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1.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 763-778, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999973

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Transarterial radioembolization (TARE) has shown promising results in treating advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT). However, whether TARE can provide superior or comparable outcomes to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in patients with HCC and PVTT remains unclear. We compared the outcomes of TARE and TKI therapy in treatment-naïve patients with locally advanced HCC and segmental or lobar PVTT. @*Methods@#This multicenter study included 216 patients initially treated with TARE (n=124) or TKI (sorafenib or lenvatinib; n=92) between 2011 and 2021. Baseline characteristics were balanced using propensity score matching (PSM) or inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). The secondary outcomes included progression-free survival (PFS) and objective response rate (ORR). @*Results@#In the unmatched cohort, the median OS of the TARE and TKI groups were 28.2 and 7.2 months, respectively (p<0.001), and the TARE group experienced significantly and independently longer OS compared to the TKI group (adjusted hazard ratio=0.41, 95% confidence interval=0.28–0.60, p<0.001). Similar results were observed in the study cohorts balanced with IPTW (p=0.003) or PSM (p=0.004). Although PFS was comparable between the two groups, the TARE group showed a trend of prolonged PFS in a subpopulation of patients with Vp1 or Vp2 PVTT (p=0.052). In the matched cohorts, the ORR of the TARE group was 53.0–56.7%, whereas that of the TKI group was 12.3–15.0%. @*Conclusions@#For patients with advanced HCC with segmental or lobar PVTT and well-preserved liver function, TARE may provide superior OS compared to sorafenib or lenvatinib.

2.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 482-495, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999963

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The histologic status of the immune-tolerant (IT) phase of chronic hepatitis B relative to long-term outcomes is unclear. This study aimed to discover how the serological criteria currently in use correspond to histologic criteria in determining the IT phase and indication for liver biopsy. @*Methods@#Patients in the serological IT phase determined by positive hepatitis B e antigen, hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA ≥106 IU/mL, and normal or minimally elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ≤60 IU/L, who underwent liver biopsy at three different hospitals were included. The distribution of the histologic IT phase, defined as fibrosis of stage 1 or less and inflammation of grade 1 or less, was compared with that of the serological IT phase. The risk factors for the incidence of liver-related events, such as hepatocellular carcinoma, liver cirrhosis, liver transplantation, and death, were also analyzed. @*Results@#Eighty-two (31.7%) out of 259 clinically suspected IT phase patients belonged to the histologic IT phase. Age over 35, high AST, and low albumin were useful for ruling out the histologic IT phase. Risk factors predicting liver-related events were age and significant fibrosis stage. There was no significant difference in the proportion of histologic IT phase and clinical prognosis between normal ALT and mildly elevated ALT groups. However, even in patients with normal ALT, age was an important factor in predicting the presence of the histologic IT phase. @*Conclusions@#A significant number of patients who belonged to the serological IT phase were not in the histologic IT phase. Patients over 35 years and those with high AST, low albumin, and low HBV DNA levels were more likely to experience poor long-term clinical outcomes. Therefore, additional histologic assessment should be considered.

3.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 189-201, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967542

ABSTRACT

Background@#/Aim: Abdominal ultrasonography (USG) is recommended as a surveillance test for high-risk groups for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to analyze the current status of the national cancer surveillance program for HCC in South Korea and investigate the effects of patient-, physician-, and machine-related factors on HCC detection sensitivity. @*Methods@#This multicenter retrospective cohort study collected surveillance USG data from the high-risk group for HCC (liver cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis B or C >40 years of age) at eight South Korean tertiary hospitals in 2017. @*Results@#In 2017, 45 experienced hepatologists or radiologists performed 8,512 USG examinations. The physicians had a mean 15.0±8.3 years of experience; more hepatologists (61.4%) than radiologists (38.6%) participated. Each USG scan took a mean 12.2±3.4 minutes. The HCC detection rate by surveillance USG was 0.3% (n=23). Over 27 months of follow-up, an additional 135 patients (0.7%) developed new HCC. The patients were classified into three groups based on timing of HCC diagnosis since the 1st surveillance USG, and no significant intergroup difference in HCC characteristics was noted. HCC detection was significantly associated with patient-related factors, such as old age and advanced fibrosis, but not with physician- or machine-related factors. @*Conclusions@#This is the first study of the current status of USG as a surveillance method for HCC at tertiary hospitals in South Korea. It is necessary to develop quality indicators and quality assessment procedures for USG to improve the detection rate of HCC.

