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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914214

ABSTRACT

Background@#To compare the efficacy and safety of two insulin self-titration algorithms, Implementing New Strategies with Insulin Glargine for Hyperglycemia Treatment (INSIGHT) and EDITION, for insulin glargine 300 units/mL (Gla-300) in Korean individuals with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#In a 12-week, randomized, open-label trial, individuals with uncontrolled T2DM requiring basal insulin were randomized to either the INSIGHT (adjusted by 1 unit/day) or EDITION (adjusted by 3 units/week) algorithm to achieve a fasting self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in the range of 4.4 to 5.6 mmol/L. The primary outcome was the proportion of individuals achieving a fasting SMBG ≤5.6 mmol/L without noct urnal hypoglycemia at week 12. @*Results@#Of 129 individuals (age, 64.1±9.5 years; 66 [51.2%] women), 65 and 64 were randomized to the INSIGHT and EDITION algorithms, respectively. The primary outcome of achievement was comparable between the two groups (24.6% vs. 23.4%, P=0.876). Compared with the EDITION group, the INSIGHT group had a greater reduction in 7-point SMBG but a similar decrease in fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. The increment of total daily insulin dose was significantly higher in the INSIGHT group than in the EDITION group (between-group difference: 5.8±2.7 units/day, P=0.033). However, body weight was significantly increased only in the EDITION group (0.6±2.4 kg, P=0.038). There was no difference in the occurrence of hypoglycemia between the two groups. Patient satisfaction was significantly increased in the INSIGHT group (P=0.014). @*Conclusion@#The self-titration of Gla-300 using the INSIGHT algorithm was effective and safe compared with that using the EDITION algorithm in Korean individuals with uncontrolled T2DM (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT03406663).

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924918

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and management of diabetes mellitus, risk-factor control, and comorbidities among Korean adults. @*Methods@#We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to assess the prevalence, treatment, risk factors, comorbidities, and self-management behaviors of diabetes mellitus from 2019 to 2020. We also analyzed data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service to evaluate the use of antidiabetic medications in people with diabetes mellitus from 2002 through 2018. @*Results@#Among Korean adults aged 30 years or older, the estimated prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 16.7% in 2020. From 2019 through 2020, 65.8% of adults with diabetes mellitus were aware of the disease and treated with antidiabetic medications. The percentage of adults with diabetes mellitus who achieved glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <6.5% was 24.5% despite the increased use of new antidiabetic medications. We found that adults with diabetes mellitus who achieved all three goals of HbA1c <6.5%, blood pressure (BP) <140/85 mm Hg, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <100 mg/dL were 9.7%. The percentage of self-management behaviors was lower in men than women. Excess energy intake was observed in 16.7% of adults with diabetes mellitus. @*Conclusion@#The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among Korean adults remained high. Only 9.7% of adults with diabetes mellitus achieved all glycemic, BP, and lipid controls from 2019 to 2020. Continuous evaluation of national diabetes statistics and a national effort to increase awareness of diabetes mellitus and improve comprehensive diabetes care are needed.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898198

ABSTRACT

Background@#Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is performed to distinguish the subtype of primary aldosteronism (PA). The clinical implication of contralateral suppression (CS; aldosterone/cortisolnondominant0.26 after adjusting for other factors. @*Conclusion@#CS may not predict postoperative clinical and biochemical outcomes in subjects with unilateral aldosterone excess, but it is associated with postsurgical deterioration of renal function in subjects over 50 years with CSI ≤0.26.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898052

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896015

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of young-onset (diagnosis at age < 40 years) type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing globally. Young-onset T2DM has a common pathophysiology of glucose dysregulation as in late-onset T2DM. However, it presents a greater association with obesity and a more rapid decline in β-cell function than late-onset T2DM. Accumulating evidence indicates that disease progression in young-onset T2DM is rapid, resulting in early and frequent development of microvascular and macrovascular complications, as well as premature death. Improper management and low adherence to medical therapy are important issues in young-onset T2DM. This review discusses the epidemiology, disease entity, and clinical issues associated with young-onset T2DM. We also present the prevalence and clinical characteristics of patients with young-onset T2DM in South Korea.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890494

ABSTRACT

Background@#Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is performed to distinguish the subtype of primary aldosteronism (PA). The clinical implication of contralateral suppression (CS; aldosterone/cortisolnondominant0.26 after adjusting for other factors. @*Conclusion@#CS may not predict postoperative clinical and biochemical outcomes in subjects with unilateral aldosterone excess, but it is associated with postsurgical deterioration of renal function in subjects over 50 years with CSI ≤0.26.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890348

