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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 570-579, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976696

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Quality assessment of breast cancer treatment in South Korea showed the upward standardization of the grade since 2013, but treatment disparities still have existed. This study analyzed the five year trend between 2013 and 2017 in the assessment of breast cancer treatment practice using the Korean health insurance data. @*Materials and Methods@#All the medical records including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy for 7,354 patients a year on average were evaluated. Twenty indices were consisted of one structural, 17 process-related, and 2 result-related factors. We calculated the coefficient of variation (CV) annually to determine the variation in adherence rate of evaluation indices according to the type of institution (advanced vs. general hospital vs. clinic). @*Results@#Based on the initial assessment in 2013, 10 out of 20 indicators showed significant variation among the types of institutions with a CV of less than 0.1%. Six of them had a CV decline of less than 0.1%. The CV was still 0.1% or higher in the four indicators, including the composition of professional staff, the implementation of target therapy, the average length of hospital stay, and the hospitalization cost. Regarding the first-grade of assessment, there was a statistically significant relationship between the institution type (p=0.029) and region (metropolitan vs. province, p<0.001). @*Conclusion@#There were disparities in the structural and systemic treatment factors depending on the institutional type. The quality improvement of the regional institutions and multidisciplinary experts for breast cancer is necessary.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 157-173, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913839

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#mTORC1 and mTORC2 inhibition by Ku-0063794 could confer profound anticancer effects against cancer cells because it eliminates feedback activation of Akt. Herein, we aimed to determine anticancer effects of docetaxel and Ku-0063794, individually or in combination, against breast cancer cells, especially triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. @*Materials and Methods@#MCF-7 breast cancer and MDA-MB-231 TNBC cell lines for in vitro studies and mouse xenograft model for in vivo studies were used to investigate the effect of docetaxel, Ku-0063794, or their combination. @*Results@#In the in vitro experiments, combination therapy synergistically reduced cell viability and induced higher apoptotic cell death in breast cancer cells than the individual monotherapies (p < 0.05). Western blot analysis and flow cytometric analysis showed that the combination therapy induced higher apoptotic cell death than the individual monotherapies (p < 0.05). In the in vivo experiment, docetaxel and Ku-0063794 combination therapy reduced the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells xenografted in the nude mice better than in the individual monotherapies (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed that the combination therapy induced the highest expression of cleaved caspase-3 and the lowest expression of Bcl-xL in the MDA-MB-231 cells xenografted in the nude mice (p < 0.05). Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence, incorporating both in vitro and in vivo experiments, consistently validated that unlike individual monotherapies, docetaxel and Ku-0063794 combination therapy significantly inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and autophagy (p < 0.05). @*Conclusion@#These data suggest that docetaxel and Ku-0063794 combination therapy has higher anticancer activities over individual monotherapies against MDA-MB-231 TNBC cells through a greater inhibition of autophagy and EMT.

3.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 491-503, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914820

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly impacted the rates of screening, case identification, and referral for cancer diagnosis. We investigated the diagnosis and surgery status of breast cancer before and after the COVID-19 pandemic at a multi-institutional level. @*Methods@#We collected breast cancer data from the clinical data warehouse which contained the medical records of patients from six academic institutions in South Korea. Patients were divided into two groups: February to April (period A) and May to July (period B). The data from the two groups were then compared against the same periods in 2019 and 2020. The primary objective was to investigate the differences in breast cancer stages before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. @*Results@#Among 3,038 patients, there was a 9.9% reduction in the number of diagnoses in 2020. This decrease was more significant during period A than period B. The breast cancer stage was not statistically different in period A (p = 0.115), but it was in period B (p = 0.001). In the subset analysis according to age, there was a statistical difference between 2019 and 2020 in period B for patients under the age of 65 years (p = 0.002), but no difference was observed in the other groups. @*Conclusion@#The number of breast cancer cases declined during the pandemic, and the staging distribution has changed after the pandemic peak.

