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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57432

ABSTRACT

Trichomoniasis is the most common curable sexually-transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. There are few reports on the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in Korea. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of trichomoniasis by PCR in Guri city, Korea. All adult women who visited Hanyang University Guri Hospital for health screening within the National Health Care Service were invited to participate in the study, and 424 women were enrolled between March and June 2011. PCR was used to detect Trichomonas vaginalis using primers based on a repetitive sequence cloned from T. vaginalis (TV-E650). Fourteen women (3.3%) were found to have T. vaginalis. All were over 50, and they were significantly older on average than the 410 Trichomonas-negative women (mean ages 63.4 vs 55.3 years). It seems that T. vaginalis infection is not rare in women receiving health screening, especially among those over 50.


Subject(s)
Adult , Clone Cells , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Korea , Mass Screening , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid , Trichomonas vaginalis
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-156347

ABSTRACT

The genus Acanthamoeba can cause severe infections such as granulomatous amebic encephalitis and amebic keratitis in humans. However, little genomic information of Acanthamoeba has been reported. Here, we constructed Acanthamoeba expressed sequence tags (EST) database (Acanthamoeba EST DB) derived from our 4 kinds of Acanthamoeba cDNA library. The Acanthamoeba EST DB contains 3,897 EST generated from amebae under various conditions of long term in vitro culture, mouse brain passage, or encystation, and downloaded data of Acanthamoeba from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and Taxonomically Broad EST Database (TBestDB). The almost reported cDNA/genomic sequences of Acanthamoeba provide stand alone BLAST system with nucleotide (BLAST NT) and amino acid (BLAST AA) sequence database. In BLAST results, each gene links for the significant information including sequence data, gene orthology annotations, relevant references, and a BlastX result. This is the first attempt for construction of Acanthamoeba database with genes expressed in diverse conditions. These data were integrated into a database (http://www.amoeba.or.kr).


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba/genetics , Animals , Databases, Genetic , Expressed Sequence Tags
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28146

ABSTRACT

In a previous study, we reported our discovery of Acanthamoeba contamination in domestic tap water; in that study, we determined that some Acanthamoeba strains harbor endosymbiotic bacteria, via our molecular characterization by mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (Mt DNA RFLP). Five (29.4%) among 17 Acanthamoeba isolates contained endosymbionts in their cytoplasm, as demonstrated via orcein staining. In order to estimate their pathogenicity, we conducted a genetic characterization of the endosymbionts in Acanthamoeba isolated from domestic tap water via 16S rDNA sequencing. The endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba sp. KA/WP3 and KA/WP4 evidenced the highest level of similarity, at 97% of the recently published 16S rDNA sequence of the bacterium, Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus. The endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba sp. KA/WP8 and KA/WP12 shared a 97% sequence similarity with each other, and were also highly similar to Candidatus Odyssella thessalonicensis, a member of the alpha-proteobacteria. The endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba sp. KA/WP9 exhibits a high degree of similarity (85-95%) with genus Methylophilus, which is not yet known to harbor any endosymbionts. This is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, to show that Methylophilus spp. can live in the cytoplasm of Acanthamoeba.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba/isolation & purification , Alphaproteobacteria/classification , Animals , Bacteroidetes/classification , Cluster Analysis , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , Fresh Water/parasitology , Korea , Methylophilus/classification , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Symbiosis
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-35035

ABSTRACT

Three Acanthamoeba isolates (KA/E9, KA/E17, and KA/E23) from patients with keratitis were identified as Acanthamoeba triangularis by analysis of their molecular characteristics, a species not previously recognized to be a corneal pathogen. Epidemiologic significance of A. triangularis as a keratopathogen in Korea has been discussed. Morphologic features of Acanthamoeba cysts were examined under a microscope with differential interference contrast (DIC) optics. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the ocular isolates KA/E9, KA/E17, and KA/E23 were digested with restriction enzymes, and the restriction patterns were compared with those of reference strains. Complete nuclear 18S and mitochondrial (mt) 16S rDNA sequences were subjected to phylogenetic analysis and species identification. mtDNA RFLP of 3 isolates showed very similar patterns to those of SH621, the type strain of A. triangularis. 16S and 18S rDNA sequence analysis confirmed 3 isolates to be A. triangularis. 18S rDNA sequence differences of the isolates were 1.3% to 1.6% and those of 16S rDNA, 0.4% to 0.9% from A. triangularis SH621. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report, confirmed by 18S and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, of keratitis caused by A. triangularis of which the type strain was isolated from human feces. Six isolates of A. triangularis had been reported from contaminated contact lens cases in southeastern Korea.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba/classification , Acanthamoeba Keratitis/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Biguanides/therapeutic use , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-19946

