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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878316

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and glycemic indices, including plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour postload glucose (2h-PG), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), remains inconclusive. We aimed to explore the associations between glycemic indices and SUA levels in the general Chinese population.@*Methods@#The current study was a cross-sectional analysis using the first follow-up survey data from The China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort Study. A total of 105,922 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 40 years underwent the oral glucose tolerance test and uric acid assessment. The nonlinear relationships between glycemic indices and SUA levels were explored using generalized additive models.@*Results@#A total of 30,941 men and 62,361 women were eligible for the current analysis. Generalized additive models verified the inverted U-shaped association between glycemic indices and SUA levels, but with different inflection points in men and women. The thresholds for FPG, 2h-PG, and HbA1c for men and women were 6.5/8.0 mmol/L, 11.0/14.0 mmol/L, and 6.1/6.5, respectively (SUA levels increased with increasing glycemic indices before the inflection points and then eventually decreased with further increases in the glycemic indices).@*Conclusion@#An inverted U-shaped association was observed between major glycemic indices and uric acid levels in both sexes, while the inflection points were reached earlier in men than in women.


Subject(s)
Aged , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Blood Glucose/analysis , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Female , Glucose Tolerance Test , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Glycemic Index , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Uric Acid/blood
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311326

ABSTRACT

Prolactinoma is an estrogen-related tumor and leukemia-related protein 16 (LRP16) is correlated with the progression of estrogen-related tumors, but the regulatory mechanism between LRP16 and prolactinoma remain unclear. This study demonstrates a variation in LRP16 with estrogen receptor α (ERα) in prolactinoma models and the up and downregulation effects of LRP16 on prolactin secretion of pituitary adenomas cells (GH3 cells). In our study, 50 male SD rats (30-day-old) were randomly divided into five groups of 10 rats each. After 120 days of treatment, the rats were sacrificed, and the expression of LRP16 and ERα were examined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry to explore the changes in ERα, LRP16, and prolactin. After siRNA transfection of the respective genes, the GH3 cells were cultured, and their secretory function as well as the expression of ERα mRNA and prolactin were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The results show that secretion of prolactin by GH3 cells can be affected by up and downregulating LRP16 expression, which may provide a novel medical therapy in clinical trials.

3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 791-797, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-266906

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Several previous studies have shown that snoring is associated with glucose metabolism and the development of diabetes, but rare study has shown the association between snoring frequency and prediabetes, particularly in China. We hypothesized that individuals who snore might have a higher risk of prediabetes. This study aimed to investigate the association between self-reported snoring and prediabetes in a Chinese population.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A cross-sectional study was performed in three large communities of Beijing from December 2011 to August 2012 by recruiting individuals aged ≥40 years old. All participants were requested to complete a detailed questionnaire and undergo anthropometric measurements. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was performed in individuals without diabetes. Blood samples of all participants were collected; blood glucose and blood fat levels were measured. Multivariate logistic regression models were built to assess the association between snoring frequency and prediabetes.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 13,592 participants (female: 66.56%; mean age: 56.8 ± 7.9 years; mean body mass index: 25.5 ± 3.4 kg/m2) were included in the final analysis. Of these, 30.9% were diagnosed with prediabetes, while 41.3% and 25.4% had occasional and habitual snoring, respectively. Habitual snoring was associated with an increased risk of prediabetes (odds ratio [OR]: 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.4, P< 0.001), after adjusting for diabetes and sleep-related confounders in the multivariable models. Habitual snoring was also associated with isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG; OR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0-1.6; P< 0.001) and isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; OR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.2-1.5; P< 0.001), but not IFG + IGT (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.9-1.4; P = 0.281). When stratified by total cholesterol (TC) levels, this association between habitual snoring and prediabetes was observed only in individuals with TC <5.6 mmol/L (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2-1.6; P< 0.001).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Habitual snoring is associated with prediabetes, but only in individuals with TC <5.6 mmol/L. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Glucose , Metabolism , Cholesterol , Blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Blood , Epidemiology , Fasting , Blood , Female , Glucose Intolerance , Blood , Epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Prediabetic State , Blood , Epidemiology , Self Report , Snoring , Blood , Epidemiology
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 778-784, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-328156