4.
Gut and Liver ; : 299-307, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966890

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We investigated the factors related to spleen length and the diagnostic accuracy of a model using spleen length corrected by related factors, for the prediction of varices needing treatment (VNT). @*Methods@#Various prediction models for VNT including spleen length were analyzed in the cohort of compensated advanced chronic liver disease (cACLD), defined as liver stiffness (LS) ≥10 kPa in a recent study. The associated factors for spleen length were identified in healthy subjects to improve the prediction of VNT. @*Results@#Among 1,218 cACLD patients, VNT was noted in 249 patients (20.4%). On multivariate analysis, longer spleen length, lower platelet count, and higher LS value were independent predictors for VNT (all p<0.001). In multivariate analysis of 1,041 healthy subjects, age (β=–0.027), sex (β=0.762), and body mass index (β=0.097) were found to be significant factors for spleen length (all p<0.001). Using the β values, the estimated spleen length was calculated. To improve the prediction of VNT, the ratio of measured and estimated spleen length was calculated. Based on binary regression analysis results, the LS value-spleen ratio to platelet score (LSRPS) was calcu-lated as follows: 0.027×LS value (kPa)+2.690×measured/estimated spleen ratio–0.011×platelet count (cells×10 9 /L)–4.215. The area under the receiver operating characteristic of the LSRPS for VNT was 0.820, which was significantly higher than 0.797 of LS value-spleen diameter to plateletratio score (LSPS) (p=0.006). @*Conclusions@#Spleen length is influenced by age, sex, and body mass index in the Asian population. The LSRPS using the measured/estimated spleen ratio had higher diagnostic accuracy than LSPS in predicting VNT in patients with cACLD.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e92-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925930

ABSTRACT

Background@#Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF, Viread® ) had been used as a standard treatment option of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). This clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DA-2802 (tenofovir disoproxil orotate) compared to TDF. @*Methods@#The present study was a double blind randomized controlled trial. Patients with CHB were recruited from 25 hospitals in Korea and given DA-2802 at a dose of 319 mg once daily or Viread® at a dose of 300 mg once daily for 48 weeks from March 2017 to January 2019. Change in hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level at week 48 after dosing compared to baseline was the primary efficacy endpoint. Secondary efficacy endpoints were proportions of subjects with undetectable HBV DNA, those with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, and those with loss of hepatitis B envelop antigen (HBeAg), those with loss of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Adverse events (AEs) were also investigated. @*Results@#A total of 122 patients (DA-2802 group: n = 61, Viread® group: n = 61) were used as full analysis set for efficacy analysis. Mean age, proportion of males, laboratory results and virologic characteristics were not different between the two groups. The change in HBV DNA level at week 48 from baseline was −5.13 ± 1.40 in the DA-2802 group and −4.97 ± 1.40 log 10 copies/mL in the Viread® group. The analysis of primary endpoint using the nonparametric analysis of covariance showed statistically significant results (P < 0.001), which confirmed non-inferiority of DA-2802 to Viread® by a prespecified noninferiority margin of 1. The proportion of undetectable HBV DNA was 78.7% in the DA-2802 group and 75.4% in the Viread® group (P = 0.698). The proportion of subjects who had normal ALT levels was 75.4% in the DA-2802 group and 73.3% in the Viread® group (P = 0.795). The proportion of those with HBeAg loss was 8.1% in the DA-2802 group and 10.8% in the Viread® group (P = 1.000). No subject showed HBsAg loss. The frequency of AEs during treatment was similar between the two groups. Most AEs were mild to moderate in severity. @*Conclusion@#DA-2802 is considered an effective and safe treatment for patients with CHB.

