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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919478

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although respiratory tract infection is one of the most important factors triggering acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD), limited data are available to suggest an epidemiologic pattern of microbiology in South Korea. @*Methods@#A multicenter observational study was conducted between January 2015 and December 2018 across 28 hospitals in South Korea. Adult patients with moderate-to-severe acute exacerbations of COPD were eligible to participate in the present study. The participants underwent all conventional tests to identify etiology of microbial pathogenesis. The primary outcome was the percentage of different microbiological pathogens causing AE-COPD. A comparative microbiological analysis of the patients with overlapping asthma–COPD (ACO) and pure COPD was performed. @*Results@#We included 1,186 patients with AE-COPD. Patients with pure COPD constituted 87.9% and those with ACO accounted for 12.1%. Nearly half of the patients used an inhaled corticosteroid-containing regimen and one-fifth used systemic corticosteroids. Respiratory pathogens were found in 55.3% of all such patients. Bacteria and viruses were detected in 33% and 33.2%, respectively. Bacterial and viral coinfections were found in 10.9%. The most frequently detected bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.8%), and the most frequently detected virus was influenza A (10.4%). Multiple bacterial infections were more likely to appear in ACO than in pure COPD (8.3% vs. 3.6%, p=0.016). @*Conclusion@#Distinct microbiological patterns were identified in patients with moderate-to-severe AE-COPD in South Korea. These findings may improve evidence-based management of patients with AE-COPD and represent the basis for further studies investigating infectious pathogens in patients with COPD.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919473

ABSTRACT

Background@#Because the etiologies of bronchiectasis and related diseases vary significantly among different regions and ethnicities, this study aimed to develop a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis in South Korea. @*Methods@#A modified Delphi method was used to develop expert consensus statements on a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis in South Korea. Initial statements proposed by a core panel, based on international bronchiectasis guidelines, were discussed in an online meeting and two email surveys by a panel of experts (≥70% agreement). @*Results@#The study involved 21 expert participants, and 30 statements regarding a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis were classified as recommended, conditional, or not recommended. The consensus statements of the expert panel were as follows: A standardized diagnostic bundle is useful in clinical practice; diagnostic tests for specific diseases, including immunodeficiency and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, are necessary when clinically suspected; initial diagnostic tests, including sputum microbiology and spirometry, are essential in all patients with bronchiectasis, and patients suspected with rare causes such as primary ciliary dyskinesia should be referred to specialized centers. @*Conclusion@#Based on this Delphi survey, expert consensus statements were generated including specific diagnostic, laboratory, microbiological, and pulmonary function tests required to manage patients with bronchiectasis in South Korea.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903700

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Air trapping is associated with unfavorable outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The present study evaluated the association between longitudinal changes in air trapping with pulmonary function, computed tomography (CT) parameters and exacerbation. @*Methods@#Patients enrolled in the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD) study cohort from June 2005 to October 2015 were included. The study patients were categorized into four groups according to the change in residual volume to total lung capacity ratio (RV/TLC) over 3 years. The RV/TLC was considered abnormal when it was ≥ 40% and normal when it was < 40%. @*Results@#A total of 279 patients were categorized into four groups: 76 in the “normal to normal” (N→N) group, 34 in the “abnormal to normal” (A→N) group, 33 in the “normal to abnormal” (N→A) group, and 136 in the “abnormal to abnormal” (A→A) group. For forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity (FVC), respectively, group A→N showed a large increase of 266 mL (p < 0.001) and 381 mL (p < 0.001), group N→A showed a marked decrease of 216 mL (p < 0.001) and 332 mL(p = 0.029), and group A→A showed a decrease of 16 mL (p = 0.426) and 6 mL (p = 0.011) compared to group N→N. Group A→N showed a significant decrease of –0.013 in expiratory to inspiratory ratio of the mean lung density (p < 0.001), while group A→N showed an increase of 0.005 (p < 0.001). @*Conclusions@#Patients with COPD whose RV/TLC changed from normal to abnormal showed deterioration of pulmonary function and worsening of CT parameters simultaneously

4.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1719-1729, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902492

