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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938435

ABSTRACT

Although bicarbonate has traditionally been used to treat patients with rhabdomyolysis at high risk of acute kidney injury (AKI), it is unclear whether this is beneficial. This study compared bicarbonate therapy to non-bicarbonate therapy for the prevention of AKI and mortality in rhabdomyolysis patients. Methods: In a propensity score-matched cohort study, patients with a creatine kinase (CK) level of >1,000 U/L during hospitalization were divided into bicarbonate and non-bicarbonate groups. Patients were subgrouped based on low-volume (<3 mL/kg/hr) or high-volume (≥3 mL/kg/hr) fluid resuscitation in the first 72 hours. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the impacts of bicarbonate use and fluid resuscitation on AKI risk and need for dialysis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival. Volume overload and electrolyte imbalances were assessed. Results: Among 4,077 patients, we assembled a cohort of 887 pairs of patients treated with and without bicarbonate. Bicarbonate group had a higher incidence of AKI, higher rate of dialysis dependency, higher 30-day mortality, and longer hospital stay than the non-bicarbonate group. Further, patients who received high-volume fluid therapy had worse renal outcomes and a higher mortality than those who received low-volume fluids regardless of bicarbonate use. Bicarbonate use, volume overload, and AKI were associated with higher mortality. Volume overload was significantly higher in the bicarbonate group than in the non-bicarbonate group. Conclusion: Bicarbonate or high-volume fluid therapy for patients with rhabdomyolysis did not reduce AKI or improve mortality compared to non-bicarbonate or low-volume fluid therapy. Limited use of bicarbonate and adjustment of fluid volume may improve the short- and long-term outcomes of patients with rhabdomyolysis.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937435

ABSTRACT

Background@#No consensus exists regarding the early use of subcutaneous (SC) basal insulin facilitating the transition from continuous intravenous insulin infusion (CIII) to multiple SC insulin injections in patients with severe hyperglycemia other than diabetic ketoacidosis. This study evaluated the effect of early co-administration of SC basal insulin with CIII on glucose control in patients with severe hyperglycemia. @*Methods@#Patients who received CIII for the management of severe hyperglycemia were divided into two groups: the early basal insulin group (n=86) if they received the first SC basal insulin 0.25 U/kg body weight within 24 hours of CIII initiation and ≥4 hours before discontinuation, and the delayed basal insulin group (n=79) if they were not classified as the early basal insulin group. Rebound hyperglycemia was defined as blood glucose level of >250 mg/dL in 24 hours following CIII discontinuation. Propensity score matching (PSM) methods were additionally employed for adjusting the confounding factors (n=108). @*Results@#The rebound hyperglycemia incidence was significantly lower in the early basal insulin group than in the delayed basal insulin group (54.7% vs. 86.1%), despite using PSM methods (51.9%, 85.2%). The length of hospital stay was shorter in the early basal insulin group than in the delayed basal insulin group (8.5 days vs. 9.6 days, P=0.027). The hypoglycemia incidence did not differ between the groups. @*Conclusion@#Early co-administration of basal insulin with CIII prevents rebound hyperglycemia and shorten hospital stay without increasing the hypoglycemic events in patients with severe hyperglycemia.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898205

ABSTRACT

Background@#Prospective comparative studies on the effects of various antidiabetic agents on bone metabolism are limited. This study aimed to assess changes in bone mass and biochemical bone markers in postmenopausal patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#This prospective, multicenter, open-label, comparative trial included 264 patients with T2DM. Patients who had received a metformin, or sulfonylurea/metformin combination (Group 1); a thiazolidinedione combination (Group 2); a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (gemigliptin) combination (Group 3); or an sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (empagliflozin) combination (Group 4) were prospectively treated for 12 months; bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover marker (BTM) changes were evaluated. @*Results@#The femoral neck BMD percentage changes were −0.79%±2.86% (Group 1), −2.50%±3.08% (Group 2), −1.05%±2.74% (Group 3), and −1.24%±2.91% (Group 4) (P<0.05). The total hip BMD percentage changes were −0.57%±1.79% (Group 1), −1.74%±1.48% (Group 2), −0.75%±1.87% (Group 3), and −1.27%±1.72% (Group 4) (P<0.05). Mean serum BTM (C-terminal type 1 collagen telopeptide and procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide) levels measured during the study period did not change over time or differ between groups. @*Conclusion@#Significant bone loss in the femoral neck and total hip was associated with thiazolidinedione combination regimens. However, bone loss was not significantly associated with combination regimens including gemigliptin or empagliflozin. Caution should be exercised during treatment with antidiabetic medications that adversely affect the bone in patients with diabetes at a high risk of bone loss.

