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1.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 252-263, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894962

ABSTRACT

Background@#Particulate matter (PM) is one of the principal causes of human respiratory disabilities resulting from air pollution. Animal models have been applied to discover preventive and therapeutic drugs for lung diseases caused by PM. However, the induced severity of lung injury in animal models using PM varies from study to study due to disparities in the preparation of PM, and the route and number of PM administrations. In this study, we established an in vivo model to evaluate PM-induced lung injury in mice. @*Results@#PM dispersion was prepared using SRM2975. Reactive oxygen species were increased in MLE 12 cells exposed to this PM dispersion. In vivo studies were conducted in the PM single challenge model, PM multiple challenge model, and PM challenge with ovalbumin-induced asthma using the PM dispersion. No histopathological changes were observed in lung tissues after a single injection of PM, whereas mild to moderate lung inflammation was obtained in the lungs of mice exposed to PM three times. However, fibrotic changes were barely seen, even though transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed the presence of PM particles in the alveolar macrophages and alveolar capillaries. In the OVA-PM model, peribronchial inflammation and mucous hypersecretion were more severe in the OVA+PM group than the OVA group. Serum IgE levels tended to increase in OVA+PM group than in OVA group. @*Conclusions@#In this study, we established a PM-induced lung injury model to examine the lung damage induced by PM. Based on our results, repeated exposures of PM are necessary to induce lung inflammation by PM alone. PM challenge, in the presence of underlying diseases such as asthma, can also be an appropriate model for studying the health effect of PM.

2.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 252-263, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902666

ABSTRACT

Background@#Particulate matter (PM) is one of the principal causes of human respiratory disabilities resulting from air pollution. Animal models have been applied to discover preventive and therapeutic drugs for lung diseases caused by PM. However, the induced severity of lung injury in animal models using PM varies from study to study due to disparities in the preparation of PM, and the route and number of PM administrations. In this study, we established an in vivo model to evaluate PM-induced lung injury in mice. @*Results@#PM dispersion was prepared using SRM2975. Reactive oxygen species were increased in MLE 12 cells exposed to this PM dispersion. In vivo studies were conducted in the PM single challenge model, PM multiple challenge model, and PM challenge with ovalbumin-induced asthma using the PM dispersion. No histopathological changes were observed in lung tissues after a single injection of PM, whereas mild to moderate lung inflammation was obtained in the lungs of mice exposed to PM three times. However, fibrotic changes were barely seen, even though transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed the presence of PM particles in the alveolar macrophages and alveolar capillaries. In the OVA-PM model, peribronchial inflammation and mucous hypersecretion were more severe in the OVA+PM group than the OVA group. Serum IgE levels tended to increase in OVA+PM group than in OVA group. @*Conclusions@#In this study, we established a PM-induced lung injury model to examine the lung damage induced by PM. Based on our results, repeated exposures of PM are necessary to induce lung inflammation by PM alone. PM challenge, in the presence of underlying diseases such as asthma, can also be an appropriate model for studying the health effect of PM.

3.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 154-164, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786408

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we investigated the effects of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) on novel object recognition, cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation in the hippocampus. To facilitate penetration into the blood–brain barrier and neuronal plasma membrane, we created a Tat-HSP70 fusion protein. Eight-week-old mice received intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (10% glycerol), control-HSP70, or Tat-HSP70 protein once a day for 21 days. To elucidate the delivery efficiency of HSP70 into the hippocampus, western blot analysis for polyhistidine was conducted. Polyhistidine protein levels were significantly increased in control-HSP70- and Tat-HSP70-treated groups compared to the control or vehicle-treated group. However, polyhistidine protein levels were significantly higher in the Tat-HSP70-treated group compared to that in the control-HSP70-treated group. In addition, immunohistochemical study for HSP70 showed direct evidences for induction of HSP70 immunoreactivity in the control-HSP70- and Tat-HSP70-treated groups. Administration of Tat-HSP70 increased the novel object recognition memory compared to untreated mice or mice treated with the vehicle. In addition, the administration of Tat-HSP70 significantly increased the populations of proliferating cells and differentiated neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus compared to those in the control or vehicle-treated group based on the Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX) immunostaining. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) was significantly enhanced in the dentate gyrus of the Tat-HSP70-treated group compared to that in the control or vehicle-treated group. Western blot study also demonstrated the increases of DCX and pCREB protein levels in the Tat-HSP70-treated group compared to that in the control or vehicle-treated group. In contrast, administration of control-HSP70 moderately increased the novel object recognition memory, cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus compared to that in the control or vehicle-treated group. These results suggest that Tat-HSP70 promoted hippocampal functions by increasing the pCREB in the hippocampus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Cell Membrane , Cell Proliferation , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Dentate Gyrus , Heat-Shock Proteins , Hippocampus , Hot Temperature , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Memory , Mice , Neurons , Phosphorylation
4.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 176-184, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718851