6.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 745-756, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939096

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Efficient anti-fibrotic therapies are required for the treatment of liver cirrhosis. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors have been reported to have anti-fibrotic effects. Here, we investigated whether combined treatment with a statin and a COX-2 inhibitor has synergistic anti-fibrotic effects. @*Methods@#The effects of treatment strategies incorporating both simvastatin and a COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398, were investigated using an immortalized human hepatic stellate cell line (LX-2) and a hepatic fibrosis mouse model developed using thioacetamide (TAA) in drinking water. Cellular proliferation was investigated via 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine uptake. Pro- and anti-apoptotic factors were investigated through Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. @*Results@#The evaluation of the anti-proliferative effects on LX-2 cells showed that the observed effects were more pronounced with combination therapy than with single-drug therapy. Moreover, hepatic fibrosis and collagen deposition decreased significantly in TAA-treated mice in response to the combined treatment strategy. The mechanisms underlying the anti-fibrotic effects of the combination therapy were investigated. The effects of the combination therapy were correlated with increased expression levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling molecules, upregulation of the Bax/Bcl-2 signaling pathway, inhibition of the transforming growth factor-β signaling pathway, and inhibition of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2. @*Conclusions@#The combination of simvastatin and NS-398 resulted in a synergistic anti-fibrotic effect through multiple pathways. These findings offer a theoretical insight into the possible clinical application of this strategy for the treatment of advanced liver diseases with hepatic fibrosis.

7.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 31-46, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913981

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in advanced cirrhosis. Prerenal azotemia, hepatorenal syndrome, and acute tubular necrosis are the main causes of AKI in patients with cirrhosis. Evaluation of renal function and differentiation between functional and structural kidney injury are important issues in the management of cirrhosis. However, AKI in cirrhosis exists as a complex clinical spectrum rather than concrete clinical entity. Based on current evidence, changes in serum creatinine (Cr) levels remain the most appropriate standard for defining AKI in cirrhosis. However, serum Cr has a limited role in assessing renal function in this population. This review examines previous studies that investigated the ability of recent biomarkers for AKI in cirrhosis from the perspective of earlier and accurate diagnosis, classification of AKI phenotype, and prediction of clinical outcomes. Serum cystatin C and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin have been extensively studied in cirrhosis, and have facilitated improved diagnosis and prognosis prediction in patients with AKI. In addition, urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, interleukin 18, and kidney injury molecule 1 are other promising biomarkers for advanced cirrhosis. However, the clinical significance of these markers remains unclear because there are no cut-off values defining the normal range and differentiating phenotypes of AKI. In addition, AKI has been defined in terms of serum Cr, and renal biopsy—the gold standard—has not been carried out in most studies. Further discovery of innovate biomarkers and incorporation of various markers could improve the diagnosis and prognosis prediction of AKI, and will translate into meaningful improvements in patient outcomes.

8.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 76-85, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875454

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#To prevent the perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from mother to child, administration of an antiviral agent during pregnancy has been attempted in women who are either hepatitis B e antigen positive or have a high viral load. In this systematic review and meta-analysis with randomized controlled trials, we analyzed the efficacy and safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in preventing the perinatal transmission of HBV in pregnant women who have high HBV DNA titers. @*Methods@#Multiple comprehensive databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases) were searched for studies evaluating the efficacy of TDF for the prevention of perinatal transmission of HBV. @*Results@#Two studies (one open label study and one double blind study) were included and analyzed. Intention-to-treat analysis (527 pregnancies) showed that the preventive effect of TDF was not significant (odds ratio [OR], 0.53; 95% confidence interval[CI], 0.13 to 2.17; p = 0.38, I2 = 81%). However, the per-protocol analysis showed that TDF significantly reduced perinatal transmission (OR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.77; p = 0.03, I2 = 0%). There was no significant difference between the TDF group and the control group with respect to maternal and fetal safety outcomes. @*Conclusions@#In pregnant women who have high HBV DNA titers, TDF can reduce the perinatal transmission from mother to child without significant adverse events.

