8, 12, and 24 week. Results: No difference was found before treatment between the two groups. After treatment at 4, 8, 12, and 24 week, the levels of sUA, SCr, cys-c, and eGFR between the two groups were significant different (P<0.05). There was no difference in 24-hour urine protein quantification, albuminuria, and creatinine ratio between two groups before treatment, and significant differences were observed after treatment. Fifty percent of patients from the treatment group achieved the treatment goal with 20 mg febuxostat at 4 weeks. Tubular markers were also decreased with the treatment. Conclusions: Febuxostat can reduce uric acid and improve renal function effectively in patients with CKD stage 3 diabetic nephropathy, while being well tolerated. However, the conclusion is still uncertain due to the short term of the study.


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar a eficácia e segurança do febuxostat na função renal em pacientes com DRC estágio 3, com nefropatia diabética. Métodos: Foram recrutados pacientes em nosso hospital com nefropatia diabética (DN) estágio 3 de doença renal crônica (DRC) complicada por ácido úrico sérico alto (360 µmol/L). Os pacientes foram então divididos em grupo de tratamento e grupo controle, de acordo com o método da tabela de números aleatórios. Todos os pacientes receberam dieta pobre em purinas, inibidores do sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona (RAAS) e tratamento hipoglicêmico de rotina. O Febuxostat foi empregado apenas no grupo de tratamento. Os níveis de ácido úrico no sangue (AIU), creatinina sérica (Scr), cistatina C (cys-c), TFGe, quantificação de proteínas na urina em 24 horas, razão albumina e creatinina (ACR) foram avaliados em todos os pacientes antes e após o tratamento às 4, 8, 12 e 24 semanas. Resultados: Nenhuma diferença foi encontrada antes do tratamento entre os dois grupos. Após o tratamento nas 4, 8, 12 e 24 semanas, os níveis de sUA, SCr, cys-c e TFGe entre os dois grupos foram significativamente diferentes (P <0,05). Não houve diferença na quantificação de proteínas na urina em 24 horas, albuminúria e razão de creatinina entre dois grupos antes do tratamento, e diferenças significativas foram observadas após o tratamento. Cinquenta por cento dos pacientes do grupo de tratamento atingiram a meta de tratamento com 20 mg de febuxostat em 4 semanas. Marcadores tubulares também foram reduzidos com o tratamento. Conclusões: O Febuxostat pode reduzir o ácido úrico e melhorar a função renal efetivamente em pacientes com nefropatia diabética estágio com DRC no estágio 3, sendo bem tolerado. No entanto, a conclusão ainda é incerta devido ao curto prazo do estudo.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-800108

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To understand the clinical features and pathogenic spectrum of encephalitis and meningitis syndrome in children.@*Methods@#A total of 667 cases of children with encephalitis or meningitis diagnosed and documented at Changchun Children′s Hospital from May 2012 to July 2015 were enrolled.A variety of samples in diffe-rent types were collected and presented, including 335 cerebrospinal fluid specimens, 530 blood samples, and 332 stool samples.All the samples were collected from the patients within 72 hours on admission.Moreover, these samples are analyzed and tested, including PCR for enterovirus(EV), herpesvirus(HSV), mycobacterium tuberculosis(TB) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae(MP) nucleic acid in cerebrospinal fluid samples; fecal specimens were tested for EV, enterovirus 71 (EV71), coxsackievirus A6 (CA6), coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) nucleic acids; degenerate primers to amplify Echovirus 30 (Echo30). Clinical data of children were collected.@*Results@#The peak incidence of encephalitis and meningitis syndrome was from June to August, age distribution was from 0 to 15 years old, the proportion of children aged from 0-6 accounted for 81.41%; the highest proportion was among 0-1 years old infants, occupying 32.38%; 408 males and 259 females; the main symptoms were fever(586 cases), apathy(337 cases), vomiting (307 cases) and headache(203 cases). And clinical signs included drowsiness (103 cases), neck stiffness (71 cases), meningeal irritation (12 cases), and pathological reflex (313 cases), etc.The clinical diagnosis included 272 cases of viral encephalitis, 332 cases of severe hand, foot and mouth disease complicated by encephalitis, 30 cases of bacterial meningitis, and 33 other cases; the etiological detection included: the positive rates of EV, EBV and Echo30 in cerebrospinal fluid specimens were 59.72%, 3.16% and 70.00%, respectively.And EV71, CVA16, CVA6, EV71+ CA16 and EV71+ CVA16+ CVA6 nucleic acids were detected in fecal samples, in which the highest detection rate was EV71(98.96%).@*Conclusions@#In Changchun Children′s Hospital, the children with encephalitis and meningitis are mainly viral encephalitis.The main symptoms were fever, apathetic, drowsiness, vomiting and headache.Signs included, neck stiffness, meningeal irritation, and pathological reflexes, etc.The main pathogen of the disease is EV71.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-797161