4.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 654-669, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901364

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the accuracy of MRI in predicting the pathological complete response (pCR) and the residual tumor size of breast cancer after neoadjucant chemotherapy (NAC), and to determine the factors affecting the accuarcy. @*Materials and Methods@#Eighty-eight breast cancer patients who underwent surgery after NAC at our center between 2010 and 2017 were included in this study. pCR was defined as the absence of invasive cancer on pathological evaluation. The maximum diameter of the residual tumor on post-NAC MRI was compared with the tumor size of the surgical specimen measured pathologically. Statistical analysis was performed to elucidate the factors affecting pCR and the residual tumor size-discrepancy between the MRI and the pathological measurements. @*Results@#The pCR rate was 10%. The diagnostic accuracy of MRI and the area under the curve for predicting pCR were 90.91% and 0.8017, respectively. The residual tumor sizes obtained using MRI and pathological measurements showed a strong correlation (r = 0.9, p < 0.001), especially in patients with a single mass lesion (p = 0.047). The size discrepancy between MRI and the pathological measurements was significantly greater in patients with the luminal type (p = 0.023) and multifocal tumorson-mass enhancement on pre-NAC MRI (p = 0.047). @*Conclusion@#MRI is an accurate tool for evaluating pCR and residual tumor size in breast cancer patients who receive NAC. Tumor subtype and initial MRI features affect the accuracy of MRI.

5.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 53-59, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897188

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was threefold: to explore the causal attributions of breast cancer, examine underlying factors of the attributes, and determine their relationship to quality of life among Korean breast cancer survivors. @*Methods@#The study used a descriptive correlational design, which included quantitative survey questionnaires and an open-ended question to complement the study. Three hundred and three breast cancer survivors were recruited from two university hospitals in South Korea, between January and April 2018. The causal attributions were explored using the Illness Perception Questionnaire Revised and an open-ended question. The survivors' quality of life was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy for Breast Cancer. The quantitative analysis was performed using the SPSS 25.0 software package; the ATLAS.ti 8 software was used for thematic analysis. @*Results@#Quantitative and qualitative data of 321 and 238 breast cancer survivors, respectively, were analyzed. “Stress and worry” and “diet or eating habits” were believed to be the two most likely causes of breast cancer. Eleven new causal attributes emerged from the analysis. Being diagnosed with breast cancer at an older age (p < .05), having received chemotherapy (p < .05), and holding nonbehavioral causal attributes (p < .001), were significantly related to lower quality of life. @*Conclusion@#There were differences between the survivors' beliefs on their causes of disease, and causal factors available from the literature. As the survivors' causal attributes were significantly related to their quality of life, healthcare providers should individually assess and incorporate these attributes into their care.

6.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 59-66, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874209

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Treatment with 4 cycles of docetaxel and cyclophosphamide (TC) in the adjuvant setting is associated with better outcomes than treatment with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC). However, Western guidelines have indicated that TC confers a high risk (>20%) of febrile neutropenia (FN), while AC confers an intermediate risk (10%–20%) of FN. Threrefore, we evaluated the incidence of FN and the clinical utilization of pegfilgrastim prophylaxis after adjuvant TC chemotherapy. @*Methods@#We categorized 201 patients who received adjuvant TC chemotherapy into 3 groups according to the method of prophylaxis and compared neutropenic events, other adverse events, and hospital care costs in the 3 groups. @*Results@#The incidence of grade 4 neutropenia decreased from 93.0% in patients without prophylaxis to 82.4% in those who received secondary prophylaxis and 16.7% in those who received primary prophylaxis. Although the incidence of FN was not different between patients without prophylaxis and patients who received secondary prophylaxis (15.7% and 14.9%), none of the patients who received primary prophylaxis developed FN. Moreover, a decrease in neutropenic events resulted in a significant decrease in the mean duration of neutropenia (2.50 days to 0.08 days, P < 0.001), the risk of hospitalization (29.8% to 2.2%, P < 0.001), and the mean total hospital care cost for all chemotherapy cycles (790.80 to 486.00 US dollars, P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#The use of pegfilgrastim prophylaxis during adjuvant TC chemotherapy is associated with significant decreases in the incidence of neutropenic events, hospitalization, and hospital care cost compared to those seen in patients without prophylaxis.