ABSTRACT

In this study, we observed chronological changes in the immunoreactivity and expression level of myelin basic protein (MBP), one of the most abundant proteins in the central nervous system, in the hippocampus of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and their control littermates (Zucker lean control; ZLC). In the ZLC group, body weight steadily increased with age; the body weight of the ZDF group, however, peaked at 30 weeks of age, and subsequently decreased. Based on the changes of body weight, animals were divided into the following six groups: early (12-week), middle (30-week), and chronic (52-week) diabetic groups and their controls. MBP immunoreactivity was found in the alveus, strata pyramidale, and lacunosum-moleculare of the CA1 region, strata pyramidale and radiatum of the CA3 region, and subgranular zone, polymorphic layer, and molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. MBP immunoreactivity was lowest in the hippocampus of 12-week-old rats in the ZLC group, and highest in 12-week-old rats in the ZDF group. Diabetes increased MBP levels in the 12-week-old group, while MBP immunoreactivity decreased in the 30-week-old group. In the 52-week-old ZLC and ZDF groups, MBP immunoreactivity was detected in the hippocampus, similar to the 30-week-old ZDF group. Western blot results corroborated with immunohistochemical results. These results suggested that changes in the immunoreactivity and expression of MBP in the hippocampus might be a compensatory response to aging, while the sustained levels of MBP in diabetic animals could be attributed to a loss of compensatory responses in oligodendrocytes.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Blotting, Western , Body Weight , Central Nervous System , Dentate Gyrus , Hippocampus , Models, Animal , Myelin Basic Protein , Myelin Sheath , Oligodendroglia , Rats
5.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 239-247, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718843

ABSTRACT

Bacopa monnieri is a medicinal plant with a long history of use in Ayurveda, especially in the treatment of poor memory and cognitive deficits. In the present study, we hypothesized that Bacopa monnieri extract (BME) can improve memory via increased cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus. BME was administered to 7-week-old mice once a day for 4 weeks and a novel object recognition memory test was performed. Thereafter, the mice were euthanized followed by immunohistochemistry analysis for Ki67, doublecortin (DCX), and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and western blot analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BME-treated mice showed moderate increases in the exploration of new objects when compared with that of familiar objects, leading to a significant higher discrimination index compared with vehicle-treated mice. Ki67 and DCX immunohistochemistry showed a facilitation of cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation following the administration of BME in the dentate gyrus. In addition, administration of BME significantly elevated the BDNF protein expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, and increased CREB phosphorylation in the dentate gyrus. These data suggest that BME improves novel object recognition by increasing the cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus, and this may be closely related to elevated levels of BDNF and CREB phosphorylation in the dentate gyrus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacopa , Blotting, Western , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Cell Proliferation , Cognition Disorders , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Dentate Gyrus , Discrimination, Psychological , Immunohistochemistry , Memory , Mice , Neurogenesis , Phosphorylation , Plants, Medicinal
6.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 283-290, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101365

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we examined the effects of Dendropanax morbifera Léveille leaf extract (DML) on D-galactose-induced morphological changes in microglia and cytokines, including pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) in the hippocampus. Administration of DML to D-galactose-treated mice significantly improved D-galactose-induced reduction in escape latency, swimming speed, and spatial preference for the target quadrant. In addition, administration of DML to D-galactose-treated mice significantly ameliorated the microglial activation and increases of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in the hippocampus. Administration of D-galactose significantly reduced IL-4 levels in the hippocampus, while administration of DML to D-galactose-treated mice significantly increased IL-4 level. However, we did not observe any significant changes in IL-10 levels in hippocampal homogenates. These results suggest that DML reduces D-galactose-induced mouse senescence by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, as well as increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Cytokines , Galactose , Hippocampus , Inflammation , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-6 , Memory Disorders , Memory , Mice , Microglia , Swimming , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , United Nations
7.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 114-118, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-204554