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903719

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of young-onset (diagnosis at age < 40 years) type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing globally. Young-onset T2DM has a common pathophysiology of glucose dysregulation as in late-onset T2DM. However, it presents a greater association with obesity and a more rapid decline in β-cell function than late-onset T2DM. Accumulating evidence indicates that disease progression in young-onset T2DM is rapid, resulting in early and frequent development of microvascular and macrovascular complications, as well as premature death. Improper management and low adherence to medical therapy are important issues in young-onset T2DM. This review discusses the epidemiology, disease entity, and clinical issues associated with young-onset T2DM. We also present the prevalence and clinical characteristics of patients with young-onset T2DM in South Korea.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832396

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study assessed the proportion of risk-stratified Korean patients with dyslipidemia achieving their low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets as defined by the European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society (ESC/EAS) (2011) guidelines while receiving lipid-modifying treatments (LMTs). @*Methods@#In this multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study, we evaluated data from Korean patients aged ≥19 years who were receiving LMTs for ≥3 months and had an LDL-C value within the previous 12 months on the same LMT. Data were collected for demographics, cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, medical history, and healthcare consumption. Patients were risk-stratified according to the ESC Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) chart and LDL-C target achievement rate was assessed. @*Results@#Guideline-based risk-stratification of the 1,034 patients showed the majority (72.2%) to be in the very high-risk category. Investigators’ assessment of risk was underestimated in 71.6% compared to ESC/EAS guidelines. Overall LDL-C target achievement rate was 44.3%; target achievement was the highest (66.0%) in moderate-risk patients and the lowest (39.0%) in very high-risk patients. Overall 97.1% patients were receiving statin therapy, mostly as a single-agent (89.2%). High-intensity statins and the highest permissible dose of high-intensity statins had been prescribed to only 9.1% and 7.3% patients in the very high-risk group, respectively. Physician satisfaction with patients’ LDL-C levels was the primary reason for non-intensification of statin therapy. @*Conclusion@#Achievement of target LDL-C level is suboptimal in Korean patients with dyslipidemia, especially in those at very high-risk of CV events. Current practices in LMTs need to be improved based on precise CV risk evaluation posed by dyslipidemia.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832375

ABSTRACT

Monogenic diabetes, including maturity-onset diabetes of the young, neonatal diabetes, and other rare forms of diabetes, results from a single gene mutation. It has been estimated to represent around 1% to 6% of all diabetes. With the advances in genome sequencing technology, it is possible to diagnose more monogenic diabetes cases than ever before. In Korea, 11 studies have identified several monogenic diabetes cases, using Sanger sequencing and whole exome sequencing since 2001. The recent largest study, using targeted exome panel sequencing, found a molecular diagnosis rate of 21.1% for monogenic diabetes in clinically suspected patients. Mutations in glucokinase (GCK), hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1A), and HNF4A were most commonly found. Genetic diagnosis of monogenic diabetes is important as it determines the therapeutic approach required for patients and helps to identify affected family members. However, there are still many challenges, which include a lack of simple clinical criterion for selecting patients for genetic testing, difficulties in interpreting the genetic test results, and high costs for genetic testing. In this review, we will discuss the latest updates on monogenic diabetes in Korea, and suggest an algorithm to screen patients for genetic testing. The genetic tests and non-genetic markers for accurate diagnosis of monogenic diabetes will be also reviewed.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830159

ABSTRACT

Urinary disorders are important factors that affect the quality of life. Urinary incontinence refers to urine leakage against will and is categorized intostress incontinence, urge incontinence, and other types. The prevalence of incontinence increases with aging. Since most patients hesitate talkingabout urinary problems, it is important to proactively ask questions to ensure proper care. The diagnostic approach includes history taking, physicalexamination, and urinalysis. The use of specific questionnaires and voiding diaries is also beneficial. The first management option for patients withincontinence is conservative treatment, especially training for strengthening the pelvic floor muscles. Anti-cholinergic medications and mirabegronare used for treating urge incontinence. To minimize adverse events, starting medications at low doses, with follow-up at short intervals, isrecommended. For treating stress incontinence, surgical approaches like sling surgery are preferred to medications. Primary physicians need to payattention to urinary problems to help older patients address their difficulties and to promote their quality of life.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830132