ABSTRACT

In order to obtain greater insight into the relevant genomic expression patterns of Trichinella spiralis, 992 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were collected from a cDNA library of T. spiralis muscle stage larvae and assembled into 60 clusters and 385 singletons. Of them, 445 (44.7%) ESTs were annotated to their homologous genes, and small fractions were matched to known genes of nematodes. The annotated ESTs were classified into 25 eukaryotic orthologous groups (KOG). Cytochrome C oxidase (34 clones) was found to be most frequent species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Expressed Sequence Tags , Gene Library , Helminth Proteins/genetics , Larva/genetics , Muscle, Skeletal/parasitology , Rats , Trichinella spiralis/genetics , Trichinellosis/parasitology
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114844

ABSTRACT

To examine the expressed gene profile during encystation of Acanthamoeba castellanii Castellani, we used differentially expressed gene (DGE) screening by RT-PCR with 20 sets of random primers. From this analysis, we found that approximately 16 genes showed upregulation during encystation. We chose 6 genes, which had relatively higher expression levels, for further investigation. Based on homology search in database, DEG2 showed 55% of similarity with xylose isomerase, DEG9 showed 37% of similarity with Na P-type ATPase, and DEG14 showed 77% of similarity with subtilisin-like serine proteinase. DEG3 and DEG26 were identified as hypothetical proteins and DEG25 exhibited no significant similarity to any known protein. Encystation of Acanthamoeba has been suggested to be a process to resist adverse environmental or nutritional conditions. Further characterization studies of these genes may provide us with more information on the encystation mechanism of Acanthamoeba.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba castellanii/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Life Cycle Stages , Molecular Sequence Data , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Up-Regulation
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198437

ABSTRACT

Recent in vitro studies have revealed that a certain Mycobacterium can survive and multiply within freeliving amoebae. It is believed that protozoans function as host cells for the intracellular replication and evasion of Mycobacterium spp. under harmful conditions. In this study, we describe the isolation and characterization of a bacterium naturally observed within an amoeba isolate acquired from a contact lens storage case. The bacterium multiplied within Acanthamoeba, but exerted no cytopathic effects on the amoeba during a 6-year amoebic culture. Trasnmission electron microscopy showed that the bacteria were randomly distributed within the cytoplasm of trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba. On the basis of the results of 18S rRNA gene analysis, the amoeba was identified as A. lugdunensis. A 16S rRNA gene analysis placed this bacterium within the genus Mycobacterium. The bacterium evidenced positive reactivity for acid-fast and fluorescent acid-fast stains. The bacterium was capable of growth on the Middlebrook 7H11-Mycobacterium-specific agar. The identification and characterization of bacterial endosymbionts of free-living protozoa bears significant implications for our understanding of the ecology and the identification of other atypical mycobacterial pathogens.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba/genetics , Animals , Base Sequence , Contact Lens Solutions , Contact Lenses , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission/methods , Mycobacterium/genetics , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Symbiosis
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220306

ABSTRACT

The pathogenic mechanism of granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) and amebic keratitis (AK) by Acanthamoeba has yet to be clarified. Protease has been recognized to play an important role in the pathogenesis of GAE and AK. In the present study, we have compared specific activity and cytopathic effects (CPE) of purified 33 kDa serine proteinases from Acanthamoeba strains with different degree of virulence (A. healyi OC-3A, A. lugdunensis KA/E2, and A. castellanii Neff). Trophozoites of the 3 strains revealed different degrees of CPE on human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells. The effect was remarkably reduced by adding phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride (PMSF), a serine proteinase inhibitor. This result indicated that PMSF-susceptible proteinase is the main component causing cytopathy to HCE cells by Acanthamoeba. The purified 33 kDa serine proteinase showed strong activity toward HCE cells and extracellular matrix proteins. The purified proteinase from OC-3A, the most virulent strain, demonstrated the highest enzyme activity compared to KA/E2, an ocular isolate, and Neff, a soil isolate. Polyclonal antibodies against the purified 33 kDa serine proteinase inhibit almost completely the proteolytic activity of culture supernatant of Acanthamoeba. In line with these results, the 33 kDa serine proteinase is suggested to play an important role in pathogenesis and to be the main component of virulence factor of Acanthamoeba.