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Emphysema and small-airway disease are the two major components of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We propose a novel method of quantitative computed tomography (CT) emphysema air-trapping composite (EAtC) mapping to assess each COPD component. We analyzed the potential use of this method for assessing lung function in patients with COPD. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 584 patients with COPD underwent inspiration and expiration CTs. Using pairwise analysis of inspiration and expiration CTs with non-rigid registration, EAtC mapping classified lung parenchyma into three areas: Normal, functional air trapping (fAT), and emphysema (Emph). We defined fAT as the area with a density change of less than 60 Hounsfield units (HU) between inspiration and expiration CTs among areas with a density less than -856 HU on inspiration CT. The volume fraction of each area was compared with clinical parameters and pulmonary function tests (PFTs). The results were compared with those of parametric response mapping (PRM) analysis. @*Results@#The relative volumes of the EAtC classes differed according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages (p < 0.001). Each class showed moderate correlations with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1) and FEV 1/forced vital capacity (FVC) (r = -0.659–0.674, p < 0.001). Both fAT and Emph were significant predictors of FEV 1 and FEV 1/FVC (R2 = 0.352 and 0.488, respectively; p < 0.001). fAT was a significant predictor of mean forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% and residual volume/total vital capacity (R2 = 0.264 and 0.233, respectively; p < 0.001), while Emph and age were significant predictors of carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (R2 = 0.303; p < 0.001). fAT showed better correlations with PFTs than with small-airway disease on PRM. @*Conclusion@#The proposed quantitative CT EAtC mapping provides comprehensive lung functional information on each disease component of COPD, which may serve as an imaging biomarker of lung function.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899890

ABSTRACT

Background@#Bacterial infections are well known factors underlying acute exacerbations in bronchiectasis. However, viral infections may also contribute to acute exacerbations. We aimed to assess the rate of viral detection in acute exacerbations of bronchiectasis, and the associated clinical factors. @*Methods@#Diagnostic tests for viral and bacterial etiologies were performed in 792 patients with bronchiectasis who visited the emergency room or the respiratory care inpatient unit in a tertiary referral center in South Korea. All patients were diagnosed with bronchiectasis by chest computerized tomography and were prescribed antibiotics for a minimum of 3 days. @*Results@#Viral pathogens were detected in 202 of the 792 enrolled patients (25.5%). The most common viral pathogen isolated was influenza A virus (24.8%), followed by rhinovirus (22.4%), influenza B virus (9.8%), respiratory syncytial virus B (8.9%), and human metapneumovirus (6.1%). In 145 patients, a viral, but not bacterial, pathogen was detected, whereas no pathogens were found in 443 patients with exacerbations. Multivariable analysis revealed that female sex and chronic heart disease as a comorbidity were positively associated with viral detection in acute exacerbations of patients with bronchiectasis, whereas the presence of radiographic infiltration was negatively associated. @*Conclusion@#Respiratory viruses were identified in approximately 25% of the acute exacerbations observed among patients with bronchiectasis. Of the viruses detected, influenza viruses and rhinovirus made up over 50%. More attention to viruses as possible causative pathogens for acute deteriorating symptoms in patients with bronchiectasis is warranted.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895996

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Air trapping is associated with unfavorable outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The present study evaluated the association between longitudinal changes in air trapping with pulmonary function, computed tomography (CT) parameters and exacerbation. @*Methods@#Patients enrolled in the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD) study cohort from June 2005 to October 2015 were included. The study patients were categorized into four groups according to the change in residual volume to total lung capacity ratio (RV/TLC) over 3 years. The RV/TLC was considered abnormal when it was ≥ 40% and normal when it was < 40%. @*Results@#A total of 279 patients were categorized into four groups: 76 in the “normal to normal” (N→N) group, 34 in the “abnormal to normal” (A→N) group, 33 in the “normal to abnormal” (N→A) group, and 136 in the “abnormal to abnormal” (A→A) group. For forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity (FVC), respectively, group A→N showed a large increase of 266 mL (p < 0.001) and 381 mL (p < 0.001), group N→A showed a marked decrease of 216 mL (p < 0.001) and 332 mL(p = 0.029), and group A→A showed a decrease of 16 mL (p = 0.426) and 6 mL (p = 0.011) compared to group N→N. Group A→N showed a significant decrease of –0.013 in expiratory to inspiratory ratio of the mean lung density (p < 0.001), while group A→N showed an increase of 0.005 (p < 0.001). @*Conclusions@#Patients with COPD whose RV/TLC changed from normal to abnormal showed deterioration of pulmonary function and worsening of CT parameters simultaneously

7.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1719-1729, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894788