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has traditionally been considered to affect mainly the elderly; however, the age at diagnosis has gradually reduced in recent years. Although the incidence of young-onset T2DM is increasing, it is still not fully clear the onset characteristics and risk factors of early-onset T2DM. The aim of this study was to describe the initiating characteristics of early-onset T2DM in Chinese patients and evaluate the risk factors for diabetes mellitus.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>This cross-sectional controlled study was performed using a questionnaire survey method in outpatients of multiple centers in China. A total of 1545 patients with T2DM with an age at onset of <40 years were included, and the control group consisted of subjects aged <40 years with normal blood glucose level.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In patients with young-onset T2DM, the mean age and initial hemoglobin 1Ac at diagnosis were 32.96 ± 5.40 years and 9.59 ± 2.71%, respectively. Most of the patients were obese, followed irregular diet pattern and sedentary lifestyle, had life or work pressure, and had a family history of diabetes mellitus. Compared with subjects with normal blood glucose level, logistic regression analysis showed that waist-to-hip ratio (odds ratio [OR] 446.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 42.37-4714.87), family history of diabetes mellitus (OR 23.46, CI 14.47-38.03), dyslipidemia (OR 2.65, CI 1.54-4.56), diastolic blood pressure (OR 1.02, CI 1.00-1.04), and body mass index (OR 0.95, CI 0.92-0.99) are independent factors for early-onset T2DM.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>We observed that abdominal obesity, family history of diabetes mellitus, and medical history of hypertension and dyslipidemia are independent risk factors for early-onset T2DM. It is, therefore, necessary to apply early lifestyle intervention in young people with risk of diabetes mellitus.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Glucose , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Blood , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , Waist-Hip Ratio
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1147-1153, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-290110

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Prolonged gonadal hormone deficiency in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) may produce adverse effects on the endocrine homeostasis and metabolism. This study aimed to compare basal serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels between male IHH patients and healthy controls. Moreover, this study compared the basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with and without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and also evaluated the relationship between basal HPA axis and NAFLD in male IHH patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>This was a retrospective case-control study involving 75 Chinese male IHH patients (mean age 21.4 ± 3.8 years, range 17-30 years) and 135 healthy controls after matching for gender and age. All subjects underwent physical examination and blood testing for serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, ACTH, and cortisol and biochemical tests.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Higher basal serum ACTH levels (8.25 ± 3.78 pmol/L vs. 6.97 ± 2.81 pmol/L) and lower cortisol levels (366.70 ± 142.48 nmol/L vs. 452.82 ± 141.53 nmol/L) were observed in male IHH patients than healthy subjects (all p<0.05). IHH patients also showed higher metabolism parameters and higher prevalence rate of NAFLD (34.9% vs. 4.4%) than the controls (all P < 0.05). Basal serum ACTH (9.91 ± 4.98 pmol/L vs. 7.60 ± 2.96 pmol/L) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (2123.7 ± 925.8 μg/L vs. 1417.1 ± 498.4 μg/L) levels were significantly higher in IHH patients with NAFLD than those without NAFLD (all P < 0.05). We also found that basal serum ACTH levels were positively correlated with NAFLD (r = 0.289,p<0.05) and triglyceride levels (r = 0.268, P< 0.05) in male IHH patients. Furthermore, NAFLD was independently associated with ACTH levels in male IHH patients by multiple linear regression analysis.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The male IHH patients showed higher basal serum ACTH levels and lower cortisol levels than matched healthy controls. NAFLD was an independent associated factor for ACTH levels in male IHH patients. These preliminary findings provided evidence of the relationship between basal serum ACTH and NAFLD in male IHH patients.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Blood , Adult , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Blood , Hypogonadism , Blood , Linear Models , Male , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Blood , Drug Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-289909

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the correlation between pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) and prokineticin receptor 2 (PROKR2) and prokineticin 2 (RROK2) mutations.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>PROKR2 and RROK2 genotypes were identified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis with exon-flanking primers and by automated sequencing techniques with peripheral blood DNA samples from 59 patients with PSIS.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Of these 59 PSIS patients, 6 showed intragenic deletions at the PROKR2 locus. Of them, 5 patients exhibited intragenic subsititution of exon 2 (c.991G>A), and the remaining one patient exhibited intragenic subsititution of exon 2 (c.1057C>T). No PROK2 mutation was found in these PSIS patients.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>PROKR2 may be the susceptibility gene of PSIS.</p>