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the effect of capillary electrophoresis-based multiplex PCR (CEMP) in detecting pathogens for children respiratory tract infection, and to provide scientific basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment rapidly and accurately.@*Methods@#The cases were defined according to the national monitoring program of febrile respiratory syndrome during the 12th Five-Year Plan, and the samples were collected from nasopharyngeal swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and sputum of children with respiratory tract infection hospitalized in Changchun Children′s Hospital from January 2017 to February 2018.Multiplex PCR amplification was performed by one-step method, then PCR products were separated by DNA length size with capillary electrophoresis and pathogens were analyzed by "Genemapper software" software.Detecting pathogens included Influenza A virus (InfA), Human Adenovirus (HADV), Boca virus (Boca), Human Rhinovirus (HRV), Novel InfA-09H1 (InfA-09H1) and Seasonal Influenza virus H3N2 (InfA-H3N2), Parainfluenza virus (HPIV), Human metapneumonia virus (HMPV), Influenza B virus (InfB), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp), Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP), Human Coronavirus (HCOV), Human Respiratory Syncytial virus (HRSV).@*Results@#The effective detection rate of the CEMP assay was 95.71%.The positive detection rate of respiratory tract pathogens was 62.84% and the mixed infection rate was 9.61%.The mixed infection was mainly InfA and HRSV.The highest three positive rates were named InfA, HRSV and Mp.The positive rate of HRSV was significantly higher in the 0-3 age group than that in older group.Different pathogens were detected in different age groups, and the high-occurrence season of respiratory tract infection with virus was from December to March of the next year.InfA-09H1 was the main prevalent influenza virus in January, February and March 2017, InfA-H3N2 was the main prevalent influenza virus in November and December 2017, and the outbreak of InfB was happened in Changchun in late 2017 and early 2018.HRSV was detected only in the coldest season in Changchun from November to March of the next year.Different pathogens were detected in different respiratory infection.HRSV was the main pathogen detected in pneumonia; InfA-03H2 and HPIV were the main pathogens detected in acute bronchitis; HRV and InfA were the main pathogens detected in upper respiratory tract infection.@*Conclusion@#CEMP is an efficient, rapid and accurate method for the detection of pathogens in patients with respiratory tract infections, and it will have a broad application prospect to develop reagents suitable for clinical diagnosis.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-752329