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Emphysema and small-airway disease are the two major components of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We propose a novel method of quantitative computed tomography (CT) emphysema air-trapping composite (EAtC) mapping to assess each COPD component. We analyzed the potential use of this method for assessing lung function in patients with COPD. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 584 patients with COPD underwent inspiration and expiration CTs. Using pairwise analysis of inspiration and expiration CTs with non-rigid registration, EAtC mapping classified lung parenchyma into three areas: Normal, functional air trapping (fAT), and emphysema (Emph). We defined fAT as the area with a density change of less than 60 Hounsfield units (HU) between inspiration and expiration CTs among areas with a density less than -856 HU on inspiration CT. The volume fraction of each area was compared with clinical parameters and pulmonary function tests (PFTs). The results were compared with those of parametric response mapping (PRM) analysis. @*Results@#The relative volumes of the EAtC classes differed according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages (p < 0.001). Each class showed moderate correlations with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1) and FEV 1/forced vital capacity (FVC) (r = -0.659–0.674, p < 0.001). Both fAT and Emph were significant predictors of FEV 1 and FEV 1/FVC (R2 = 0.352 and 0.488, respectively; p < 0.001). fAT was a significant predictor of mean forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% and residual volume/total vital capacity (R2 = 0.264 and 0.233, respectively; p < 0.001), while Emph and age were significant predictors of carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (R2 = 0.303; p < 0.001). fAT showed better correlations with PFTs than with small-airway disease on PRM. @*Conclusion@#The proposed quantitative CT EAtC mapping provides comprehensive lung functional information on each disease component of COPD, which may serve as an imaging biomarker of lung function.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892186

ABSTRACT

Background@#Bacterial infections are well known factors underlying acute exacerbations in bronchiectasis. However, viral infections may also contribute to acute exacerbations. We aimed to assess the rate of viral detection in acute exacerbations of bronchiectasis, and the associated clinical factors. @*Methods@#Diagnostic tests for viral and bacterial etiologies were performed in 792 patients with bronchiectasis who visited the emergency room or the respiratory care inpatient unit in a tertiary referral center in South Korea. All patients were diagnosed with bronchiectasis by chest computerized tomography and were prescribed antibiotics for a minimum of 3 days. @*Results@#Viral pathogens were detected in 202 of the 792 enrolled patients (25.5%). The most common viral pathogen isolated was influenza A virus (24.8%), followed by rhinovirus (22.4%), influenza B virus (9.8%), respiratory syncytial virus B (8.9%), and human metapneumovirus (6.1%). In 145 patients, a viral, but not bacterial, pathogen was detected, whereas no pathogens were found in 443 patients with exacerbations. Multivariable analysis revealed that female sex and chronic heart disease as a comorbidity were positively associated with viral detection in acute exacerbations of patients with bronchiectasis, whereas the presence of radiographic infiltration was negatively associated. @*Conclusion@#Respiratory viruses were identified in approximately 25% of the acute exacerbations observed among patients with bronchiectasis. Of the viruses detected, influenza viruses and rhinovirus made up over 50%. More attention to viruses as possible causative pathogens for acute deteriorating symptoms in patients with bronchiectasis is warranted.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919179

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although international guidelines for bronchiectasis management have been published in Western countries, there is a lack of data about their application in Asian populations including patients with different phenotypes. We aimed to investigate the current status of bronchiectasis management in Asian populations. @*Methods@#A nationwide questionnaire survey was performed of Asian respiratory specialists from South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, Vietnam, and Sri Lanka. Participants were invited by e-mail to answer a questionnaire comprising 25 questions based on international guidelines for the management of bronchiectasis. @*Results@#A total of 221 physicians participated in the survey. About half of them were Korean (50.2%), with the next most common nationalities being Japanese (23.1%), Taiwanese (13.6%), and Singaporean (7.7%). Only 18 (8.1%) responders had local guidelines for bronchiectasis. While 85 (38.5%) responders checked sputum acid-fast bacillus smear/culture about 1 to 3 times per year, only a small proportion of responders routinely performed a serum immunoglobulin test (36/221, 16.3%) or evaluated for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (41/221, 18.6%). Less than half (43.4%) of responders performed eradication treatment in patients with drug-sensitive Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, mainly due to the limited availability of inhaled antibiotics (34.8%). In addition, 58.6% of responders considered physiotherapy such as airway clearance and pulmonary rehabilitation. @*Conclusions@#Discrepancies might exist between guideline recommendations and practice for bronchiectasis management in Asian populations, partly due to the limited availability of treatment in each country. The development of local guidelines that consider the phenotypes and situation will help to standardize and improve the management of bronchiectasis.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914330