9.
Gut and Liver ; : 284-294, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874597

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Sorafenib is the first approved systemic treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its clinical utility is limited, especially in Asian countries. Several reports have suggested the survival benefits of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) for advanced HCC with main portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT). This study aimed to compare the efficacy of sorafenib-based therapy with that of HAIC-based therapy for advanced HCC with main PVTT. @*Methods@#Advanced HCC patients with main PVTT treated with sorafenib or HAIC between 2008 and 2016 at Korea University Medical Center were included. We evaluated overall survival (OS), time-to-progression (TTP), and the disease control rate (DCR). @*Results@#Seventy-three patients were treated with sorafenib (n=35) or HAIC (n=38). Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between groups, except the presence of solid organ metastasis (46% vs 5.3%, p<0.001). The median OS time was not significantly different between the groups (6.4 months vs 10.0 months, p=0.139). TTP was longer in the HAIC group than in the sorafenib group (2.1 months vs 6.2 months, p=0.006). The DCR was also better in the HAIC group than in the sorafenib group (37% vs 76%, p=0.001). Subgroup analysis, which excluded patients with extrahepatic solid organ metastasis, showed the same trends for the median OS time (8.8 months vs 11.1 months, p=0.097), TTP (1.9 months vs 6.0 months, p<0.001), and DCR (53% vs 81%, p=0.030). @*Conclusions@#HAIC-based therapy may be an alternative to sorafenib for advanced HCC with main PVTT by providing longer TTP and a better DCR.

10.
Gut and Liver ; : 420-429, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898458

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We investigated changes in recurrence rates and significant recurrence predictors over time after complete cure of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). @*Methods@#A total of 1,491 patients with first-time diagnosis of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage A HCC, completely cured by treatment between 2007 and 2016, were recruited from two Korean tertiary institutes. @*Results@#The mean age of the population (1,144 men and 347 women) was 58.6 years. Of the total population, 914 patients (61.3%) had liver cirrhosis. Nine-hundred and forty-one (63.1%) and 550 (36.9%) patients were treated with surgical resection and radiofrequency ablation (RFA), respectively. One-year cumulative incidences of HCC recurrence were 14.3%, 9.9%, and 5.1% from the time of treatment, 3 years after treatment, and 5 years after treatment, respectively. Upon multivariate analysis, multiple tumors, maximal tumor size ≥3 cm, and high Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores were independently associated with increased HCC recurrence risk from the time of treatment and 1 and 2 years after curative treatment (all p<0.05, except for maxi-mal tumor size ≥3 cm for recurrence 2 years after treatment). Meanwhile, liver cirrhosis and RFA were independently associated with the increased HCC recurrence risk for almost all time points (liver cirrhosis: all p<0.05; RFA: all p<0.005 except for recurrence from 5 years after treatment). @*Conclusions@#The recurrence rate of HCC after curative treatment gradually decreased over time. Two years after treatment, when tumor-related factors lose their prognostic implications, may be used as a cutoff to define the boundary between early and late recurrence of HCC.

11.
Gut and Liver ; : 599-605, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898439

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Most prognostic prediction models for patients with liver cirrhosis include serum total bilirubin (TB) level as a component. This study investigated prognostic performance of serum direct bilirubin (DB) and developed new DB level-based prediction models for cirrhosis. @*Methods@#A total of 983 hospitalized patients with liver cirrhosis were included. DB-Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was calculated using MELD score formula, with serum DB level replacing TB level. @*Results@#Mean age of study population was 56.1 years. Alcoholic liver disease was the most frequent underlying condition (471 patients, 47.9%). Within 6 months, 144 patients (14.6%) died or received liver transplantation due to severe liver dysfunction. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for prediction of 6-month mortality with DB level was significantly higher than that with TB level (p<0.001). The AUROC of DB-MELD score for prediction of 6-month mortality was significantly higher than that of MELD score (p<0.001). Patients were randomly divided into training (n=492) and validation (n=491) cohorts. A new prognostic prediction model, “Direct Bilirubin, INR, and Creatinine” (DiBIC) score, was developed based on the most significant predictors of 6-month mortality. In training set, AUROC of DiBIC score for prediction of 6-month mortality was 0.892, which was significantly higher than that of the MELD score (0.875, p=0.017), but not different from that of DB-MELD score (0.886, p=0.272). Similar results were observed in validation set. @*Conclusions@#New prognostic models, DB-MELD and DiBIC scores, have good prognostic performance in liver cirrhosis patients, outperforming other currently available models.