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the clinical features and pathogenic spectrum of encephalitis and menin﹣gitis syndrome in children. Methods A total of 667 cases of children with encephalitis or meningitis diagnosed and documented at Changchun Children′s Hospital from May 2012 to July 2015 were enrolled. A variety of samples in diffe﹣rent types were collected and presented,including 335 cerebrospinal fluid specimens,530 blood samples,and 332 stool samples. All the samples were collected from the patients within 72 hours on admission. Moreover,these samples are analyzed and tested,including PCR for enterovirus(EV),herpesvirus(HSV),mycobacterium tuberculosis( TB)and My﹣coplasma pneumoniae(MP)nucleic acid in cerebrospinal fluid samples;fecal specimens were tested for EV,enterovirus 71(EV71),coxsackievirus A6(CA6),coxsackievirus A16(CVA16),coxsackievirus A10( CVA10)nucleic acids;degenerate primers to amplify Echovirus 30(Echo30). Clinical data of children were collected. Results The peak in﹣cidence of encephalitis and meningitis syndrome was from June to August,age distribution was from 0 to 15 years old, the proportion of children aged from 0-6 accounted for 81. 41﹪;the highest proportion was among 0-1 years old in﹣fants,occupying 32. 38﹪;408 males and 259 females;the main symptoms were fever(586 cases),apathy(337 ca﹣ses),vomiting(307 cases)and headache(203 cases). And clinical signs included drowsiness(103 cases),neck stiff﹣ness(71 cases),meningeal irritation(12 cases),and pathological reflex( 313 cases),etc. The clinical diagnosis included 272 cases of viral encephalitis,332 cases of severe hand,foot and mouth disease complicated by encephalitis, 30 cases of bacterial meningitis,and 33 other cases;the etiological detection included:the positive rates of EV,EBV and Echo30 in cerebrospinal fluid specimens were 59. 72﹪,3. 16﹪ and 70. 00﹪,respectively. And EV71,CVA16,CVA6, EV71+CA16 and EV71+CVA16+CVA6 nucleic acids were detected in fecal samples,in which the highest detection rate was EV71(98. 96﹪). Conclusions In Changchun Children′s Hospital,the children with encephalitis and menin﹣gitis are mainly viral encephalitis. The main symptoms were fever,apathetic,drowsiness,vomiting and headache. Signs included,neck stiffness,meningeal irritation,and pathological reflexes,etc. The main pathogen of the disease is EV71.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-790067

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of capillary electrophoresis﹣based multiplex PCR ( CEMP) in detecting pathogens for children respiratory tract infection,and to provide scientific basis for clin﹣ical diagnosis and treatment rapidly and accurately. Methods The cases were defined according to the na﹣tional monitoring program of febrile respiratory syndrome during the 12th Five﹣Year Plan,and the samples were collected from nasopharyngeal swabs,bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and sputum of children with respira﹣tory tract infection hospitalized in Changchun Children′s Hospital from January 2017 to February 2018. Multi﹣plex PCR amplification was performed by one﹣step method, then PCR products were separated by DNA length size with capillary electrophoresis and pathogens were analyzed by"Genemapper software" software. Detecting pathogens included Influenza A virus (InfA),Human Adenovirus (HADV),Boca virus ( Boca), Human Rhinovirus ( HRV), Novel InfA﹣09H1 ( InfA﹣09H1 ) and Seasonal Influenza virus H3N2 ( InfA﹣H3N2),Parainfluenza virus ( HPIV),Human metapneumonia virus ( HMPV), Influenza B virus ( InfB), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp),Chlamydia pneumoniae ( CP),Human Coronavirus ( HCOV),Human Re﹣spiratory Syncytial virus (HRSV). Results The effective detection rate of the CEMP assay was 95. 71%. The positive detection rate of respiratory tract pathogens was 62. 84% and the mixed infection rate was 9. 61%. The mixed infection was mainly InfA and HRSV. The highest three positive rates were named InfA, HRSV and Mp. The positive rate of HRSV was significantly higher in the 0﹣3 age group than that in older group. Different pathogens were detected in different age groups,and the high﹣occurrence season of respiratory tract infection with virus was from December to March of the next year. InfA﹣09H1 was the main prevalent influenza virus in January,February and March 2017,InfA﹣H3N2 was the main prevalent influenza virus in November and December 2017,and the outbreak of InfB was happened in Changchun in late 2017 and early 2018. HRSV was detected only in the coldest season in Changchun from November to March of the next year. Different pathogens were detected in different respiratory infection. HRSV was the main pathogen detec﹣ted in pneumonia; InfA﹣03H2 and HPIV were the main pathogens detected in acute bronchitis; HRV and InfA were the main pathogens detected in upper respiratory tract infection. Conclusion CEMP is an effi﹣cient,rapid and accurate method for the detection of pathogens in patients with respiratory tract infections,and it will have a broad application prospect to develop reagents suitable for clinical diagnosis.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-688186