ABSTRACT

Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute pediatric vasculitis that affects genetically susceptible infants and children. To identify coding variants that influence susceptibility to KD, we conducted whole exome sequencing of 159 patients with KD and 902 controls, and performed a replication study in an independent 586 cases and 732 controls. We identified five rare coding variants in five genes (FCRLA, PTGER4, IL17F, CARD11, and SIGLEC10) associated with KD (odds ratio [OR], 1.18–4.41; p = 0.0027–0.031). We also performed association analysis in 26 KD patients with coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs; diameter > 5 mm) and 124 patients without CAAs (diameter < 3 mm), and identified another five rare coding variants in five genes (FGFR4, IL31RA, FNDC1, MMP8, and FOXN1), which may be associated with CAA (OR, 3.89–37.3; p = 0.0058–0.0261). These results provide insights into new candidate genes and genetic variants potentially involved in the development of KD and CAA.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875514

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Lung function is an objective indicator of diagnosis and prognosis of respiratory diseases. Many common genetic variants have been associated with lung function in multiple ethnic populations. We looked for coding variants associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) in the Korean general population. @*Methods@#We carried out exome array analysis and lung function measurements of the FEV1 and FEV1/FVC in 7,524 individuals of the Korean population. We evaluated single variants with minor allele frequency greater than 0.5%. We performed look-ups for candidate coding variants associations in the UK Biobank, SpiroMeta, and CHARGE consortia. @*Results@#We identified coding variants in the SMIM29 (C6orf1) (p = 1.2 × 10–5) and HMGA1 locus on chromosome 6p21, the GIT2 (p = 6.5 × 10–5) locus on chromosome 12q24, and the ARHGEF40 (p = 9.9 × 10–5) locus on chromosome 14q11 as having a significant association with lung function (FEV1). We also confirmed a previously reported association with lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the FAM13A (p = 4.54 × 10–6) locus on chromosome 4q22, in TNXB (p = 1.30 × 10–6) and in AGER (p = 1.09 × 10–8) locus on chromosome 6p21. @*Conclusions@#Our exome array analysis identified that several protein coding variants were associated with lung function in the Korean population. Common coding variants in SMIM29 (C6orf1), HMGA1, GIT2, FAM13A, TNXB, AGER and low-frequency variant in ARHGEF40 potentially affect lung function, which warrant further study.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Although the association of hyperuricemia with an increased risk of mortality has been demonstrated in the context of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the long-term outcomes of hyperuricemia have not been studied in the case of stable COPD.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed baseline data of 240 men with stable COPD enrolled in the Korea Obstructive Lung Disease cohort. We evaluated associations between serum uric acid levels and clinical parameters, risk factors for all-cause mortality, and acute exacerbation of COPD.@*RESULTS@#The mean age of subjects was 66.4 ± 7.7 years, and the median follow-up time was 5.9 years. We identified no significant difference in terms of lung function or laboratory findings between patients with hyperuricemia and those without. Serum uric acid level was negatively associated with systemic inflammation indicated by neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (r = −0.211, P = 0.001). Univariate Cox regression analysis revealed hyperuricemia to not be associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in men with stable COPD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.580; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.250–1.370; P = 0.213). In the multivariate Cox regression model, hyperuricemia was not an independent predictor of acute exacerbation (HR, 1.383; 95% CI, 0.977–1.959; P = 0.068).@*CONCLUSION@#Among men with stable COPD, hyperuricemia is not an independent predictor of all-cause mortality or future acute exacerbation of COPD. These results differ from those of previous studies on patients with acute exacerbation of COPD.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity in patients with persistent antiphospholipid antibodies. However, nationwide population-based epidemiology studies regarding APS are still unavailable.@*METHODS@#We analyzed claims data extracted from the Korean Health Insurance and Review Agency (HIRA) covering more than 52 million Koreans, between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2017. Patients diagnosed with APS, as determined by the Korean Classification of Disease, 7th edition (D68.6), and a rare intractable disease program (V253), were identified in HIRA.@*RESULTS@#A total of 3,088 newly diagnosed incident cases of 1,215 men and 1,873 women were identified during 2009–2016. The mean age was 44.6 ± 16.6 (men, 47.4 ± 16.3; women, 42.8 ± 16.6) years. The incidence was 0.75 per 105 person-year (95% confidence interval, 0.73–0.78). The prevalence in 2016 was 6.19 per 105 people. For incident cases, women showed incidence peak at ages of 30–39 years and 70–79 years, whereas for men, it was highest at ages of 70–79 years only. Of all patients, 1,766 (57%, 810 men and 956 women) had primary APS, 1,322 (43%, 405 men and 917 women) had secondary APS, and 845 (27%, 216 men and 629 women) were associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).@*CONCLUSION@#The incidence of APS differs according to age groups and gender. The incidence of primary APS was higher than that of secondary APS in both gender. Furthermore, as already reported, secondary APS is highly associated with SLE; however, we observed that rheumatoid arthritis is also highly related.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896608