12.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 694-700, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897810

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Several attempts have been made to incorporate smart glasses in the medical field. We applied wearable display glasses to show the position of an observer during endoscopy and compared students’ responses between the conventional and new methods. @*Methods@#We surveyed 28 medical students regarding the use of wearable display devices. The students used wearable display glasses to observe an endoscopic procedure and answered the prepared questionnaire. Their collected responses were analyzed for statistical correlations between each variable. @*Results@#The survey of medical students revealed disadvantages including dizziness (dissatisfied and very dissatisfied: 21.5%) and eye fatigue (25% dissatisfied) and advantages including concentration (satisfied and very satisfied: 57.2%) and securing patient rights (71.4%). The students showed more positive than negative reviews regarding the new devices (32.1% vs. 21.5%). @*Conclusions@#We investigated the advantages and disadvantages of viewing the endoscope image with new wearable display glasses compared to the conventional method using the survey to record user experience. The results revealed relatively positive responses from the medical students in the survey. If the new device compensates for some shortcomings, its use in the endoscopy room will be feasible.

13.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 413-419, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897787

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a relatively new ablation method. However, the application of IRE ablation in the treatment of biliary disease has not been attempted. A minimally invasive approach using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) can be a novel therapeutic modality for IRE ablation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the feasibility of endoscopic IRE for the biliary tract using an animal model. @*Methods@#A new catheter-type electrode was developed for endoscopic IRE ablation of the biliary tract. We performed ERCP and endoscopic IRE ablations in the normal common bile duct of Yorkshire pigs. The experimental setting of IRE was 500 V/cm (50 pulses, 100-µs length). The animals were sacrificed after 24 hr, and the ablated bile duct was examined. @*Results@#Well-demarcated focal color changes were observed on the mucosa of the common bile duct. The depth of change after IRE was confined to the mucosal and submucosal layers. Apoptotic changes in the bile duct were observed only around the IRE ablation area. Immunohistochemistry assay showed cell death in the bile duct along the electrode. @*Conclusions@#Endoscopic IRE ablation using ERCP was successfully performed in the common bile duct. It can be a potential option for the treatment of biliary tumors.

14.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 463-473, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897677

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Useful biomarkers for metabolic syndrome have been insufficient. We investigated the performance of serum milk fat globule-EGF factor-8 (MFG-E8), the key mediator of inflammatory pathway, in diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. @*Methods@#Subjects aged between 30 and 64 years were prospectively enrolled in the Seoul Metabolic Syndrome cohort. Serum MFG-E8 levels were measured at baseline. @*Results@#A total of 556 subjects were included, comprising 279 women (50.2%) and 277 men (49.8%). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 236 subjects (42.4%), and the mean MFG-E8 level of subjects with metabolic syndrome was significantly higher than that of subjects without metabolic syndrome (P<0.001). MFG-E8 level was significantly correlated with all metabolic syndrome components and pulse wave velocity (all P<0.05). Subjects were categorized into two groups according to the best MFG-E8 cut-off value as follows: group 1, MFG-E8 level <4,745.1 pg/mL (n=401, 72.1%); and group 2, MFG-E8 level ≥4,745.1 (n=155, 27.9%). At baseline, metabolic syndrome in group 2 was significantly more prevalent than in group 1 (63.9% vs. 34.2%, P<0.001). During median follow-up of 17 months, metabolic syndrome developed in 122 (38.1%) subjects among 320 subjects without it at baseline. The incidence of metabolic syndrome in group 2 was significantly higher than that in group 1 (55.4% vs. 34.5%, P=0.003). On multivariate analysis, MFG-E8 level ≥4,745.1 pg/mL was an independent predictor for diagnosis and development of metabolic syndrome after adjusting other factors (all P<0.05). @*Conclusions@#Serum MFG-E8 level is a potent biomarker for the screening and prediction of metabolic syndrome.