ABSTRACT

Background@#Previous studies suggested the correlation between thyroid and kidney functions, especially the high prevalence of hypothyroidism in chronic kidney disease. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of hypothyroidism on kidney function in Korean adults by using data from a representative nationwide survey. @*Methods@#This was a cross-sectional study composed of 5,250 individuals aged ≥19 years who were enrolled in the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The participants were classified into three groups of patients with euthyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, and overt hypothyroidism according to thyroid function. Chronic kidney disease was defined as having a decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the prevalence and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of chronic kidney disease. @*Results@#Compared with the euthyroidism group, the subclinical and overt hypothyroidism groups showed higher prevalence rates of chronic kidney disease in both sexes. This tendency was significant in the elderly people aged ≥65 years. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the subclinical hypothyroidism group did not show a significant difference (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82–3.87) from the euthyroidism group. In the overt hypothyroidism group, the aOR of chronic kidney disease was significantly higher (aOR, 5.90; 95% CI, 1.73– 20.15) than that in the euthyroidism group. @*Conclusion@#Overt hypothyroidism was associated with decreased eGFR and may be considered as an independent risk factor of chronic kidney disease.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785724

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Conflicting results have been reported on the efficacy of insulin degludec/insulin aspart (IDegAsp) compared to basal insulin in type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effects of changing basal insulin to IDegAsp on glycemic control and sought to identify factors related to those effects.METHODS: In this retrospective study of patients from three referral hospitals, patients with type 2 diabetes using basal insulin with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels less than 11.0% were enrolled. Basal insulin was replaced with IDegAsp, and data were analyzed from 3 months before to 3 months after the replacement.RESULTS: Eighty patients were recruited (52.5% male; mean age, 67.0±9.8 years; mean duration of diabetes, 18.9±8.5 years; mean HbA1c, 8.7%±1.0%). HbA1c levels increased during 3 months of basal insulin use, but significantly decreased after changing to IDegAsp (8.28%±1.10%, P=0.0001). The reduction was significant at 6 months in 35 patients whose longer-term data were available. Patients with a measured fasting plasma glucose (m-FPG) lower than their predicted FPG (p-FPG) by regression from HbA1c showed a significant HbA1c reduction caused by the change to IDegAsp, even without a significantly increased insulin dose. However, patients whose m-FPG was higher than their p-FPG did not experience a significant HbA1c reduction, despite a significantly increased insulin dose. Furthermore, the HbA1c reduction caused by IDegAsp was significant in patients with low fasting C-peptide levels and high insulin doses.CONCLUSION: We observed a significant glucose-lowering effect by replacing basal insulin with IDegAsp, especially in patients with a lower m-FPG than p-FPG.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Glucose , C-Peptide , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fasting , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Insulin , Male , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies
15.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 700-703, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762089

ABSTRACT

Congenital analbuminemia (CAA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by extremely low serum levels of albumin. CAA is caused by various homozygous or heterozygous mutations of the ALB gene. Patients often exhibit no clinical symptoms, aside from rare accompanying conditions, such as fatigue, ankle edema, and hypotension. This case report describes the case of a 28-year-old asymptomatic Korean male referred to our center with hypocalcemia, vitamin D deficiency, and hypoalbuminemia who was diagnosed with CAA. To determine the cause of hypoalbuminemia in the patient, laboratory tests, radiological examination, and DNA sequencing were performed. The patient was confirmed to not exhibit any other clinical conditions that can induce hypoalbuminemia and was diagnosed with CAA using DNA sequencing. The present case of CAA is the first to be reported in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ankle , Edema , Fatigue , Humans , Hypoalbuminemia , Hypocalcemia , Hypotension , Korea , Male , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Vitamin D Deficiency
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-196831

ABSTRACT

We report a case of a 74-year-old woman who was incidentally found to have a single thyroid nodule. Laboratory evaluation showed undetectable serum thyroid stimulating hormone and elevated free thyroxine levels. (99m)Tc thyroid scan showed a hyperfunctioning autonomous nodule in a right lobe of the thyroid. Thyroid ultrasonography showed a 2.2 cm sized nonhomogeneous spiculated nodule with microcalcification, and which was identical with the hyperfunctioning nodule confirmed in thyroid scan by (99m)Tc single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography. Fine needle aspiration was done, and cytology reported as suspicious of malignancy. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy with central neck dissection, and pathology was consistent with papillary thyroid carcinoma. This case report demonstrates that diagnosis of a hyperfunctioning autonomous thyroid nodule does not preclude the possibility of thyroid cancer. Clinicians should consider further evaluation such as ultrasonography and fine needle aspiration in patients with hyperfunctioning autonomous nodules.


Subject(s)
Aged , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Hyperthyroidism , Neck Dissection , Pathology , Radionuclide Imaging , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule , Thyroidectomy , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine , Ultrasonography
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