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To assess the association of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor(GPER) gene polymorphism with social function of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The social function of 135 children with ADHD were assessed by Weiss Functional Impairment Scale-Parent form (WFIRS-P). The coding region of GPER gene of all patients was subjected to Sanger sequencing. The association of polymorphisms with the social function of the ADHD children was analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In the case group, the social function scores of Learning and School and Risky Activities of boys were significantly higher than those of girls (t=2.704, P=0.008; t=2.289, P=0.027). No significant difference was found in the genotypic frequencies of the c.-9T/C and c.789G/A loci between different genders. But the learning and school scores of those with a TC genotype for the c.-9T to C locus were significantly higher than those with a TT genotype (t= 2.159, P=0.033).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>For children with ADHD, the social function of Learning and School of those with a TC genotype of the GPER gene c.-9T/C locus is more severely damaged compared with those with a TT genotype.</p>

9.
Journal of Clinical Pediatrics ; (12): 662-665, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-610816

ABSTRACT

Objectives To explore the route of ESBL producing bacteria in neonatal faeces, and to investigate the gene and drug resistance of ESBL producing bacteria in intestinal tract of neonates. Methods Fecal samples of healthy newborns and their mothers were collected, and bacterial cultures were carried out using selective ESBL medium. The positive strains were identified by Time-of-flight mass spectrometry. ESBL genotyping and resistance gene detection were performed by whole genome sequencing technique. Results In 146 neonatal fecal specimens, the positive rate of ESBL producing bacteria was 8.90%,and the positive rate in the first time stool was 3.23%. Seventy-two hours after birth, the positive rate of fecal ESBL producing bacteria was 13.10%. Among the 13 ESBL producing strains, there were 9 strains of CTX type, 3 strains of TEM type and 1 strain of SHV type. Nine strains of CTX include five types such as CTX-M-24, CTX-M-18, CTX-M-27, CTX-M-42 and CTX-M-15. The positive rate of ESBL producing bacteria was 21.6% in 167 mothers' fecal specimens. The ESBL genotype included 24 strains of CTX type, 6 strains of TEM type, 4 strains of SHV type and 2 strains of QnrS type. Twenty-four strains of CTX include CTX-M-24, CTX-M-14, CTX-M-18, CTX-M-27, CTX-M-42 and CTX-M-15. There were 2 or 3 ESBL genotypes in 12 maternal and neonatal specimens. It was detected to have 6 types of resistance gene such as aadA5, strA, strB, sul1, sul2 and dfrA17 in 49 strains of ESBL producing bacteria in maternal and neonatal strains. Resistance genes were exactly the same in the neonates as in mothers who were detected to have ESBL producing bacteria. A variety of resistance genes were detected in feces in 7 neonates and 23 mothers. Conclusions The neonates in hospital may be detected to have ESBL produing bacteria in the intestinal tract at the same time as their mothers or separately. However, there are many ways for neonates to have ESBL producing bacteria in intestinal tract. There are many genotypes and resistance genes of ESBL producing bacteria.