15.
Gut and Liver ; : 420-429, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890754

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We investigated changes in recurrence rates and significant recurrence predictors over time after complete cure of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). @*Methods@#A total of 1,491 patients with first-time diagnosis of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage A HCC, completely cured by treatment between 2007 and 2016, were recruited from two Korean tertiary institutes. @*Results@#The mean age of the population (1,144 men and 347 women) was 58.6 years. Of the total population, 914 patients (61.3%) had liver cirrhosis. Nine-hundred and forty-one (63.1%) and 550 (36.9%) patients were treated with surgical resection and radiofrequency ablation (RFA), respectively. One-year cumulative incidences of HCC recurrence were 14.3%, 9.9%, and 5.1% from the time of treatment, 3 years after treatment, and 5 years after treatment, respectively. Upon multivariate analysis, multiple tumors, maximal tumor size ≥3 cm, and high Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores were independently associated with increased HCC recurrence risk from the time of treatment and 1 and 2 years after curative treatment (all p<0.05, except for maxi-mal tumor size ≥3 cm for recurrence 2 years after treatment). Meanwhile, liver cirrhosis and RFA were independently associated with the increased HCC recurrence risk for almost all time points (liver cirrhosis: all p<0.05; RFA: all p<0.005 except for recurrence from 5 years after treatment). @*Conclusions@#The recurrence rate of HCC after curative treatment gradually decreased over time. Two years after treatment, when tumor-related factors lose their prognostic implications, may be used as a cutoff to define the boundary between early and late recurrence of HCC.

16.
Gut and Liver ; : 599-605, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890735

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Most prognostic prediction models for patients with liver cirrhosis include serum total bilirubin (TB) level as a component. This study investigated prognostic performance of serum direct bilirubin (DB) and developed new DB level-based prediction models for cirrhosis. @*Methods@#A total of 983 hospitalized patients with liver cirrhosis were included. DB-Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was calculated using MELD score formula, with serum DB level replacing TB level. @*Results@#Mean age of study population was 56.1 years. Alcoholic liver disease was the most frequent underlying condition (471 patients, 47.9%). Within 6 months, 144 patients (14.6%) died or received liver transplantation due to severe liver dysfunction. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for prediction of 6-month mortality with DB level was significantly higher than that with TB level (p<0.001). The AUROC of DB-MELD score for prediction of 6-month mortality was significantly higher than that of MELD score (p<0.001). Patients were randomly divided into training (n=492) and validation (n=491) cohorts. A new prognostic prediction model, “Direct Bilirubin, INR, and Creatinine” (DiBIC) score, was developed based on the most significant predictors of 6-month mortality. In training set, AUROC of DiBIC score for prediction of 6-month mortality was 0.892, which was significantly higher than that of the MELD score (0.875, p=0.017), but not different from that of DB-MELD score (0.886, p=0.272). Similar results were observed in validation set. @*Conclusions@#New prognostic models, DB-MELD and DiBIC scores, have good prognostic performance in liver cirrhosis patients, outperforming other currently available models.

17.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 694-700, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890106

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Several attempts have been made to incorporate smart glasses in the medical field. We applied wearable display glasses to show the position of an observer during endoscopy and compared students’ responses between the conventional and new methods. @*Methods@#We surveyed 28 medical students regarding the use of wearable display devices. The students used wearable display glasses to observe an endoscopic procedure and answered the prepared questionnaire. Their collected responses were analyzed for statistical correlations between each variable. @*Results@#The survey of medical students revealed disadvantages including dizziness (dissatisfied and very dissatisfied: 21.5%) and eye fatigue (25% dissatisfied) and advantages including concentration (satisfied and very satisfied: 57.2%) and securing patient rights (71.4%). The students showed more positive than negative reviews regarding the new devices (32.1% vs. 21.5%). @*Conclusions@#We investigated the advantages and disadvantages of viewing the endoscope image with new wearable display glasses compared to the conventional method using the survey to record user experience. The results revealed relatively positive responses from the medical students in the survey. If the new device compensates for some shortcomings, its use in the endoscopy room will be feasible.