Subject(s)
Exons , Gastrointestinal Hormones , Genotype , Humans , Mutation , Neuropeptides , Pituitary Diseases , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled , Receptors, Peptide
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-277945

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome(PSIS). Methods The clinical data including clinical manifestations,laboratory tests,and imaging findings of 114 PSIS patients in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Results Of these 114 PSIS patients,102 cases (89.4%) were male. The average age was 21.1?6.1 years. A history of breech delivery was documented in 91 cases (91.9%). Short stature was found in 89 cases (71.8%) and bone age delayed (6.1?5.1) years. Secondary sex characteristics were poor or undeveloped in most patients. The prevalence of deficiencies in growth hormone,gonadotropins,corticotropin,and thyrotropin were 100.0%,94.0%,84.2%,and 74.6%,respectively. Hyperprolactinemia was found in 28.1% of patients. Three or more pituitary hormone abnormalities were found in 105 cases(92.1%). Compared with the 5 cases with history of cephalic delivery,no difference were found in the aspects of height(t=0.297,P=0.634),penile length(t=1.205,P=0.882),testicular volume (U=99.000,P=0.348),growth hormone peak (U=89.000,P=0.186),adrenocorticotropic hormone peak(U=131.000,P=0.967),luteinizing hormone peak(U=98.500,P=0.582),thyroid-stimulating hormone (U=82.000,P=0.162),and the height of anterior pituitary (t=1.676,P=0.107) in the 53 cases with history of breech delivery. Conclusions The clinical manifestations,symptoms,hormone deficiencies were severe in our series. The condition severities were not remarkably different in patients with different delivery ways.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Dwarfism , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Pituitary Diseases , Pituitary Gland , Pathology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2439-2443, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-315317

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Delayed puberty can result either from constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDP) or idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test has been generally accepted as a current method for diagnosing delayed puberty. The objective of this research was to assess the cut-off values and the efficacy of GnRH stimulation test in the diagnosis of delayed puberty in both males and females.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A study of 91 IHH, 27 CDP patients, 6 prepubertal children, and 20 pubertal adults was undertaken. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min after GnRH administration and the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured. For each parameter, the sensitivities and specificities were estimated, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The ROC curves indicated that a serum basal LH <0.6 IU/L or peak LH <9.74 IU/L resulted in moderate sensitivity (73.8% or 80.0%) and specificity (90.9% or 86.4%) in the diagnosis of HH in males. Serum basal LH <0.85 IU/L or basal FSH <2.43 IU/L resulted in moderate sensitivity (80.0% or 100.0%) and specificity (75.0% or 50.0%) in the diagnosis of HH in females.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Our data suggest that isolated use of the gonadorelin stimulation test is almost sufficient to discriminate between HH and CDP in males, but unnecessary in females. The most useful predictor is serum basal or peak LH to differentiate these two disorders in males, but serum basal LH or FSH in females.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Blood , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Pharmacology , Gonadotropins , Humans , Hypogonadism , Blood , Diagnosis , Hypothalamus , Luteinizing Hormone , Blood , Male , Pituitary Gland , Puberty, Delayed , Blood , Diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-850233

ABSTRACT

The failure of pancreatic islet beta cells and insulin resistance are the main mechanism of the occurrence and development of diabetes. The current anti-diabetic drugs, which do not focus on the key pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, can only eliminate or alleviate the symptoms, delay the progression of the disease, but can not cure the disease fundamentally. Stem cells, which have unique biological characteristics, extremely strong self-renewal ability, multi direction differentiation potential, and secretion of a variety of cytokines, have become a star in the diabetes treatment. Basic researches showed that stem cells may ameliorate hyperglycemia persistently and stably by improving the function of islet beta cells and increasing insulin sensitivity of peripheral target tissue. Some small-sample clinical trials have demonstrated its effectiveness and safety, while prospective largesample, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials may provide more evidence on its efficacy and safety, and pave the way for the clinical use of stem cell therapy for diabetes mellitus.