ABSTRACT

Glucose is essential for testicular function; the uptake of carbohydrate-derived glucose by cells is mediated by glucose transporters (GLUTs). In the present study, we investigated the activity of GLUT1 and GLUT3, the two main isoforms of GLUTs found in testes, in the left scrotal and right abdominal testes of a German Shepherd dog. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that GLUT1 immunoreactivity was absent in the scrotal and abdominal testes. In contrast, weak to moderate GLUT3 immunoreactivity was observed in mature spermatocytes as well as spermatids in the scrotal testis. In the abdominal testis, relatively strong GLUT3 immunoreactivity was detected in Leydig cells only and was absent in mature spermatocytes and spermatids. GLUT3 immunoreactivity was significantly decreased in the tubular region of abdominal testis and significantly increased in the extra-tubular (interstitial) region of abdominal testis compared to observations in the each region of scrotal testis, respectively. These results suggest that GLUT3 is the major glucose transporter in the testes and that abdominal testes may increase the uptake of glucose into interstitial areas, leading to an increased risk of developing cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cryptorchidism , Dogs , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Glucose , Leydig Cells , Male , Protein Isoforms , Spermatids , Spermatocytes , Testis
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110770

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic aluminum (Al) exposure for 10 weeks on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the hippocampus of type 2 diabetic rats. Six-week-old Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and Zucker lean control (ZLC) rats were selected and randomly divided into Al- and non-Al-groups. Al was administered via drinking water for 10 weeks, after which the animals were sacrificed at 16 weeks of age. ZDF rats in both Al- and non-Al-groups showed increases in body weight and blood glucose levels compared to ZLC rats. Al exposure did not significantly affect body weight, blood glucose levels or pancreatic β-cells and morphology of the pancreas in either ZLC or ZDF rats. However, exposure to Al reduced cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in both ZLC and ZDF rats. Exposure to Al resulted in poor development of the dendritic processes of neuroblasts in both ZLC and ZDF rats. Furthermore, onset and continuation of diabetes reduced cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation, and Al exposure amplified reduction of these parameters. These results suggest that Al exposure via drinking water aggravates the impairment in hippocampal neurogenesis that is typically observed in type 2 diabetic animals.


Subject(s)
Aluminum/toxicity , Animals , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus/drug effects , Neurogenesis/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats, Zucker
9.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 151-159, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-94498

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder occurring in the gastrointestinal track. However, the efficacy of current therapeutic strategies has been limited and accompanied by side effects. In order to eliminate the limitations, herbal medicines have recently been developed for treatment of IBD. Peuraria Lobata (Peuraria L.) is one of the traditional herbal medicines that have anti-inflammatory effects. Bioavailability of Peuraria L., which is rich in isoflavones, is lower than that of their fermented forms. In this study, we generated fermented Peuraria L. extracts (fPue) and investigated the role of fPue in inflammation and intestinal barrier function in vitro and in vivo. As the mice or intestinal epithelial cells were treated with DSS/fPue, mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was reduced and the architecture and expression of tight junction proteins were recovered, compared to the DSS-treated group. In summary, fPue treatment resulted in amelioration of DSS-induced inflammation in the colon, and the disrupted intestinal barrier was recovered as the expression and architecture of tight junction proteins were retrieved. These results suggest that use of fPue could be a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of IBD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biological Availability , Colitis , Colon , Cytokines , Dextran Sulfate , Dextrans , Epithelial Cells , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Isoflavones , Mice , Pueraria , RNA, Messenger , Tight Junction Proteins
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167822

ABSTRACT

In this study, we observed the ontogenetic changes in glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) immunoreactivity, a major neuronal GLUT, in the dentate gyrus of mouse brains at various ages: postnatal day (P) 1, 7, 14, 28, and 56. At P1, cresyl violet staining showed abundant neurons in the dentate gyrus, whereas the granule cell layer was ill-defined. At P7, the granule cell layer was observed, and cresyl violet-positive cells were dispersed throughout the polymorphic layer. At P14, the granule cell layer was well-defined, and cresyl violet positive cells were detected abundantly in the polymorphic layer. At P28 and P56, cresyl violet-positive cells were observed in the granule cell layer, as well as in the polymorphic layer. At P1, GLUT3 immunoreactivity was detected in the dentate gyrus. At P7, GLUT3 immunoreactive cells were scattered in the polymorphic and molecular layer. However, at P14, GLUT3 immunoreactivity was observed in the polymorphic layer as well as subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. At P28, GLUT3 immunoreactivity was detected in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus. At P56, GLUT3 immunoreactivity was observed predominantly in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. GLUT3 immunoreactive cells were mainly colocalized with doublecortin, which is a marker for differentiated neuroblasts, in the polymorphic layer and subgranular zone of dentate gyrus at P14 and P56. These results suggest that the expression of GLUT3 is closely associated with postnatal development of the dentate gyrus and adult neurogenesis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Brain , Dentate Gyrus , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Glucose , Humans , Mice , Neurogenesis , Neurons , Viola
11.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 224-230, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-221834