18.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 413-419, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890083

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a relatively new ablation method. However, the application of IRE ablation in the treatment of biliary disease has not been attempted. A minimally invasive approach using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) can be a novel therapeutic modality for IRE ablation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the feasibility of endoscopic IRE for the biliary tract using an animal model. @*Methods@#A new catheter-type electrode was developed for endoscopic IRE ablation of the biliary tract. We performed ERCP and endoscopic IRE ablations in the normal common bile duct of Yorkshire pigs. The experimental setting of IRE was 500 V/cm (50 pulses, 100-µs length). The animals were sacrificed after 24 hr, and the ablated bile duct was examined. @*Results@#Well-demarcated focal color changes were observed on the mucosa of the common bile duct. The depth of change after IRE was confined to the mucosal and submucosal layers. Apoptotic changes in the bile duct were observed only around the IRE ablation area. Immunohistochemistry assay showed cell death in the bile duct along the electrode. @*Conclusions@#Endoscopic IRE ablation using ERCP was successfully performed in the common bile duct. It can be a potential option for the treatment of biliary tumors.

19.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 463-473, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889973

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Useful biomarkers for metabolic syndrome have been insufficient. We investigated the performance of serum milk fat globule-EGF factor-8 (MFG-E8), the key mediator of inflammatory pathway, in diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. @*Methods@#Subjects aged between 30 and 64 years were prospectively enrolled in the Seoul Metabolic Syndrome cohort. Serum MFG-E8 levels were measured at baseline. @*Results@#A total of 556 subjects were included, comprising 279 women (50.2%) and 277 men (49.8%). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 236 subjects (42.4%), and the mean MFG-E8 level of subjects with metabolic syndrome was significantly higher than that of subjects without metabolic syndrome (P<0.001). MFG-E8 level was significantly correlated with all metabolic syndrome components and pulse wave velocity (all P<0.05). Subjects were categorized into two groups according to the best MFG-E8 cut-off value as follows: group 1, MFG-E8 level <4,745.1 pg/mL (n=401, 72.1%); and group 2, MFG-E8 level ≥4,745.1 (n=155, 27.9%). At baseline, metabolic syndrome in group 2 was significantly more prevalent than in group 1 (63.9% vs. 34.2%, P<0.001). During median follow-up of 17 months, metabolic syndrome developed in 122 (38.1%) subjects among 320 subjects without it at baseline. The incidence of metabolic syndrome in group 2 was significantly higher than that in group 1 (55.4% vs. 34.5%, P=0.003). On multivariate analysis, MFG-E8 level ≥4,745.1 pg/mL was an independent predictor for diagnosis and development of metabolic syndrome after adjusting other factors (all P<0.05). @*Conclusions@#Serum MFG-E8 level is a potent biomarker for the screening and prediction of metabolic syndrome.

20.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 410-416, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833859

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) is a feasible modality for the treatment of gastroparesis; however, the presently available device requires invasive surgical implantation for long-term stimulation and repeated surgical procedure after a period of time. This study is aimed at developing a wireless miniature GES device and testing its endoscopic insertion in animal models. @*Methods@#Endoscopic gastric implantation of the GES device was performed on 5 healthy weaner pigs under general anesthesia. We created an endoscopic submucosal pocket and inserted the gastro-electrical stimulator. In vivo gastric slow waves were recorded and measured during electrical stimulation. A multi-channel recorder, called an electrogastrogram, was used to record the gastric myoelectrical activity in the study. @*Results@#The gastric slow waves on the electrogastrogram were more consistent with GES on the gastric tissues compared to no stimulation. The frequency-to-amplitude ratio was also significantly altered after the electrical stimulation. @*Conclusions@#GES is feasible with our minimally invasive wireless device. This technique has the potential to increase utilization of GES as a treatment alternative.

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