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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727825

ABSTRACT

Retinyl palmitate (RP)-loaded pectinate micro- and nano-particles (PMP and PNP) were designed for stabilization of RP that is widely used as an anti-wrinkle agent in anti-aging cosmeceuticals. PMP/PNP were prepared with an ionotropic gelation method, and anti-oxidative activity of the particles was measured with a DPPH assay. The stability of RP in the particles along with pectin gel and ethanolic solution was then evaluated. In vitro release and skin permeation studies were performed using Franz diffusion cells. Distribution of RP in each skin tissue (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis) was also determined. PMP and PNP could be prepared with mean particle size diameters of 593~843 mum (PMP) and 530 nm (i.e., 0.53 mum, PNP). Anti-oxidative activity of PNP was greater than PMP due largely to larger surface area available for PNP. The stability of RP in PMP and PNP was similar but much greater than RP in pectin bulk gels and ethanolic solution. PMP and PNP showed the abilities to constantly release RP and it could be permeated across the model artificial membrane and rat whole skin. RP was serially deposited throughout the skin layers. This study implies RP loaded PMP and PNP are expected to be advantageous for improved anti-wrinkle effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diffusion , Epidermis , Ethanol , Gels , Membranes, Artificial , Nanoparticles , Particle Size , Rats , Skin
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138505

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of stabilization of retinyl palmitate (RP) on its skin permeation and distribution profiles. Skin permeation and distribution study were performed using Franz diffusion cells along with rat dorsal skin, and the effect of drug concentration and the addition of pectin on skin deposition profiles of RP was observed. The skin distribution of RP increased in a concentration dependent manner and the formulations containing 0.5 and 1 mg of pectin demonstrated significantly increased RP distributions in the epidermis. Furthermore, it was found that skin distribution of RP could be further improved by combined use of pectin and ascorbyl palmitate (AP), due largely to their anti-oxidative effect. These results clearly demonstrate that the skin deposition properties of RP can be improved by stabilizing RP with pectin. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that pectin could be used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations as an efficient stabilizing agent and as skin penetration modulator.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diffusion , Epidermis , Rats , Skin
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138504

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of stabilization of retinyl palmitate (RP) on its skin permeation and distribution profiles. Skin permeation and distribution study were performed using Franz diffusion cells along with rat dorsal skin, and the effect of drug concentration and the addition of pectin on skin deposition profiles of RP was observed. The skin distribution of RP increased in a concentration dependent manner and the formulations containing 0.5 and 1 mg of pectin demonstrated significantly increased RP distributions in the epidermis. Furthermore, it was found that skin distribution of RP could be further improved by combined use of pectin and ascorbyl palmitate (AP), due largely to their anti-oxidative effect. These results clearly demonstrate that the skin deposition properties of RP can be improved by stabilizing RP with pectin. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that pectin could be used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations as an efficient stabilizing agent and as skin penetration modulator.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diffusion , Epidermis , Rats , Skin
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727470

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-oxidative activity of pectin and other polysaccharides in order to develop a cosmeceutical base having anti-oxidative effects towards retinyl palmitate (RP). The anti-oxidative stabilizing effects of pectin and other polysaccharides on RP were evaluated by DPPH assay and then the stabilizing effect of pectin on RP was examined as a function of time. Among the polysaccharides we examined, pectin exhibited a considerably higher anti-oxidative activity, with an approximately 5-fold greater DPPH radical scavenging effect compared to other polysaccharides. The DPPH radical scavenging effect of pectin increased gradually with increasing concentrations of pectin. At two different RP concentrations, 0.01 and 0.1% in ethanol, addition of pectin improved the stability of RP in a concentration dependent manner. The stabilizing effect of pectin on RP was more effective for the lower concentration of RP (0.01%, v/v). Further, degradation of RP was reduced following the addition of pectin as measured over 8 hours. From the results obtained, it can be suggested that pectin may be a promising ingredient for cosmeceutical bases designed to stabilize RP or other pharmacological agents subject to degradation by oxidation.


Subject(s)
Ethanol , Pectins , Polysaccharides , Vitamin A
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728099

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to establish the method of measurement of hydrogen peroxide and to estimate the anti-oxidative effect of genistein in the skin. UVB induced skin oxidation and anti-oxidative effect of genistein formulations were evaluated by determining levels of hydrogen peroxide. The mechanism involved in the determination of hydrogen peroxide is based on a color reaction between ferric ion (Fe3+) and xylenol orange, often called FOX assay and subsequent monitoring of absorbance values of the reactant at 540 nm. The reaction was to some extent pH-dependent and detection sensitivity was greatest at pH 1.75. Genistein liposomal gel demonstrated better anti-oxidative effect with regard to lowering hydrogen peroxide levels elevated by UVB irradiation compared to genistein-suspended gel. A linear relationship has been observed between anti-oxidative effect of genistein and drug deposition in the skin tissue. Genistein liposomal gel resulting in the localization of the drug in the deeper skin led to improved anti-oxidative effect compared to genistein gel. The suggested method for evaluation of oxidation of the skin can be used as a tool to screen effective anti-oxidative agents and their delivery systems acting on the skin.


Subject(s)
Citrus sinensis , Genistein , Hydrogen Peroxide , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Phenols , Skin , Sulfoxides
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