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Recently, there has been a rise in the interest to understand the composition of indoor dust due to its association with lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. Furthermore, it has been found that bacterial extracellular vesicles (EVs) within indoor dust particles can induce pulmonary inflammation, suggesting that these might play a role in lung disease. @*Methods@#We performed microbiome analysis of indoor dust EVs isolated from mattresses in apartments and hospitals. We developed diagnostic models based on the bacterial EVs antibodies detected in serum samples via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in this analysis. @*Results@#Proteobacteria was the most abundant bacterial EV taxa observed at the phylum level while Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae (f) and Acinetobacter were the most prominent organisms at the genus level, followed by Staphylococcus. Based on the microbiome analysis, serum anti-bacterial EV immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG1 and IgG4 were analyzed using ELISA with EV antibodies that targeted Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The levels of anti-bacterial EV antibodies were found to be significantly higher in patients with asthma, COPD and lung cancer compared to the healthy control group. We then developed a diagnostic model through logistic regression of antibodies that showed significant differences between groups with smoking history as a covariate. Four different variable selection methods were compared to construct an optimal diagnostic model with area under the curves ranging from 0.72 to 0.81. @*Conclusions@#The results of this study suggest that ELISA-based analysis of anti-bacterial EV antibodies titers can be used as a diagnostic tool for lung disease. The present findings provide insights into the pathogenesis of lung disease as well as a foundation for developing a novel diagnostic methodology that synergizes microbial EV metagenomics and immune assays.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Although the association of hyperuricemia with an increased risk of mortality has been demonstrated in the context of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the long-term outcomes of hyperuricemia have not been studied in the case of stable COPD.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed baseline data of 240 men with stable COPD enrolled in the Korea Obstructive Lung Disease cohort. We evaluated associations between serum uric acid levels and clinical parameters, risk factors for all-cause mortality, and acute exacerbation of COPD.@*RESULTS@#The mean age of subjects was 66.4 ± 7.7 years, and the median follow-up time was 5.9 years. We identified no significant difference in terms of lung function or laboratory findings between patients with hyperuricemia and those without. Serum uric acid level was negatively associated with systemic inflammation indicated by neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (r = −0.211, P = 0.001). Univariate Cox regression analysis revealed hyperuricemia to not be associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in men with stable COPD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.580; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.250–1.370; P = 0.213). In the multivariate Cox regression model, hyperuricemia was not an independent predictor of acute exacerbation (HR, 1.383; 95% CI, 0.977–1.959; P = 0.068).@*CONCLUSION@#Among men with stable COPD, hyperuricemia is not an independent predictor of all-cause mortality or future acute exacerbation of COPD. These results differ from those of previous studies on patients with acute exacerbation of COPD.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity in patients with persistent antiphospholipid antibodies. However, nationwide population-based epidemiology studies regarding APS are still unavailable.@*METHODS@#We analyzed claims data extracted from the Korean Health Insurance and Review Agency (HIRA) covering more than 52 million Koreans, between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2017. Patients diagnosed with APS, as determined by the Korean Classification of Disease, 7th edition (D68.6), and a rare intractable disease program (V253), were identified in HIRA.@*RESULTS@#A total of 3,088 newly diagnosed incident cases of 1,215 men and 1,873 women were identified during 2009–2016. The mean age was 44.6 ± 16.6 (men, 47.4 ± 16.3; women, 42.8 ± 16.6) years. The incidence was 0.75 per 105 person-year (95% confidence interval, 0.73–0.78). The prevalence in 2016 was 6.19 per 105 people. For incident cases, women showed incidence peak at ages of 30–39 years and 70–79 years, whereas for men, it was highest at ages of 70–79 years only. Of all patients, 1,766 (57%, 810 men and 956 women) had primary APS, 1,322 (43%, 405 men and 917 women) had secondary APS, and 845 (27%, 216 men and 629 women) were associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).@*CONCLUSION@#The incidence of APS differs according to age groups and gender. The incidence of primary APS was higher than that of secondary APS in both gender. Furthermore, as already reported, secondary APS is highly associated with SLE; however, we observed that rheumatoid arthritis is also highly related.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810962