4.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 317-323, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914803

ABSTRACT

Background@#Romosozumab has shown significant improvement in bone mineral density (BMD) in previously reported trials. However, BMD reflects only bone strength and does not offer insight into the bone microarchitecture. The trabecular bone score (TBS) is a non-invasive tool used to assess bone microarchitecture. Several previous studies have evaluated the efficacy of anti-osteoporotic agents using the TBS. However, data regarding the potency of romosozumab based on the TBS is lacking. This retrospective observational cohort study demonstrated the impact of romosozumab use on the TBS. @*Methods@#The primary outcome was the percentage change in the TBS from baseline to post-treatment. Postmenopausal osteoporosis patients were followed up for 6 and 12 months after romosozumab (210 mg monthly, N =10) and denosumab (60 mg every 6 months, N=21) or ibandronate (150 mg monthly, N=24) treatments, respectively. Patients who had previously used osteoporosis medications were included, if any the washout period was sufficient. @*Results@#The percentage change in TBS from baseline to post-treatment was 2.53±2.98% (6 months, N=10; P=0.04), 0.59%±3.26% (12 months, N=21; P=0.48), and -0.45±3.66% (12 months, N=24; P=0.51) in the romosozumab, denosumab, and ibandronate groups, respectively. Romosozumab demonstrated a noticeable increase in TBS, although it did not reach the least significant change (5.8%) in TBS. @*Conclusions@#Romosozumab improved the TBS in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. TBS may be potentially useful for monitoring romosozumab treatment.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890501

ABSTRACT

Background@#Prospective comparative studies on the effects of various antidiabetic agents on bone metabolism are limited. This study aimed to assess changes in bone mass and biochemical bone markers in postmenopausal patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#This prospective, multicenter, open-label, comparative trial included 264 patients with T2DM. Patients who had received a metformin, or sulfonylurea/metformin combination (Group 1); a thiazolidinedione combination (Group 2); a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (gemigliptin) combination (Group 3); or an sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (empagliflozin) combination (Group 4) were prospectively treated for 12 months; bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover marker (BTM) changes were evaluated. @*Results@#The femoral neck BMD percentage changes were −0.79%±2.86% (Group 1), −2.50%±3.08% (Group 2), −1.05%±2.74% (Group 3), and −1.24%±2.91% (Group 4) (P<0.05). The total hip BMD percentage changes were −0.57%±1.79% (Group 1), −1.74%±1.48% (Group 2), −0.75%±1.87% (Group 3), and −1.27%±1.72% (Group 4) (P<0.05). Mean serum BTM (C-terminal type 1 collagen telopeptide and procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide) levels measured during the study period did not change over time or differ between groups. @*Conclusion@#Significant bone loss in the femoral neck and total hip was associated with thiazolidinedione combination regimens. However, bone loss was not significantly associated with combination regimens including gemigliptin or empagliflozin. Caution should be exercised during treatment with antidiabetic medications that adversely affect the bone in patients with diabetes at a high risk of bone loss.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Lymphocytic thyroiditis as cytology diagnosis from fine needle aspiration (FNA) is frequently detected in patients with thyroid nodules. However, the clinical outcome for upcoming hypothyroid events has been rarely clarified in euthyroid patients.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively reviewed the data of patient who had lymphocytic thyroitidis on FNA cytology of thyroid nodule from January 2005 to December 2010 at a tertiary referral hospital. In total, 109 patients with follow-up thyroid function tests (TFT) were enrolled. Final outcomes included overt and subclinical hypothyroidism with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels ≥ 10 mIU/L. Potential parameters predicting clinical hypothyroidism were analyzed by multivariate analysis.@*RESULTS@#Over the mean follow-up duration of 51.6 months, 14 out of 109 patients (12.8%) developed clinical hypothyroidism that required thyroid hormone replacement. The median onset time to hypothyroidism was 16 months (range, 3 to 88) and ≥ 60% of patients experienced clinical hypothyroidism within 1 year. By multivariate analysis, background thyroiditis (relative risk [RR], 9.78; p = 0.004), thyroid peroxidase antibody positivity (RR, 9.90; p = 0.003), nodule size (RR, 1.24; p < 0.001), and initial TSH (RR, 1.47; p = 0.009) were the independent risk factors for predicting hypothyroidism in euthyroid patients.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Hypothyroidism frequently occurs during the follow-up in euthyroid patients with thyroid nodules which show lymphocytic thyroiditis on FNA cytology. Close surveillance and regular TFT are needed in high-risk patients for upcoming clinical hypothyroidism.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159420