ABSTRACT

We investigated the effects of the sirtuin-2 (SIRT2) inhibitor AK-7 on novel object memory, cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus. In addition, we also observed the relationships with sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on the hippocampal functions. To investigate the effects of AK-7 on hippocampal functions, 10-week-old C57BL/6 mice were daily injected intraperitoneally with 20 mg/kg AK-7 alone or in combination with subcutaneous administration of 300 mg/kg sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, for 21 days. A novel object recognition test was conducted on days 20 (training) and 21 (testing) of treatment. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed for immunohistochemistry for Ki67 (cell proliferation) and doublecortin (DCX, neuroblast differentiation). AK-7 administration significantly reduced the time spent exploring new objects, while treatment in combination with sodium butyrate significantly alleviated this reduction. Additionally, AK-7 administration significantly reduced the number of Ki67-positive cells and DCX-immunoreactive neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus, while the treatment in combination with sodium butyrate ameliorated these changes. This result suggests that the reduction of SIRT2 may be closely related to age-related phenotypes including novel object memory, as well as cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus. In addition, sodium butyrate reverses SIRT2-related age phenotypes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Butyric Acid , Cell Proliferation , Dentate Gyrus , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors , Immunohistochemistry , Memory , Mice , Neurogenesis , Phenotype , Sirtuin 2 , Sodium
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121460

ABSTRACT

Aluminum (Al) accumulation increases with aging, and long-term exposure to Al is regarded as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of Al and/or D-galactose on neural stem cells, proliferating cells, differentiating neuroblasts, and mature neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. AlCl3 (40 mg/kg/day) was intraperitoneally administered to C57BL/6J mice for 4 weeks. In addition, vehicle (physiological saline) or D-galactose (100 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected to these mice immediately after AlCl3 treatment. Neural stem cells, proliferating cells, differentiating neuroblasts, and mature neurons were detected using the relevant marker for each cell type, including nestin, Ki67, doublecortin, and NeuN, respectively, via immunohistochemistry. Subchronic (4 weeks) exposure to Al in mice reduced neural stem cells, proliferating cells, and differentiating neuroblasts without causing any changes to mature neurons. This Al-induced reduction effect was exacerbated in D-galactose-treated mice compared to vehicle-treated adult mice. Moreover, exposure to Al enhanced lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus and expression of antioxidants such as Cu, Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase in D-galactose-treated mice. These results suggest that Al accelerates the reduction of neural stem cells, proliferating cells, and differentiating neuroblasts in D-galactose-treated mice via oxidative stress, without inducing loss in mature neurons.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aging , Aluminum , Alzheimer Disease , Animals , Antioxidants , Dentate Gyrus , Galactose , Hippocampus , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lipid Peroxidation , Mice , Nestin , Neural Stem Cells , Neurons , Oxidative Stress , Risk Factors , Superoxide Dismutase
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-66462

ABSTRACT

Inducible cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has received much attention because of its role in neuro-inflammation and synaptic plasticity. Even though COX-2 levels are high in healthy animals, the function of this factor in adult neurogenesis has not been clearly demonstrated. Therefore, we performed the present study to compare the effects of pharmacological and genetic inhibition of COX-2 on adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Physiological saline or the same volume containing celecoxib was administered perorally every day for 5 weeks using a feeding needle. Compared to the control, pharmacological and genetic inhibition of COX-2 reduced the appearance of nestin-immunoreactive neural stem cells, Ki67-positive nuclei, and doublecortin-immunoreactive neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus. In addition, a decrease in phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB) at Ser133 was observed. Compared to pharmacological inhibition, genetic inhibition of COX-2 resulted in significant reduction of neural stem cells, cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation as well as pCREB levels. These results suggest that COX-2 is part of the molecular machinery that regulates neural stem cells, cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation during adult hippocampal neurogenesis via pCREB. Additionally, genetic inhibition of COX-2 strongly reduced neural stem cell populations, cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus compared to pharmacological inhibition.