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the association of hyperuricemia with an increased risk of mortality has been demonstrated in the context of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the long-term outcomes of hyperuricemia have not been studied in the case of stable COPD.METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed baseline data of 240 men with stable COPD enrolled in the Korea Obstructive Lung Disease cohort. We evaluated associations between serum uric acid levels and clinical parameters, risk factors for all-cause mortality, and acute exacerbation of COPD.RESULTS: The mean age of subjects was 66.4 ± 7.7 years, and the median follow-up time was 5.9 years. We identified no significant difference in terms of lung function or laboratory findings between patients with hyperuricemia and those without. Serum uric acid level was negatively associated with systemic inflammation indicated by neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (r = −0.211, P = 0.001). Univariate Cox regression analysis revealed hyperuricemia to not be associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in men with stable COPD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.580; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.250–1.370; P = 0.213). In the multivariate Cox regression model, hyperuricemia was not an independent predictor of acute exacerbation (HR, 1.383; 95% CI, 0.977–1.959; P = 0.068).CONCLUSION: Among men with stable COPD, hyperuricemia is not an independent predictor of all-cause mortality or future acute exacerbation of COPD. These results differ from those of previous studies on patients with acute exacerbation of COPD.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hyperuricemia , Inflammation , Korea , Lung , Lung Diseases, Obstructive , Male , Mortality , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Uric Acid
18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837351

ABSTRACT

Background@#The Bronchiectasis Health Questionnaire (BHQ) is a simple and repeatable, self-reporting health status questionnaire for bronchiectasis. We have translated the original version of the BHQ into Korean using a standardized methodology. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the Korean version of the BHQ (K-BHQ) with Korean patients. @*Methods@#Stable state patients with bronchiectasis from two academic hospitals were enrolled in this study. The validity was assessed by investigating the relationship between the K-BHQ scores and the Korean version of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Assessment Test (K-CAT) scores. We also investigated the relationship between the K-BHQ scores and other variables of the modified Medical Research Council’s (mMRC) dyspnea scale, lung function, and exacerbations. @*Results@#A total of 126 patients with bronchiectasis were enrolled. The mean age was 64.3 (standard deviation [SD], 9.7). Women comprised 53.2% of the patients. The mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was 60% of the predicted value (SD, 18.9%); the mean K-CAT score was 17.6 (SD, 9.1). The K-BHQ scores correlated strongly with the K-CAT scores (r=–0.656, p<0.001). There was significant correlation between the K-BHQ scores and the mMRC dyspnea scale (ρ=–0.409, p<0.001), FEV1 (r=0.406, p<0.001), and number of exacerbations requiring hospitalization (ρ=–0.303, p=0.001). @*Conclusion@#The K-BHQ is valid for assessing the health-related quality of life or health status of Korean bronchiectasis patients.

19.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 141-150, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836673

ABSTRACT

Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis is a common respiratory disease that is frequently encountered in daily practice. However, it has been regarded as an orphan lung disease and had been often neglected by the physicians. Fortunately, recent studies have unveiled many important clinical aspects of bronchiectasis. Accordingly, international evidence-based practice guideline such as the European Respiratory Society guideline and the British Thoracic Society (BTS) guideline have been published recently. However, as there is no domestic evidence-based guideline, we introduce clinical approaches to diagnose bronchiectasis and discuss important aspects of bronchiectasis based on most recently published the BTS guideline. In addition, we cover the treatment of bronchiectasis based on the BTS guideline. We hope newly assembled a Korean bronchiectasis study group, name the Korean Multicenter Bronchiectasis Audit and Research Collaboration (KMBARC) would contribute to publishing Korean bronchiectasis guideline, soon.

20.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834740

ABSTRACT

Bronchiectasis refers to abnormal dilatation of the bronchi, which leads to the failure of mucus clearance and increased risk of infection. Pharmacotherapy for stable bronchiectasis includes oral or inhaled mucoactive agents, anti-inflammatory therapy, inhaled bronchodilators, long-term antibiotics, and long-term macrolide treatment.Among them, mucoactive agents are the most common adjunctive agents to airway clearance techniques. When patients with impaired lung function suffer from dyspnea, inhaled bronchodilators may be prescribed to relieve the symptom. Long-term macrolide treatment has been proven to prevent exacerbation in patients with frequent bronchiectasis exacerbation. If exacerbation occurs despite the above mentioned treatments, one or two weeks of antibiotics should be prescribed to cover respiratory bacteria that include Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Because evidence supporting the use of pharmacotherapy for bronchiectasis is weak, further research is warranted.

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