7.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 53-59, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889484

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was threefold: to explore the causal attributions of breast cancer, examine underlying factors of the attributes, and determine their relationship to quality of life among Korean breast cancer survivors. @*Methods@#The study used a descriptive correlational design, which included quantitative survey questionnaires and an open-ended question to complement the study. Three hundred and three breast cancer survivors were recruited from two university hospitals in South Korea, between January and April 2018. The causal attributions were explored using the Illness Perception Questionnaire Revised and an open-ended question. The survivors' quality of life was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy for Breast Cancer. The quantitative analysis was performed using the SPSS 25.0 software package; the ATLAS.ti 8 software was used for thematic analysis. @*Results@#Quantitative and qualitative data of 321 and 238 breast cancer survivors, respectively, were analyzed. “Stress and worry” and “diet or eating habits” were believed to be the two most likely causes of breast cancer. Eleven new causal attributes emerged from the analysis. Being diagnosed with breast cancer at an older age (p < .05), having received chemotherapy (p < .05), and holding nonbehavioral causal attributes (p < .001), were significantly related to lower quality of life. @*Conclusion@#There were differences between the survivors' beliefs on their causes of disease, and causal factors available from the literature. As the survivors' causal attributes were significantly related to their quality of life, healthcare providers should individually assess and incorporate these attributes into their care.

8.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 654-669, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893660

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the accuracy of MRI in predicting the pathological complete response (pCR) and the residual tumor size of breast cancer after neoadjucant chemotherapy (NAC), and to determine the factors affecting the accuarcy. @*Materials and Methods@#Eighty-eight breast cancer patients who underwent surgery after NAC at our center between 2010 and 2017 were included in this study. pCR was defined as the absence of invasive cancer on pathological evaluation. The maximum diameter of the residual tumor on post-NAC MRI was compared with the tumor size of the surgical specimen measured pathologically. Statistical analysis was performed to elucidate the factors affecting pCR and the residual tumor size-discrepancy between the MRI and the pathological measurements. @*Results@#The pCR rate was 10%. The diagnostic accuracy of MRI and the area under the curve for predicting pCR were 90.91% and 0.8017, respectively. The residual tumor sizes obtained using MRI and pathological measurements showed a strong correlation (r = 0.9, p < 0.001), especially in patients with a single mass lesion (p = 0.047). The size discrepancy between MRI and the pathological measurements was significantly greater in patients with the luminal type (p = 0.023) and multifocal tumorson-mass enhancement on pre-NAC MRI (p = 0.047). @*Conclusion@#MRI is an accurate tool for evaluating pCR and residual tumor size in breast cancer patients who receive NAC. Tumor subtype and initial MRI features affect the accuracy of MRI.

9.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 259-267, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914814

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) involving trastuzumab markedly increases pathologic complete response (pCR) rates in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer. Despite increasing pCR rates, long-term survival gains are controversial owing to distinctive biologic behavior mediated by the presence of hormonal receptors (HRs) that may interact with HER2 receptors. We, therefore, investigated the differences in relative survival gain provided by neoadjuvant trastuzumab-based chemotherapy on HR positive (HR+) status of patients. @*Methods@#We retrospectively ana Patient clinical characteristics were compared usin lyzed women with stage II or III HER2+ breast cancer who underwent NAC followed by a breast cancer surgery between 2008 and 2013. The survival benefits of adding trastuzumab to NAC were analyzed by classifying patients into HR+ and HR negative (HR−) groups. @*Results@#Of 666 patients included in the study, 374 (52.1%) were HR+ and 319 (47.9%) were HR−. In the HR+ group, trastuzumab treatment led to higher pCR rates and significantly better breast cancer specific survival (BCSS) and overall survival (OS) than no trastuzumab treatment. However, among patients with HR− breast cancer, trastuzumab treatment showed no statistically significant difference between BCSS and OS following multivariate analysis. @*Conclusion@#We found that the addition of trastuzumab to NAC improved relative survival benefit in HER2+/HR+ patients than in HER2+/HR− patients, even though the pCR rate increases were lower. Although pCR has been regarded as a surrogate marker for estimating long-term survival benefits after NAC, it alone may not translate into real long-term oncologic outcomes in particular cancer subtypes after trastuzumab-based NAC. Further longer-term evaluation of the objective survival benefit after NAC driven by a dual HER2 block according to HR status is warranted.