Subject(s)
Animals , Celecoxib/pharmacology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cyclooxygenase 2/genetics , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Dentate Gyrus/drug effects , Male , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Neural Stem Cells/drug effects , Neurogenesis/drug effects
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-206918

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on lipid peroxidation and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) levels in the hippocampus of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and lean control rats (ZLC) during the onset of diabetes. At 7 weeks of age, ZLC and ZDF rats were either placed on a stationary treadmill or made to run for 1 h/day for 5 consecutive days at 16~22 m/min for 5 weeks. At 12 weeks of age, the ZDF rats had significantly higher blood glucose levels and body weight than the ZLC rats. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the hippocampus of the ZDF rats were significantly higher than those of the ZLC rats whereas SOD1 levels in the hippocampus of the ZDF rats were moderately decreased. Notably, treadmill exercise prevented the increase of blood glucose levels in ZDF rats. In addition, treadmill exercise significantly ameliorated changes in MDA and SOD1 levels in the hippocampus although SOD activity was not altered. These findings suggest that diabetes increases lipid peroxidation and decreases SOD1 levels, and treadmill exercise can mitigate diabetes-induced oxidative damage in the hippocampus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus/enzymology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Genotype , Hippocampus/enzymology , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Male , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Rats , Rats, Zucker , Superoxide Dismutase/genetics
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69673

ABSTRACT

In this study, we determined how rosiglitazone (RSG) differentially affected hippocampal neurogenesis in mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% fat). LFD and HFD were given to the mice for 8 weeks. Four weeks after initiating the LFD and HFD feeding, vehicle or RSG was administered orally once a day to both groups of mice. We measured cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus using Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX), respectively, as markers. In addition, we monitored the effects of RSG on the levels of DCX and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampal homogenates. At 8 weeks after the LFD feeding, the numbers of Ki67- and DCX-positive cells as well as hippocampal levels of DCX and BDNF were significantly decreased in the RSG-treated group compared to the vehicle-treated animals. In contrast, the numbers of Ki67- and DCX-positive cells along with hippocampal levels of DCX and BDNF in the HFD fed mice were significantly increased in the RSG-treated mice compared to the vehicle-treated group. Our data demonstrate that RSG can modulate the levels of BDNF, which could play a pivotal role in cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Dentate Gyrus/growth & development , Diet, Fat-Restricted , Diet, High-Fat , Hippocampus/growth & development , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Immunohistochemistry , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Neurogenesis/drug effects , Neuropeptides/metabolism , Thiazolidinediones/pharmacology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124667

ABSTRACT

Pig pancreas may be a therapeutic resource for human diabetic patients. However, this potential is hindered by a lack of knowledge of the molecular events of pig pancreas development. In this study, the embryonic day 60, neonate and 6-month protein profiles of pig pancreas were ascertained at using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Twenty four proteins were differentially expressed during pig pancreas development. Among them, 12 spots increased and 7 spots decreased according to development. The expression of 5 protein were highest at birth. Expression of digestive enzymes including trypsin, pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase and pancreatic alpha-amylase was elevated in adults, whereas chymotrypsins were highly expressed in neonates. Proteins that were abundantly expressed during gestation were alpha-1-antitrypsin, alpha-fetoprotein and transferrins. Taken together, we found out that several proteins were significantly up- or down- regulated from pig pancreas based on developmental stage. This study will provide basis for understanding development of pig pancreas.


Subject(s)
Adult , alpha-Amylases , alpha-Fetoproteins , Chymotrypsin , Electrophoresis , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Lipase , Mass Spectrometry , Pancreas , Parturition , Pregnancy , Sus scrofa , Transferrin , Transferrins , Trypsin
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-24555

ABSTRACT

Natural toxic substances have a bitter taste and their ingestion sends signals to the brain leading to aversive oral sensations. In the present study, we investigated chronological changes in c-Fos immunoreactivity in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) to study the bitter taste reaction time of neurons in the NTS. Equal volumes (0.5 mL) of denatonium benzoate (DB), a bitter tastant, or its vehicle (distilled water) were administered to rats intragastrically. The rats were sacrificed at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 h after treatment. In the vehicle-treated group, the number of c-Fos-positive nuclei started to increase 0.5 h after treatment and peaked 2 h after gavage. In contrast, the number of c-Fos-positive nuclei in the DB-treated group significantly increased 1 h after gavage. Thereafter, the number of c-Fos immunoreactive nuclei decreased over time. The number of c-Fos immunoreactive nuclei in the NTS was also increased in a dose-dependent manner 1 h after gavage. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy significantly decreased DB-induced neuronal activation in the NTS. These results suggest that intragastric DB increases neuronal c-Fos expression in the NTS 1 h after gavage and this effect is mediated by vagal afferent fibers.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Afferent Pathways/physiology , Animals , Injections/veterinary , Ligands , Male , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Solitary Nucleus/physiology , Vagus Nerve/drug effects
18.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 114-120, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14605