10.
Journal of Chinese Physician ; (12): 1021-1024, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-496805

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the relationship between folate metabolism-related gene polymorphism and fetal congenital defects,and discuss the effect of genetic factors on fetal congenital defects.Methods Retrospective analysis was used to investigate the genotype and gene frequency of 5,1O-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T,A1298C gene loci and ethionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G gene locus in 132 cases of adverse pregnancy pregnant women (case group) and 150 cases normal pregnant women (control group) at the same period.The statistical differences were analyzed between the levels of their serum folate,vitamin B12 (Vit B12) and homocysteine (HCY).Results In the serum of case group,folate was positively correlated with Vit B12,and was negatively correlated with HCY,only HCY of skeletal system defects(6 cases) was higher (t =3.409,P < 0.05).Comparing genotypes frequency of the MTHFR C677T,A1298C gene loci and MTRR A66G gene locus in case group with control group,the difference above was not statistically significant (P > 0.05).In these three gene loci C/T,A/C and A/G allele frequency with the control group,the difference above was not statistically significant (all P > 0.05).Different genotype combinations of MTHFR C667T and A1298C gene loci in control groups had no statistically different from the control group (P > 0.05),and there was no synergy.Conclusions Maternal folate metabolism-related MTHFR and MTRR genes polymorphisms can affect the metabolic products levels accordingly.However,the correlation between the changes and the genetic mechanism of fetal congenital defects needs more large samples study in depth.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-277194

ABSTRACT

According to topographic anatomy, pathogenesis and by retrieving, summarizing and analyzing literature regarding needle-knife and needles with knife-edge for carotid cardiac syndrome, it is found out that clinical misdiagnosis rate of carotid cardiac syndrome is considerably high. Needle-knife and needles with knife-edge could significantly improve the clinical symptoms of carotid cardiac syndrome, showing characteristic and advantage in treatment, but it is deficient in technique standard and efficacy criteria that should be united and authoritative. Researches regarding pathogenesis of carotid cardiac syndrome are not systematic. Clinical observation regarding long-term efficacy and relapse of needle-knife and needles with knife-edge treatment is rare. It is believed that the awareness on carotid cardiac syndrome should be increased to reduce misdiagnosis; scientific and standardized technique standard and efficacy criteria should be established; systematic and comprehensive researches regarding mechanism of needle-knife and needles with knife-edge for carotid cardiac syndrome should be launched; besides, clinical discussion regarding its long-term efficacy should start to provide a better clinical guideline.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Methods , Heart Diseases , Therapeutics , Humans , Needles , Treatment Outcome
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-359542

ABSTRACT

Right-sided cardiac valvular diseases have traditionally been considered less important than disease of mitral or aortic valve. However, severe tricuspid regurgitation could lead to right ventricle dysfunction and reduce patients' survival rate. In clinic setting, tricuspid valve disease should be paid more attention for patients with secondary tricuspid regurgitation caused by left-sided valvular surgery combined with irreversible annular dilatation increasing the risk of reoperation. In this review, we summarize the epidemiology, anatomy, pathology, diagnosis, ultrasound and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with tricuspid regurgitation.


Subject(s)
Echocardiography , Heart , Heart Valve Diseases , Diagnosis , Heart Ventricles , Diagnostic Imaging , Pathology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 973-9, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-483404

ABSTRACT

The dosage-efficacy/toxicity relationship of the 50% alcohol extracts of Polygonum multiflorum was comparatively investigated on either normal or CCl4-induced chronic liver injury rats, by determining the general condition, serum biochemical indices and liver histopathology, coupled with the factor analysis. The dosages were 10 and 20 g raw materials per kg body weight. Compared with the normal control group, the normal high dose group showed significant increases of the serum alanine transaminase (ALT), total bilirubin (TBIL), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), as well the frequent incidences of inflammatory cell infiltration, hepatic sinus enlargement and fiber stripes formation in histopathological sections. Compared with the model control group, the model low dose group showed significant declines of serum ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST) and total bile acid (TBA) (P < 0.05), as well the alleviation of vacuoles of hepatocytes, but no amelioration of the inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrous tissue hyperplasia; moreover, the model high dose group showed significant degeneration declines of serum HMGB-1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-1β (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), as well the evident alleviation of vacuoles degeneration of hepatocytes, inflammatory cells infiltration and fibrosis degree. The factor analysis showed that the low dosage treatment had almost neither injuring effect on the normal rats nor protective effect on the model rats; while the high dosage treatment showed observable injuring effect on the normal rats, expressed by the significant increases of the factor-1 (HMGB-1, TNF-α and IL-1β as the main contributors) and factor-2 (TBIL, ALT and TBA as the main contributors) relative to the normal control group. The liver protective effect of the high dosage treatment could be observed with the significant reduction of the factor-1, indicating the effective alleviation of the expression of inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, it could illustrated the phenomenon of symptom-based prescription theory of Polygonum multiflorum on rat livers: the high dosage of the herb had either an injuring effect on normal rats, or a therapeutic effect on the rats with chronic liver injury.