10.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 92-99, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899021

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Palpability is known to be a poor prognostic factor for breast cancer. The present study analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of palpable and nonpalpable breast cancers using big data. @*Methods@#Between January 2005 and May 2019, a total of 15,141 patients were enrolled. All patients were diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinomas. Patients with unclear medical records, multiple tumors, bilateral breast cancers, inflammatory breast cancers, inoperable breast cancers and distant metastasis were excluded. Patients were divided into the palpable and nonpalpable breast cancer groups based on physicians’ clinical examinations. The clinicopathological characteristics and disease-specific survivals (DSS) were analyzed. @*Results@#Patients with palpable breast cancers were younger, had larger tumors, and higher tumor-node-metastasis stage (p<0.001) than patients with nonpalpable breast cancers. Palpable breast cancer cases had higher rates of lympho-vascular invasion, higher histologic and nuclear grades than nonpalpable breast cancer cases (p<0.001). The positive proportion of hormone receptor was higher in the nonpalpable breast cancer group than in the palpable breast cancer group, but that of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 was higher in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). The Ki-67 index was higher in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). Total mastectomy and axillary dissection were performed more frequently in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered more frequently in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group. However, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy were performed more frequently in nonpalpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). According to a multivariate analysis, younger age, lower body mass index, larger tumor size, tumor location, higher stage, higher histologic grade and higher Ki-67 index were associated with palpability (p<0.001). DSS was significantly lower in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). @*Conclusion@#Palpable breast cancers tend to be triple negative breast cancers and have higher histologic grade and, Ki-67 index and worse prognosis than nonpalpable breast cancers. Therefore, based on the results of the present study, treating palpable breast cancers requires careful attention.

11.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 521-532, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898971

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The regimen including concurrent docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (TAC) has been categorized as an important risk factor for febrile neutropenia (FN).This comparative study examined the clinical impact of long-acting granulocyte colonystimulating factor (G-CSF) (pegfilgrastim) during adjuvant TAC chemotherapy in Korean patients with advanced breast cancer. @*Methods@#We analyzed data from 239 patients who received 6 cycles of adjuvant TAC chemotherapy. We categorized patients into 2 groups according to the use of primary prophylactic pegfilgrastim and compared the incidence and risk of FN, hospital care costs, and survival in the 2 groups. @*Results@#The incidence of FN decreased from 54.2% to 21.2% in all patients, after the use of pegfilgrastim. The analysis of a total of 1,432 chemotherapy cycles showed that the incidence of FN decreased from 36.1% to 9.1% after the use of pegfilgrastim. Moreover, the decrease in the incidence of FN with the use of pegfilgrastim resulted in a significant decrease in the mean duration of neutropenia (4.15 to 1.29 days), the risk of hospitalization (99.5% to 29.7%) and the mean total hospital care cost (USD 3,038 to USD 2,347). High relative dose intensity (RDI) in patients treated with pegfilgrastim than in those not treated with pegfilgrastim (99.18% vs. 93.85%) was associated with a better overall survival (p = 0.033). @*Conclusions@#The use of pegfilgrastim during adjuvant TAC chemotherapy was significantly associated with a decrease in the incidence and risk of FN, hospital care costs, and risk of death compared to the use of adjuvant TAC without primary prophylaxis.

12.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 498-508, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898965

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The prognostic implications of serum vitamin D status after a 5-year adjuvant endocrine therapy on the risk of late recurrence among hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer patients remain unclear. Hence, we investigated this among Korean HRpositive breast cancer patients. @*Methods@#A total of 455 patients with HR-positive stage I–III invasive breast cancer who underwent curative surgery at St. Vincent's Hospital between February 2004 and April 2012 were included in this retrospective study. Patients were categorized based on their serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels after the 5-year adjuvant endocrine therapy. Initial recurrence sites were categorized. The primary clinical outcome was late recurrence-free survival (LRFS). @*Results@#Among the 455 patients, 242 and 213 were included in the 25(OH)D-deficient group and 25(OH)D-sufficient group, respectively. Forty-eight patients experienced late recurrence.Across all recurrence sites, the 25(OH)D-deficient group showed significantly worse LRFS rates than the 25(OH)D-sufficient group (hazard ratio [HR], 2.284; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.155–4.515; p = 0.018). After patient subgrouping based on recurrence site, the 25(OH)D-deficient group also showed significantly worse LRFS rates in terms of regional lymph node (LN) (HR, 17.453; 95% CI, 2.46–128.83; p = 0.005), bone (HR, 2.394; 95% CI, 1.024–5.599; p = 0.044), and visceral (HR, 2.735; 95% CI, 1.182–6.328; p = 0.019) recurrence.However, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of local recurrence (p = 0.611). @*Conclusions@#We found that 25(OH)D deficiency after the 5-year adjuvant endocrine therapy was associated with worse LRFS among HR-positive breast cancer patients, particularly with respect to regional LN, bone, and visceral recurrence.