Subject(s)
Virulence Factors/isolation & purification , Virulence , Trophozoites/physiology , Substrate Specificity , Soil/parasitology , Serine Endopeptidases/isolation & purification , Humans , Epithelial Cells/parasitology , Encephalitis , Cornea/cytology , Cells, Cultured , Animals , Acanthamoeba castellanii/enzymology , Acanthamoeba Keratitis/parasitology , Acanthamoeba/classification
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220305

ABSTRACT

Actin binding proteins play key roles in cell structure and movement particularly as regulators of the assembly, stability and localization of actin filaments in the cytoplasm. In the present study, a cDNA clone encoding an actin bundling protein named as AhABP was isolated from Acanthamoeba healyi, a causative agent of granulomatous amebic encephalitis. This clone exhibited high similarity with genes of Physarum polycephalum and Dictyostelium discoideum, which encode actin bundling proteins. Domain search analysis revealed the presence of essential conserved regions, i.e., an active actin binding site and 2 putative calcium binding EF-hands. Transfected amoeba cells demonstrated that AhABP is primarily localized in phagocytic cups, peripheral edges, pseudopods, and in cortical cytoplasm where actins are most abundant. Moreover, AhABP after the deletion of essential regions formed ellipsoidal inclusions within transfected cells. High-speed co-sedimentation assays revealed that AhABP directly interacted with actin in the presence of up to 10 micrometer of calcium. Under the electron microscope, thick parallel bundles were formed by full length AhABP, in contrast to the thin actin bundles formed by constructs with deletion sites. In the light of these results, we conclude that AhABP is a novel actin bundling protein that is importantly associated with actin filaments in the cytoplasm.


Subject(s)
Transfection , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Alignment , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Microfilament Proteins/chemistry , EF Hand Motifs , DNA, Complementary , Culture Media , Cloning, Molecular , Animals , Amino Acid Sequence , Actins/metabolism , Acanthamoeba/genetics
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59380

ABSTRACT

The mammalian trematode Paragonimus westermani is a typical digenetic parasite, which can cause paragonimiasis in humans. Host tissues and blood cells are important sources of nutrients for development, growth and reproduction of P. westermani. In this study, a cDNA clone encoding a 47 kDa hemoglobinase of P. westermani was characterized by sequencing analysis, and its localization was investigated immunohistochemically. The phylogenetic tree prepared based on the hemoglobinase gene showed high homology with hemoglobinases of Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma spp. Moreover, recombinant P. westermani hemoglobinase degradaded human hemoglobin at acidic pH (from 3.0 to 5.5) and its activity was almost completely inhibited by E-64, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor. Immunohistochemical studies showed that P. westermani hemoglobinase was localized in the epithelium of the adult worm intestine implying that the protein has a specific function. These observations suggest that hemoglobinase may act as a digestive enzyme for acquisition of nutrients from host hemoglobin. Further investigations may provide insights into hemoglobin catabolism in P. westermani.


Subject(s)
Sequence Alignment , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Phylogeny , Paragonimus westermani/enzymology , Molecular Sequence Data , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Escherichia coli/enzymology , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , Astacoidea/parasitology , Antigens, Helminth/genetics , Animals , Amino Acid Sequence
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192618

ABSTRACT

The taxonomy of Acanthamoeba spp., an amphizoic amoeba which causes granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and chronic amoebic keratitis, has been revised many times. The taxonomic validity of some species has yet to be assessed. In this paper, we analyzed the morphological characteristics, nuclear 18s rDNA and mitochondrial 16s rDNA sequences and the Mt DNA RFLP of the type strains of four Acanthamoeba species, which had been previously designated as A. divionensis, A. parasidionensis, A. mauritaniensis, and A. rhysodes. The four isolates revealed characteristic group II morphology. They exhibited 18S rDNA sequence differences of 0.2-1.1% with each other, but more than 2% difference from the other compared reference strains. Four isolates formed a different clade from that of A. castellanii Castellani and the other strains in morphological group II on the phylogenetic tree. In light of these results, A. paradivionensis, A. divionensis, and A. mauritaniensis should be regarded as synonyms for A. rhysodes.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba/classification , Animals , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-19916

ABSTRACT

We have cloned a cDNA encoding a cysteine proteinase of the Acanthamoeba healyi OC-3A strain isolated from the brain of a granulomatous amoebic encephalitis patient. A DNA probe for an A. healyi cDNA library screening was amplified by PCR using degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed on the basis of conserved amino acids franking the active sites of cysteine and asparagine residues that are conserved in the eukaryotic cysteine proteinases. Cysteine proteinase gene of A. healyi (AhCP1) was composed of 330 amino acids with signal sequence, a proposed pro-domain and a predicted active site made up of the catalytic residues, Cys(25), His(159), and Asn(175). Deduced amino acid sequence analysis indicated that AhCP1 belongs to ERFNIN subfamily of C1 peptidases. By Northern blot analysis, no direct correlation was observed between AhCP1 mRNA expression and virulence of Acanthamoeba, but the gene was expressed at higher level in amoebae isolated from soil than those from clinical samples. These findings raise the possibility that Ahcp1 protein may play a role in protein metabolism and digestion of phagocytosed bacteria or host tissue debris rather than in invasion of amoebae into host tissue.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba/enzymology , Amebiasis/parasitology , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Base Sequence , Cathepsins/genetics , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , Encephalitis/parasitology , Gene Expression , Genes, Protozoan , Humans , Molecular Sequence Data , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Sequence Alignment , Virulence
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