ABSTRACT

Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a neuropeptide with vasoconstrictive, antidiuretic, cardiovascular regulative and hepatic glycogenolysis effects, that also affects other behaviors including modulating learning. A number of studies on AVP regulation have been conducted in various metabolic diseases (disorders). In this study, the immunoreactivities of AVP in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) and mRNA expressions in the hypothalamus were investigated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats at different ages (i.e., at postnatal months [PM] 1, 8, and 12). Blood glucose levels in the PM 8 group were higher than in the other groups. However, cresyl violet positive neurons were detected in the PVN and SON of all animals, and numbers of cresyl violet positive neurons were similar in all aged groups. In addition, AVP immunoreactivity was detected in the PVN and SON of all age groups, and AVP immunoreactivity and mRNA expression levels were found to be increased in proportion to age by immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR. These results suggest that the diabetic condition is temporally generated after hypertension has developed. Furthermore, our findings suggest that increased AVP expressions in the hypothalamic PVN and SON are associated with hypertension by age.


Subject(s)
Aged , Animals , Arginine , Arginine Vasopressin , Benzoxazines , Blood Glucose , Glycogenolysis , Humans , Hypertension , Hypothalamus , Immunohistochemistry , Learning , Metabolic Diseases , Molybdenum , Neurons , Neuropeptides , Oxides , Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus , Rats, Inbred SHR , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Supraoptic Nucleus , Viola
19.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 189-195, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-95407

ABSTRACT

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is believed to be a multifunctional neural modulator that affects synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. In the present study, we investigated the differential effects of treadmill exercise on COX-2 immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus in early and chronic diabetic stages in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and lean control (ZLC) rats. To this end, ZLC and ZDF rats at 6 or 23 weeks of age were put on a treadmill with or without running for 1 h/day for 5 consecutive days at 16-22 m/min for 5 weeks or 12-16 m/min for 7 weeks, respectively. Treadmill exercise in prediabetic and chronic diabetic rats significantly reduced blood glucose levels. In particular, exercise in the prediabetic rat blocked the onset of diabetes. COX-2 immunoreactivity was mainly detected in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus and stratum pyramidale of the CA3 region in all groups. COX-2 immunoreactivity was significantly increased in these regions of ZLC and ZDF rats after treadmill exercise in the early diabetic stage. However, COX-2 immunoreactivity was not changed in these regions in ZDF rats after treadmill exercise in the chronic stage. These results suggest that treadmill exercise in diabetic animals in the chronic stage has limited ability to cause plasticity in the dentate gyrus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Glucose , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Dentate Gyrus , Hippocampus , Plastics , Rats , Running
20.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 118-124, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-31962

ABSTRACT

In order to study the treatment of aneurysms, the technique of making experimental aneurysms in laboratory animals must be established. In our study, to examine the feasibility of making experimental aneurysm and selective angiography on the common carotid artery in rabbits and to determine the size of experimental aneurysm after surgery, saccular aneurysms were fashioned on the right common carotid artery in 17 rabbits using a vein pouch technique. Selective angiography of the common carotid artery was performed immediately after surgery, and at 1 week, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after surgery. Also, histological changes in the aneurysms were observed. In 16 rabbits with established successful experimental aneurysm, no differences were found in diet intake and behavior before and after surgery. The patency of the carotid artery was confirmed by selective angiography. The average size of the aneurysm immediately after surgery was similar to that of 1 week postoperatively in selective angiography, however it increased with time at 4weeks and 8 weeks. Histologically, infiltration of inflammatory cells and hemorrhage were found at the junction of the carotid artery and the vein pouch at 1 week, which disappeared at 4 weeks and 8 weeks. This study suggests experimental saccular aneurysm using the vein pouch technique might form aneurysms similar to that of the human in its properties such as increment of size, and selective angiography might be suitable for assessment of experimental aneurysm. Therefore, this animal model may be suitable for investigating new treatment methodologies for human aneurysms.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Angiography , Animals, Laboratory , Carotid Arteries , Carotid Artery, Common , Diet , Hemorrhage , Humans , Models, Animal , Rabbits , Veins
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