13.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 92-99, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891317

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Palpability is known to be a poor prognostic factor for breast cancer. The present study analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of palpable and nonpalpable breast cancers using big data. @*Methods@#Between January 2005 and May 2019, a total of 15,141 patients were enrolled. All patients were diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinomas. Patients with unclear medical records, multiple tumors, bilateral breast cancers, inflammatory breast cancers, inoperable breast cancers and distant metastasis were excluded. Patients were divided into the palpable and nonpalpable breast cancer groups based on physicians’ clinical examinations. The clinicopathological characteristics and disease-specific survivals (DSS) were analyzed. @*Results@#Patients with palpable breast cancers were younger, had larger tumors, and higher tumor-node-metastasis stage (p<0.001) than patients with nonpalpable breast cancers. Palpable breast cancer cases had higher rates of lympho-vascular invasion, higher histologic and nuclear grades than nonpalpable breast cancer cases (p<0.001). The positive proportion of hormone receptor was higher in the nonpalpable breast cancer group than in the palpable breast cancer group, but that of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 was higher in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). The Ki-67 index was higher in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). Total mastectomy and axillary dissection were performed more frequently in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered more frequently in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group. However, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy were performed more frequently in nonpalpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). According to a multivariate analysis, younger age, lower body mass index, larger tumor size, tumor location, higher stage, higher histologic grade and higher Ki-67 index were associated with palpability (p<0.001). DSS was significantly lower in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). @*Conclusion@#Palpable breast cancers tend to be triple negative breast cancers and have higher histologic grade and, Ki-67 index and worse prognosis than nonpalpable breast cancers. Therefore, based on the results of the present study, treating palpable breast cancers requires careful attention.

14.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 521-532, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891267

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The regimen including concurrent docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (TAC) has been categorized as an important risk factor for febrile neutropenia (FN).This comparative study examined the clinical impact of long-acting granulocyte colonystimulating factor (G-CSF) (pegfilgrastim) during adjuvant TAC chemotherapy in Korean patients with advanced breast cancer. @*Methods@#We analyzed data from 239 patients who received 6 cycles of adjuvant TAC chemotherapy. We categorized patients into 2 groups according to the use of primary prophylactic pegfilgrastim and compared the incidence and risk of FN, hospital care costs, and survival in the 2 groups. @*Results@#The incidence of FN decreased from 54.2% to 21.2% in all patients, after the use of pegfilgrastim. The analysis of a total of 1,432 chemotherapy cycles showed that the incidence of FN decreased from 36.1% to 9.1% after the use of pegfilgrastim. Moreover, the decrease in the incidence of FN with the use of pegfilgrastim resulted in a significant decrease in the mean duration of neutropenia (4.15 to 1.29 days), the risk of hospitalization (99.5% to 29.7%) and the mean total hospital care cost (USD 3,038 to USD 2,347). High relative dose intensity (RDI) in patients treated with pegfilgrastim than in those not treated with pegfilgrastim (99.18% vs. 93.85%) was associated with a better overall survival (p = 0.033). @*Conclusions@#The use of pegfilgrastim during adjuvant TAC chemotherapy was significantly associated with a decrease in the incidence and risk of FN, hospital care costs, and risk of death compared to the use of adjuvant TAC without primary prophylaxis.

15.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 498-508, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891261