14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 28-33, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-457207

ABSTRACT

The liver injury induced by Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PM) was investigated based on idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity model co-treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at a non-hepatotoxic dose. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were intragastrically administered with three doses (18.9, 37.8, 75.6 g crude drug per kg body weight) of 50% alcohol extracts of PM alone or co-treated with non-toxic dose of LPS (2.8 mg·kg(-1)) via tail vein injection. The plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were assayed and the isolated livers were evaluated for histopathological changes. The dose-toxicity relationships of single treatment of PM or co-treatment of LPS were investigated comparatively to elucidate the idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of PM. The results showed that no significant alterations of plasma ALT and AST activities were observed in the groups of solo-administration of LPS (2.8 mg·kg(-1), i.v.) or different dosage (18.9, 37.8 and 75.6 g·kg(-1), i.g.) of PM, compared to normal control group (P > 0.05); while significant elevations were observed in the co-administration groups of PM and LPS. Treatment with LPS alone caused slight infiltration of inflammatory cells in portal area but no evident hepatocytes injury. Co-treatment with LPS and PM (75.6 g·kg(-1), i.g.) caused hepatocyte focal necrosis, loss of central vein intima and a large number of inflammatory cell infiltration in portal areas. When further reduce the dosage of PM, significant increases of plasma ALT and AST activities (P < 0.05) were still observed in co-administration groups of LPS and PM (1.08 or 2.16 g·kg(-1)), but not in LPS or PM solo-administration groups. Nevertheless, the co-treatment of low dosage of PM (0.54 g·kg(-1)) with LPS did not induce any alteration of plasma ALT and AST. In conclusion, intragastric administration with 75.6 g·kg(-1) of PM did not induce liver injury in normal rats model; while the 2 folds of clinical equivalent dose of PM (1.08 g·kg(-1)) could result in liver injury in the LPS-based idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity model, which could be used to evaluate the idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of PM.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-476189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:Thoracic spinal cord injury often leads to double lower limb paralysis. Paraplegia walking orthosis can improve lower limb dysfunction, improve the daily living activity, and regain the ability to stand and walk in patients with paraplegia. OBJECTIVE:To discuss the effects of paraplegia walking orthosis on muscle spasticity and recovery of function of the affected lower extremity in patients with thoracic spinal cord injury. METHODS:The 20 patients with thoracic spinal cord injury (T5-12), according to the damage plane by American Spinal Injury Association standard, were divided into complete damage group and incomplete damage group (n=10). Al patients were fitted out paraplegia walking orthosis. They received residual muscle strength training, sitting balance training, and transfer training prior to assembly, and then subjected to standing exercise within paralel bar, balance and transfer training, and walking aid devices training indoor and outdoor, and elbow crutch training on foot after the assembly. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Compared with pre-treatment, American Spinal Injury Association score increased at 12 weeks after treatment with paraplegia walking orthosis, and sensation did not obviously alter. Spasm worsened with prolonged course of disease in the complete damage group. At 12 weeks after treatment, American Spinal Injury Association score increased, sensation apparently improved, and the spasm did not change with time in the incomplete damage group. Activities of daily living (modified Barthel index, and functional independence evaluation) evidently improved in both groups. Compared with 2 weeks, the 10-m walking time was noticeably reduced and the 6-minute walking distance was prolonged at 12 weeks in both groups. These results confirm that paraplegia walking orthosis fitted out in patients with thoracic spinal cord injury significantly improves the patient’s motor function, activities of daily living and walking ability, and also has certain influence on muscle spasm control.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-336371