10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1618-1626, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-231724

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Hypertension often persists after adrenalectomy for primary aldosteronism (PA). Many studies have analyzed the outcomes of adrenalectomy for aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) to identify predictive factors for persistent hypertension. However, differentially expressed genes in persistent postoperative hypertension remain unknown. Our aim was to describe gene expression profile of persistent postoperative hypertension patients with APA.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In this study, we described and compared gene expression profiles in persistent postoperative hypertension and postoperative normotension in Chinese patients with APA using microarray analysis. Confirmation was performed with quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Bioinformatic analysis (gene ontology analysis, pathway analysis and network analysis) was used for further research.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Microarray analysis identified a total of 99 differentially expressed genes, including 18 up-regulated and 81 down-regulated genes. Among the dysregulated genes were fat atypical cadherin 1 as well as fatty acid binding protein 4 and other genes that have not been previously studied in persistent postoperative hypertension with APA. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that differentially expressed genes were associated with lipid metabolic process, metal ion binding, and cell differentiation. Pathway analysis determined that five pathways corresponded to the dysregulated transcripts. The mRNAs-ncRNAs co-expression network was composed of 49 network nodes and 72 connections between 18 coding genes and 31 noncoding genes.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>This study revealed differentially expressed genes in persistent postoperative hypertension with APA and provided a resource of candidate genes for exploration of possible drug targets and prognostic markers.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Metabolism , General Surgery , Adrenalectomy , Aldosterone , Metabolism , Blood Pressure , Physiology , Gene Expression Profiling , Methods , Humans , Hyperaldosteronism , Metabolism , General Surgery , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-267582

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the clinical and laboratory characteristics of Gitelman syndrome.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Seventeen patients with Gitelman syndrome (male/female: 11/6) were analyzed for their clinical symptoms, laboratory test results, imaging findings, treatments and outcomes.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Fifteen of the 17 patients presented with varying degrees of lower limb weakness, and 8 experienced flaccid paralysis. The laboratory tests showed hypokalemia (17/17), hypomagnesemia (17/17) and hypocalcemia (17/17). Blood renin activity (17/17), angiotensin II (14/17) and aldosterone levels (7/17) were significantly higher in the patients than in normal subjects. The symptoms were relieved by potassium alone or in combination with indomethacin, spironolactone and other potassium magnesium asparaginate, but the serum potassium and magnesium failed to recover the normal levels after the treatments.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The primary clinical manifestations of Gitelman syndrome are lower extremity weakness with hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia. Combined drug therapies including potassium, magnesium, aldosterone antagonists and other drugs are recommended. The prognosis of the patients is favorable.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Gitelman Syndrome , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Humans , Indomethacin , Therapeutic Uses , Male , Middle Aged , Potassium Chloride , Therapeutic Uses , Potassium Magnesium Aspartate , Therapeutic Uses , Retrospective Studies , Spironolactone , Therapeutic Uses , Young Adult
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1695-1702, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-324907

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Pancreatic β cells are susceptible to fatty acid-induced apoptosis. The 17β-estradiol (E2) protects pancreatic β cells from apoptosis, mediated by the estrogen receptor-α (ERα). The mRNA level and promoter activity of leukemia-related protein (LRP) 16 were significantly increased by E2 in ER-α and LRP16 was a co-activator of ER-α. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of LRP16 on fatty acid-induced apoptosis in MIN6 cells.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Cells with over-expressing LRP16 were obtained by lipidosome transfection. Insulin content and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) were examined by radioimmunoassay. Western blotting was applied to detect protein expression. Apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and flow cytometry. The forkhead boxO1 (FoxO1) subcellular localization was determined by immunocytochemical analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>MIN6-LRP16 cells with overexpression of LRP16 were successfully established, and protein expression of LRP16 was 2.29-fold of that of control cells (MIN6-3.1, P < 0.05). Insulin content and GSIS in MIN6-LRP16 were substantially increased compared with those in control cells. When cells were stimulated with glucose, increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and serine-threonine kinase (Akt) were observed in MIN6-LRP16. When cells were under palmitate pressure, the TUNEL-positive rate in MIN6-LRP16 was (17.0 ± 0.5)%, while it in MIN6-3.1 was (22.0 ± 0.4)%. In palmitate-treated cells, attenuated Akt phosphorylation was observed, but the attenuation in Akt activity was partially restored in MIN6-LRP16 cells. Meanwhile, nuclear localization of FoxO1 in MIN6-LRP16 was apparently reduced compared with that in control cells.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>LRP16 regulated insulin content and GSIS in MIN6 cells by ERK1/2 and Akt activated way. Meanwhile, LRP16 overexpression protected MIN6 cells from fatty acid-induced apoptosis by partially restoring Akt phosphorylation and inhibiting FoxO1 nuclear redistribution. Therefore, LRP16 played important roles not only in insulin content and GSIS but also in the antilipotoxic effect mediated by Akt/FoxO1 signaling.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Cell Line, Tumor , Fatty Acids , Pharmacology , Forkhead Box Protein O1 , Forkhead Transcription Factors , Genetics , Metabolism , Mice , Neoplasm Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Phosphorylation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Genetics , Metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Signal Transduction , Genetics
13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 3641-3645, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-273999