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The prognostic implications of serum vitamin D status after a 5-year adjuvant endocrine therapy on the risk of late recurrence among hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer patients remain unclear. Hence, we investigated this among Korean HRpositive breast cancer patients. @*Methods@#A total of 455 patients with HR-positive stage I–III invasive breast cancer who underwent curative surgery at St. Vincent's Hospital between February 2004 and April 2012 were included in this retrospective study. Patients were categorized based on their serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels after the 5-year adjuvant endocrine therapy. Initial recurrence sites were categorized. The primary clinical outcome was late recurrence-free survival (LRFS). @*Results@#Among the 455 patients, 242 and 213 were included in the 25(OH)D-deficient group and 25(OH)D-sufficient group, respectively. Forty-eight patients experienced late recurrence.Across all recurrence sites, the 25(OH)D-deficient group showed significantly worse LRFS rates than the 25(OH)D-sufficient group (hazard ratio [HR], 2.284; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.155–4.515; p = 0.018). After patient subgrouping based on recurrence site, the 25(OH)D-deficient group also showed significantly worse LRFS rates in terms of regional lymph node (LN) (HR, 17.453; 95% CI, 2.46–128.83; p = 0.005), bone (HR, 2.394; 95% CI, 1.024–5.599; p = 0.044), and visceral (HR, 2.735; 95% CI, 1.182–6.328; p = 0.019) recurrence.However, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of local recurrence (p = 0.611). @*Conclusions@#We found that 25(OH)D deficiency after the 5-year adjuvant endocrine therapy was associated with worse LRFS among HR-positive breast cancer patients, particularly with respect to regional LN, bone, and visceral recurrence.

16.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 97-104, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937766

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#The concurrent regimen of docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (TAC) has been categorized as a high-risk factor for febrile neutropenia (FN). The incidence of FN was reported to be as high as 17%–26% in studies conducted in Western countries. However, these rates may vary among different ethnic groups. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of FN and its effect on prognosis following adjuvant TAC chemotherapy in Korean patients with advanced breast cancer.@*METHODS@#We analyzed data from 187 patients who received 6 cycles of adjuvant TAC chemotherapy between July 2005 and December 2014. No patients received long-acting granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) as primary prophylaxis for FN due to guidelines for cost reimbursement in Korea. The incidence rates of FN, dose reduction of TAC, relative dose intensity (RDI), relapse-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) were investigated.@*RESULTS@#A total of 102 (54.5%) patients experienced FN, especially older patients (51 years vs. 49 years, p=0.045). RDI was lower in patients with FN than in those without (96.4% vs. 99.5%, p=0.001, respectively). Death was reported in 2 patients (2.35%) without FN and in 10 patients (9.80%) with FN (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.64; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28 to 34.36; p=0.024). No significant differences in RFS (p=0.235) were found using Kaplan-Meier analysis.@*CONCLUSION@#The incidence of FN was significantly higher in Korea than in Western countries, and FN had a negative impact on the patients' prognosis. Primary prophylactic G-CSF should be prioritized in Korean patients with advanced breast cancer who receive adjuvant TAC chemotherapy.

17.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 264-269, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83454

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics of pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) in comparison with non-pregnancy associated breast cancer (non-PABC). METHODS: A total of 344 eligible patients with PABC were identified in the Korean Breast Cancer Society Registry database. PABC was defined as ductal carcinoma in situ, invasive ductal carcinoma, or invasive lobular carcinoma diagnosed during pregnancy or within 1 year after the birth of a child. Patients with non-PABC were selected from the same database using a 1:2 matching method. The matching variables were operation, age, and initial stage. RESULTS: Patients with PABC had significantly lower survival rates than patient with non-PABC (10-year survival rate: PABC, 76.4%; non-PABC, 85.1%; p=0.011). PABC patients had higher histologic grade and were more frequently hormone receptor negative than non-PABC patients. Being overweight (body mass index [BMI], ≥23 kg/m²), early menarche (≤13 years), late age at first childbirth (≥30 years), and a family history of breast cancer were more common in the PABC group than in the non-PABC group. Multivariate analysis showed the following factors to be significantly associated with PABC (vs. non-PABC): early menarche (odds ratio [OR], 2.165; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.566–2.994; p<0.001), late age at first childbirth (OR, 2.446; 95% CI, 1.722–3.473; p<0.001), and being overweight (OR, 1.389; 95% CI, 1.007–1.917; p=0.045). CONCLUSION: Early menarche, late age at first childbirth, and BMI ≥23 kg/m² were more associated with PABC than non-PABC.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Ductal , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Carcinoma, Lobular , Menarche , Methods , Multivariate Analysis , Overweight , Parturition , Survival Rate
18.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 890-897, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160283