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To construct a three-dimensional finite element model of the upper airway and adjacent structure of an obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) patient for biomechanical analysis. And to study the influence of glossopharyngeum of an OSAHS patient with three-dimensional finite element model during titrated mandible advancement.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>DICOM format image information of an OSAHS patient's upper airway was obtained by thin-section CT scanning and digital image processing were utilized to construct a three-dimensional finite element model by Mimics 10.0, Imageware 10.0 and Ansys software. The changes and the law of glossopharyngeum were observed by biomechanics and morphology after loading with titrated mandible advancement.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A three-dimensional finite element model of the adjacent upper airway structure of OSAHS was established successfully. After loading, the transverse diameter of epiglottis tip of glossopharyngeum increased significantly, although the sagittal diameter decreased correspondingly. The principal stress was mainly distributed in anterior wall of the upper airway. The location of principal stress concentration did not change significantly with the increasing of distance. The stress of glossopharyngeum increased during titrated mandible advancement.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>A more precise three-dimensional finite model of upper airway and adjacent structure of an OSAHS patient is established and improved efficiency by Mimics, Imageware and Ansys software. The glossopharyngeum of finite element model of OSAHS is analyzed by titrated mandible advancement and can effectively show the relationship between mandible advancement and the glossopharyngeum.</p>


Subject(s)
Finite Element Analysis , Humans , Mandible , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 286-90, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-445533

ABSTRACT

In this study, we explored the rationality of processing methods and mechanism of Aconiti Lateralis Radix (Fuzi) through comparing the chemical contents of diester alkaloids (DAs) and monoester alkaloids (MAs) in the raw material of Fuzi and its processed products. The results showed that the toxicity potency of MAs is at least lower than 1/64 to 1/180 of the toxicity potency of DAs. The contents of DAs in processed Fuzi decreased to 1/76.5 to 1/38.3 of the value of raw Fuzi. The contents of MAs in processed Fuzi significantly increased by 4.6 to 5.2 fold or basically the same as that of the raw Fuzi. The values of MAs/DAs of processed Fuzi were enhanced by 30 to 390 fold of the raw Fuzi. It was found that the contents of DAs were insignificantly different between "Wu dan fu pian" (steaming or stir-frying without Danba) and "Dan fu pian" (steaming or stir-frying with Danba). The result suggested that the abilities of "eliminating toxicity" of different processing methods were equivalent at all. In contrast, the contents of MAs contained in "Wu dan fu pian" were of 5.3 to 8.7 fold higher than the values in "Dan fu pian". This result suggested the processing method by steaming or stir-frying without Danba might have better effect for "conserving property" than the method processed with Danba stipulated by China Pharmacopoeia. We believe that the new processing method without Danba can be recommended in further application due to it offers a simple procedure and it will not introduce inorganic impurities in the products.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-288672