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>The accurate and comprehensive assessment of glycemic control in patients with diabetes is important for optimizing glycemic management and for formulating personalized diabetic treatment schemes. This study aimed to analyze the correlation between 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) and glycemic excursions in type 2 diabetic patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Seventy-one outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly recruited from Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital. Using a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS), these patients' blood glucose levels were monitored for three consecutive days to obtain mean blood glucose (MBG) data. Intraday glycemic excursions were evaluated using the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE), the largest amplitude of glycemic excursions (LAGE), standard deviation of blood glucose (SDBG) and the M-value. Interday glycemic excursion was assessed by absolute mean of daily difference (MODD). Postprandial glycemic fluctuations were evaluated using postprandial glucose excursions (PPGE) and postprandial incremental area under the curve (iAUC). Fasting venous blood samples were collected to measure serum 1,5-AG, whole-blood hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and serum glycated albumin (GA). Clinical markers of glycemia and parameters of glycemic excursions from CGMS were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariate stepwise regression.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Pearson correlation analysis revealed that 1,5-AG was significantly correlated with MAGE, SDBG, M-value, LAGE, PPGE and iAUC (r values were -0.509, -0.430, -0.530, -0.462, -0.416 and -0.435, respectively, P < 0.01), especially in moderately and well-controlled patients, based on defined HbA1c levels. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis revealed a negative correlation between 1,5-AG and the above parameters, but not HbA1c and GA. Finally, HbA1c and GA were positively correlated with MBG and fasting blood glucose (FBG).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>1,5-AG was much better than HbA1c and GA as a marker of glycemic excursions in type 2 diabetic patients. Based on these results 1,5-AG is the best metric for assessing postprandial glucose levels in moderately and well-controlled patients, while HbA1c and GA were superior to 1,5-AG for monitoring MBG and FBG.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Blood Glucose , Metabolism , Deoxyglucose , Blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Blood , Metabolism , Pathology , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Postprandial Period , Physiology
14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 3820-3823, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-273968

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Subclinical apoplexy of pituitary functional adenoma can cause spontaneous remission of hormone hypersecretion. The typical presence of pituitary growth hormone (GH) adenoma is gigantism and/or acromegaly. We investigated the clinical characteristics of patients with spontaneous partial remission of acromegaly or gigantism due to subclinical apoplexy of GH adenoma.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Six patients with spontaneous remission of acromegaly or gigantism were enrolled. The clinical characteristics, endocrinological evaluation and imageological characteristics were retrospectively analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In these cases, the initial clinical presences were diabetes mellitus or hypogonadism. No abrupt headache, vomiting, visual function impairment, or conscious disturbance had ever been complained of. The base levels of GH and insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were normal or higher, but nadir GH levels were all still > 1 µg/L in 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Magnetic resonance imaging detected enlarged sella, partial empty sella and compressed pituitary. The transsphenoidal surgery was performed in 2 cases, and the other patients were conservatively managed. All the patients were in clinical remission.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>When the clinical presences, endocrine evaluation, biochemical examination and imageology indicate spontaneous remission of GH hypersecretion in patients with gigantism or acromegaly, the diagnosis of subclinical apoplexy of pituitary GH adenoma should be presumed. To these patients, conservative therapy may be appropriate.</p>


Subject(s)
Acromegaly , Diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Gigantism , Diagnosis , Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pituitary Neoplasms , Young Adult
15.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 516-519, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-343584