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The current TNM staging system for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), which is based on tumor diameter, may not precisely reflect the true tumor burden. Therefore, we investigated whether preoperative tumor volume might more accurately reflect tumor burden and predict prognosis in patients with T1N0 PTC than preoperative tumor diameter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data from 1,659 patients with T1N0 PTC, and after exclusion, a total of 1,081 patients were ultimately included. Tumor volume (V) was calculated for all patients using preoperative ultrasonography, and patients were grouped according to tumor diameter (T1a vs. T1b) and tumor volume (V1a vs. V1b). The recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were then compared for these groups. RESULTS: The mean follow-up time was 66.12±28.75 months, and 97.2% of the cohort experienced RFS. The optimal volume cut-off was defined as 0.545 cm³. There were no differences in RFS rates between T1a/T1b groups (all ages) and V1a/V1b groups (< 45 years of age). However, ≥ 45-year-old patients in the V1b group had a significantly poorer RFS rate than those in the V1a group. These results were confirmed by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that preoperative tumor volume may be more useful for predicting prognosis than tumor diameter in ≥ 45-year-old patients with T1N0 PTC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Tumor Burden , Ultrasonography
19.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 340-346, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194960

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The current multicenter phase II study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combination of docetaxel and gemcitabine as neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for locally advanced breast cancer. METHODS: A total of 98 patients with stage II–III breast cancer were enrolled. The primary endpoint was pathological complete response (pCR) rate of invasive cancer after the completion of the fourth cycle of NAC. The secondary endpoints included response rate (RR), rate of breast-conserving surgery, toxicity, and disease-free survival (DFS). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01352494). RESULTS: pCR in the breast and the axillary lymph node was observed in seven of the 98 enrolled patients (7.1%). The overall clinical RR, including partial responses, was 65.3%. Breast-conserving surgery was performed in 75 of the 98 assessable patients (76.5%). Neutropenia was frequent and was observed in 92 of the 98 patients (93.9%), including grade 3 and 4 in 24 patients (24.5%) and 63 patients (64.3%), respectively. Dose reductions were required for 30 of the 92 patients (32.6%). After a median follow-up of 24 months, the overall DFS of the group was 86.7%. CONCLUSION: The combination of docetaxel and gemcitabine did not improve pCR. However, this regimen has shown potential as a NAC by producing a reasonable rate of breast-conserving surgery and favorable responses in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. The therapeutic efficacy of this regimen will be determined in additional trials to overcome the limitations of the current study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Lymph Nodes , Mastectomy, Segmental , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neutropenia , Polymerase Chain Reaction
20.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 417-422, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28537

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Surgical clips are used as a target for postoperative breast radiotherapy, and displacement of surgical clips would result in inaccurate delivery of radiation. We investigated the displacement range of surgical clips in the breast during postoperative radiotherapy following breast-conserving surgery. METHODS: A total of 178 patients who received breast-conserving surgery and postoperative radiation of 59.4 Gy in 33 fractions to the involved breast for 6.5 weeks were included. Surgical clips were used to mark the lumpectomy cavity during breast-conserving surgery. Patients undertook planning computed tomography (CT) scan for whole breast irradiation. Five weeks after beginning radiation, when the irradiation dose was 45 Gy, planning CT scan was performed again for a boost radiotherapy plan in all patients. The surgical clips were defined in both CT images and compared in lateromedial (X), anteroposterior (Y), superoinferior (Z), and three-dimensional directions. RESULTS: The 90th percentile of displacement of surgical clips was 5.31 mm (range, 0.0–22.2 mm) in the lateromedial direction, 7.1 mm (range, 0.0–14.2 mm) in the anteroposterior direction, and 6.0 mm (range, 0.0–10.0 mm) in the superoinferior direction. The 90th percentile of three-dimensional displacement distance was 9.8 mm (range, 0.0–28.2 mm). On the multivariate analysis, seroma ≥15 mL was the only independent factor associated with the displacement of surgical clips. In patients with seroma ≥15 mL, the 90th percentile of displacement of surgical clips was 15.1 mm in the lateromedial direction, 12.7 mm in the anteroposterior direction, 10.0 mm in the superoinferior direction, and 21.8 mm in the three-dimensional distance. CONCLUSION: A target volume expansion of 10 mm from surgical clips may be sufficient to compensate for the displacement of clips during postoperative radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery. For patients who had a seroma, a replanning CT scan for a boost radiation should be considered to ensure exact postoperative radiotherapy in breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Mastectomy, Segmental , Multivariate Analysis , Radiotherapy , Seroma , Surgical Instruments , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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