ABSTRACT

A hospitalist-run acute medical unit (AMU) opened at a tertiary care hospital on August 2015 for the first time in Korea. Patients visiting the emergency department (ED) with acute medical problems are admitted to the AMU. They stay in that unit for less than 72 hours and are discharged or transferred to specialty wards if longer treatment is necessary. We reviewed 19,450 medical admissions through the ED from January 2014 to September 2016. The median length of stay (LOS) significantly decreased from 10.0 days (interquartile range [IQR], 5.5–16.7) to 9.1 days (IQR, 5.1–15.0) (P < 0.001) after the establishment of the AMU. The median waiting time in the ED significantly shortened by 40% (P < 0.001). Future studies on the impact of AMU on in-patient morbidity, mortality, re-admission rate, and patient or staff satisfaction are necessary.


Subject(s)
Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospital Medicine , Hospitalists , Humans , Korea , Length of Stay , Mortality , Tertiary Healthcare
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36341

ABSTRACT

The three major forms of treatment for Graves thyrotoxicosis are antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine therapy and thyroidectomy. Surgery is the definitive treatment for Graves thyrotoxicosis that is generally recommended when other treatments have failed or are contraindicated. Generally, thyrotoxic patients should be euthyroid before surgery to minimize potential complications which usually requires preoperative management with thionamides or inorganic iodine. But several cases of refractory Graves' disease have shown resistance to conventional treatment. Here we report a 40-year-old female patient with Graves' disease who complained of thyrotoxic symptoms for 7 months. Her thyroid function test and thyroid autoantibody profiles were consistent with Graves' disease. One kind of thionamides and beta-blocker were started to control her disease. However, she was resistant to nearly all conventional medical therapies, including beta-blockers, inorganic iodine, and two thionamides. She experienced hepatotoxicity from the thionamides. What was worse is her past history of serious allergic reaction to corticosteroids, which are often used to help control symptoms. A 2-week regimen of high-dose cholestyramine improved her uncontrolled thyrotoxicosis and subsequent thyroidectomy was successfully performed. In conclusion, cholestyramine could be administered as an effective and safe adjunctive agent for preoperative preparation in patients with severe hyperthyroid Graves's disease that is resistant to conventional therapies.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Adult , Antithyroid Agents , Cholestyramine Resin , Drug Resistance , Female , Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI , Graves Disease , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Iodine , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland , Thyroidectomy , Thyrotoxicosis
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-103835

ABSTRACT

Sorafenib is an emerging therapeutic option for radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory differentiated thyroid carcinoma. However, the effects of sorafenib as an adjuvant treatment following surgery or radiation on brain metastases from poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) have never been reported. A 52-year-old patient underwent total thyroidectomy for follicular thyroid carcinoma. Despite high-dose RAI therapy, a neck mass and lung metastases were developed. PDTC was diagnosed by neck mass removal. During adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to the neck, brain metastases developed. After palliative EBRT for brain metastases, the brain tumor size decreased but lung metastases markedly progressed. Off-label sorafenib was used to treat progressive multiple metastatic lesions. Over five months of sorafenib treatment, the sum of the longest diameters for target lesions was decreased by 45% in brain and 13% in lung. Sorafenib can be considered a new adjuvant therapeutic option for metastatic brain lesions from PDTC after EBRT.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma, Follicular , Brain Neoplasms , Brain , Humans , Iodine , Lung , Middle Aged , Neck , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153659

ABSTRACT

Bevacizumab (Avastin(R)) is a monoclonal antibody against the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor that increases the overall survival rate when added to standard chemotherapy regimens in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. The known toxicities of bevacizumab are hypertension, proteinuria, wound healing complications, arterial thrombosis, bleeding, and gastrointestinal complications. Especially ischemic colitis can rapidly develop into bowel perforation, so an emergency operation often is needed. Recently, a 65-year-old male patient developed ischemic pancolitis after FOLFOX (85 mg/m2 Oxaliplatin, d1;200 mg/m2 Leucovorin, d1;400 mg/m2 5-FU iv bolus, d1-2;and 600 mg/m2 5-FU, d1-2, every two wk) and Bevacizumab combination chemotherapy was administered. However, he recovered after early conservative care without surgery. We report this case with a review of literature.


Subject(s)
Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Colitis, Ischemic/chemically induced , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Drug Administration Schedule , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Humans , Intubation, Gastrointestinal , Leucovorin/administration & dosage , Male , Organoplatinum Compounds/administration & dosage , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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