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of tributyltin chloride (TBT) and triphenyltin chloride (TPT) on rat testicular Leydig cells.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The rat Leydig cells (LC-540) were incubated with 0 to 80 nmol/L TBT and TPT for 24 to approximately 96 h, and then the cell viability was determined by MTT. DNA fragmentation ladder formation of cell apoptosis was examined by agarose electrophoresis. Effects of chelator of intracellular Ca2+ (BAPTA) and the inhibitors of PKA, PKC and TPK on cell apoptosis induced by TBT were observed. Effects of TBT on testosterone production in primary cultured rat Leydig cells treated with or without hCG were detected.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>TBT and TPT suppressed Leydig cell survival in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The suppressive effects of TBT and TPT on the cell survival was caused by apoptosis which was determined by DNA ladder formation. The apoptotic effect of TBT was possibly mediated by the rise in intracellular Ca2+ because it could be blocked by BAPTA, the chelator of intracellular Ca2+; PKA, PKC and TPK inhibitors did not prevent the apoptotic effects induced by TBT. TBT markedly suppressed testosterone production of primary cultured rat Leydig cells with or without hCG stimulation.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>TBT and TPT induced apoptosis in rat testicular Leydig cells possibly through increasing intracellular Ca2+. TBT reduced the testosterone production of rat Leydig cells.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Calcium , Metabolism , Cell Line , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Environmental Pollutants , Toxicity , Leydig Cells , Metabolism , Bodily Secretions , Male , Organotin Compounds , Toxicity , Rats , Testosterone , Bodily Secretions , Trialkyltin Compounds , Toxicity
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-676126

ABSTRACT

Primary hypophysitis includes 3 subtypes:lymphocytic,granulomatous and xanthomatous hypophysitis. The primary hypophysitis has a low morbidity and the final diagnosis is mostly determined based on the pathological findings after operation.Now it is considered as an organ specific autoimmune disease.Its clinical manifestations and imaging features are similar to hypophyseal tumor,but the endocrine and pathologic features are different.Glucocortieoid pulse therapy and surgery are the two methods of treatment.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-676730

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyse the high-dose dexamethasone suppression test(HDDST)-related differences in the clinical and biochemical features of the patients with Cushing's disease Methods Cases were drawn from 60 consecutive patients with Cushing's disease,who were then divided into two groups according to the response to the HDDST.The clinical and biochemical features between two groups were compared.Results(1) Of the 60 patients with Cushing's disease,23.3%(14/60)of patients(group A)did not yield results of suppression with the HDDST,and the others(group B)did.No difference was found in the age[(33.8?10.4 vs 36.2?11.2)years]and duration of illness[(2.1?1.6 vs 3.9?3.1)years]between two groups.(2)In clinical features,the patients in group A were more likely to have edema of lower limbs(64.3% vs 32.6%),hypokalemia (71.4% vs 28.3%),secondary diabetes(57.1% vs 26.1%)and purple striae(85.7% vs 54.3%,all P

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-676457

ABSTRACT

Objective To construct PPAR?and PPAR?response element (PPRE)-controlled luciferase expression vectors,and to determine whether the traditional Chinese medicine emodin activates PPAR?and improves the glucose uptake by HepG2 hepatocytes.Methods (1) PPAR?and PPRE luciferase expression vectors were constructed and were applied to screen more than 20 ingredients of the traditional Chinese medicine. (2) HepG2 cells were incubated with emodin which can activate PPAR?and PPRE luciferase activity,and the PPAR?mRNA expression level was evaluated by RT-PCR/Southern blot.(3) PPAR?and glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) proteins were determined by Western blot analysis in HepG2 cells treated with emodin.(4) The glucose uptake rate was measured using 2-deoxy-[~3H]-D-glucose in HepG2 cells after treatment with emodin.Results (1) Emodin stimulated luciferase activity controlled by PPRE in dose-dependent manner at concentrations of 0.04 to 180?mol/L in COS-7 cells.The highest value was about 4 folds of control in the cells treated with 90?mol/L emodin (P

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-676429

ABSTRACT

?-cell tumor is the most common functional neoplasm in islets.The localization of the tumor remains difficult in clinical practice.The application of various diagnostic imaging techniques are reviewed.

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