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To detect the influence of compatibility of rhubarb with different traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) on extracted quantities of AQs, and to provide scientific basis for the clinical code for rhubarb preparation.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The influence of compatibility of rhubarb with different traditional Chinese medicines (saponin, alkaloids, flavonoids TCMs, animal medicines and mineral medicines) on decocting volume of anthraquinone substance was detected using ultra performance liquid chromatography.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>In comparable conditions, more AQs were extracted from mixed decoction of rhubarb and saponin medicinal materials (Astragali Radix, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma) than single decocting of rhubarb. The mixed decoction of rhubarb and alkaloid medicinal materials (Coptidis Rhizoma, Sophorae Flavescentis Radix, Prepared Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex, Aconiti Lateralis Radix) caused a remarkable decrease in extracted quantities of AQs. And the mixed decoction of rhubarb and mineral medicines (Natrii Sulfas, Gypsum Fibrosum, Ostreae Concha, Alumen) also resulted in less extracted quantities of AQs to varying degrees. Besides, more rhubarb AQs were extracted from mixed decoction with Curcuma than single decoction. But less rhubarb AQs were observed in mixed decoction with Lonicerae Flos, Rehmanniae, Artemisiae Herb and Forsythiae Fructus than single decoction to varying degrees. In the study, the maximum extracted quantities of AQs is 2. 3-fold higher than the minimum, the largest difference existed in the extracted quantity of physcion which was 13.5 times.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>In compatibility between rhubarb and different TMCs, mixed decoction and single decoction show different influences on extracted quantity of rhubarb AQs. It is proved that more AQs may be extracted from mixed decoction between rhubarb and saponin medicinal materials, whereas less AQs may be observed in mixed decoction between rhubarb and alkaloid medicinal materials.</p>


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Chemistry , Animals , Anthraquinones , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Drug Compounding , Methods , Reference Standards , Flavonoids , Chemistry , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Methods , Reference Standards , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results , Rheum , Chemistry , Saponins , Chemistry
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-247442

ABSTRACT

From the view of macroscopic animal ethology combined with computer and modem image processing technique, by monitoring the temperature tropism of animal affected by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with different Cold and Hot natures and obtaining many behavior parameters which were difficult to assess in direct observation, the differences between the Cold and Hot nature of TCM were evaluated and presented. This method could real-time, intuitively and objectively, qualitatively and quantitatively monitor the temperature tropism of experimental animals with no disturbance. Further, the Cold and Hot nature of TCM can be expressed from the whole animal level. This method met to the application peculiarity of TCM and suited for the TCM theoretical system. It is a attempt for the study of drug nature of TCM. It also contributed to elucidate the objective authenticity and scientific connotation of Cold and Hot nature of TCM, and express the inherent connection of this nature and the temperature tropism of animal. In this review, a new point and technology platform was provided for establishing an objective method for evaluating the Cold and Hot nature of TCM, which are corresponding with the feature of the application of TCM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior, Animal , Cold Temperature , Hot Temperature , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
20.
Chinese Herbal Medicines ; (4): 296-303, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-499705

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the hepatoprotective effects of Paeoniae Radix Rubra (PRR) at different doses against α-naphthylisothiocyanate (α-NIT)-induced acute cholestatic hepatitis in rats.Methods Rats were ig administrated with vehicle or PRR [(1,9,18,36,54,72,and 81 g/(kg·d)] 3 d before and 2 d after α-NIT (60 mg/kg) ig administration.The general status of rats,histopathology of liver,serum alanine aminotransaminase,aspartate aminotransaminase,total bilirubin,direct bilirubin,and alkaline phosphatase levels,were observed at respective time points (24 and 48 h) after α-NIT administration.Using cluster analysis and correspondence analysis,the dose-effect-response relationships of PRR were evaluated.Results The results showed that compared with model group,the serum biochemistry index significantly decreased with the increasing of PRR dosage (P < 0.01),and the change and necrosis of hepatic cellula,and inflammatory cell infiltration were gradually alleviated.However,the improvement was not obviously found in the low-dose group [1 g/(kg·d)].The cluster analysis and correspondence analysis results showed that different doses of PRR could significantly ameliorate α-NIT-induced acute cholestatic hepatitis of rats in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusion The experiments show that administration doses of PRR in clinical use should be added properly in order to gain the expectant therapeutic effect,especially in the treatment of heavy acute cholestasis hepatitis.

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