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1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 437-445, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a serious complication after surgery, especially in elderly patients. The anesthesia technique is a potentially modifiable risk factor for POCD. This study assessed the effects of dexmedetomidine, propofol or midazolam sedation on POCD in elderly patients who underwent hip or knee replacement under spinal anesthesia.@*METHODS@#The present study was a prospective randomized controlled preliminary trial. From July 2013 and December 2014, a total of 164 patients aged 65 years or older who underwent hip or knee arthroplasty at China-Japan Friendship Hospital and 41 non-surgical controls were included in this study. Patients were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to 3 sedative groups. All the patients received combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) with midazolam, dexmedetomidine or propofol sedation. The sedative dose was adjusted to achieve light sedation (bispectral index[BIS] score between 70 and 85). All study participants and controls completed a battery of 5 neuropsychological tests before and 7 days after surgery. One year postoperatively, the patients and controls were interviewed over the telephone using the Montreal cognitive assessment 5-minute protocol.@*RESULTS@#In all, 60 of 164 patients (36.6%) were diagnosed with POCD 7 days postoperatively, POCD incidence in propofol group was significantly lower than that in dexmedetomidine and midazolam groups (18.2% vs. 40.0%, 51.9%, χ = 6.342 and 13.603, P = 0.012 and < 0.001). When the patients were re-tested 1 year postoperatively, the incidence of POCD was not significantly different among the 3 groups (14.0%, 10.6% vs. 14.9%, χ = 0.016 and 0.382, P = 0.899 and 0.536).@*CONCLUSION@#Among dexmedetomidine, propofol and midazolam sedation in elderly patients, propofol sedation shows a significant advantage in term of short-term POCD incidence.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction , Epidemiology , Dexmedetomidine , Pharmacology , Female , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Pharmacology , Male , Midazolam , Pharmacology , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , Postoperative Complications , Epidemiology , Propofol , Pharmacology , Prospective Studies
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-289893

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To compare the effectiveness of high-frequency jet ventilation via Wei jet nasal airway and controlled ventilation with improved laryngeal mask airway during bronchial thermoplasty.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Twenty-eight patients undergoing bronchial thermoplasty were equally divided into two groups: group A (high-frequency jet ventilation through Wei jet nasal airway) and group B (controlled ventilation with improved laryngeal mask airway). Pulse oxygenation,heart rate,and mean arterial blood pressure were recorded after entering the operating room (T0), 1 minute after administration/induction (T1), bronchoscope inserting (T2), 15 minutes (T3)/30 minutes (T4)/45 minutes (T5) after ventilation,at the end of the operation (T6), and at the recovery of patients' consciousness (T7). The pH,arterial oxygen partial pressure,and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure were recorded at T0, T4, and T6. The endoscope indwelling duration,operative time,patients' awakening time,adverse events during anesthesia,satisfactions of patients and operators, anesthesic effectiveness were also recorded.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The arterial carbon dioxide partial pressur in group A at T4 and T6 were significantly higher than in group B (P<0.05). The pH in group A at T4 and T6 was significantly lower than in group B (P<0.05). The endoscope indwelling duration and the operative time in group B were significantly shorter than in group A (P<0.05) while the recovery of consciousness in group B was significantly longer than in group A (P<0.05). The satisfaction for operators and the efficacy of anesthesia in group B were better than in group A (P<0.05). The number of adverse events in group B was significantly smaller than in group A (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The improved laryngeal mask airway with controlled ventilation is more suitable for bronchial thermoplasty.</p>


Subject(s)
Blood Gas Analysis , Bronchoscopy , Catheter Ablation , Heart Rate , High-Frequency Jet Ventilation , Humans , Laryngeal Masks
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350654

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the clinical efficacy of combination of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine in the treatment of patient bitten by agkistrodon halys pallas, and the changes in peripheral blood inflammatory factors (hs-PCR, IL-6, TNF-alpha).</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Ninty-eight patients were divided into three groups according to their hospitalization dates: the western medicine group, in which 32 patients were treated with antivenom serum (6 000 U) for five days, once every day; the traditional Chinese medicine group, in which 32 patients were treated with anti pit viper No. 2 concentrated decoction (300 mL), twice to three times every day, for five days; and the combined traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine group, in which 35 patients were treated with the combination of Chinese and Western medicine treatment described above. Then blood samples of all of patients were obtained, and serum factors (hs-PCR, IL-6, TNF-alpha) in peripheral blood were measured by Elisa assay. Another 30 health volunteers were chosen as the normal control group.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The serum inflammatory factors were significantly higher in all patients of the three groups than that in healthy control before treatment (P < 0.01), and decreased significantly after treatment. In particular, the more remarkable reduction was found in the combined traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine group compared with the western medicine group and the traditional medicine group (P < 0.01). Symptom elimination in the three groups was superior to the western medicine group and the traditional medicine group at the first day and the third day of treatment (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Total clinical effective rate was 100% in the combined traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine group, 84. 37% in the traditional medicine group and 65.62% in the western medicine group, the clinical effective rate of the combined traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine group was notably superior to that of the western medicine group and the traditional medicine group (P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The serum inflammatory factors increased significantly in patients bitten by agkistrodon halys pallas. Treatment with the combined traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine can significantly decrease the serum inflammatory factors, and increase clinical effect, with more obvious clinical efficacy compared with the western medicine group and the traditional medicine group.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antivenins , Child , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Blood , Allergy and Immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Snake Bites , Blood , Drug Therapy , Allergy and Immunology , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Blood , Allergy and Immunology , Young Adult
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-352954

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the efficacy of intravenous scopolamine in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after cesarean section (CS).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 260 pregnant women with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status Classification class I-II who underwent elective CS under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) were randomly divided into four groups (n = 65): at the end of surgery, 0.3 mg/5 ml scopolamine (scopolamine group), 4 mg/5 ml ondansetron (ondansetron group), 0.3 mg scopolamine plus 4 mg ondansetron per 5 ml (combination group), or 0.9% normal saline 5 ml (control group) were intravenously infused, respectively. The episodes of PONV and adverse effects were observed within 24 hours after operation.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The incidences of PONV within 24 hours after surgery were 87.7%, 89.2%, and 92.3%, respectively, in scopolamine group, ondansetron group, and combination group, which were all significantly higher than that in control group (73.8%) (all P < 0.05). However, the incidences of PONV showed no significant difference among these three groups (P > 0.05). No significant difference in the incidence of adverse effects was observed among the four groups (P > 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Intravenous scopolamine (0.3 mg), with a comparable efficacy as ondansetron 4 mg, can effectively decrease the incidence of PONV after CS.</p>


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Cesarean Section , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Ondansetron , Therapeutic Uses , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting , Scopolamine , Therapeutic Uses , Treatment Outcome
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1951-1957, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-255466

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>The high incidence of neuropsychologic deficits after cardiac surgery, including cognitive dysfunction and mood status, has significantly influenced the prognosis, outcome of treatment and long-term quality of life of patients. With a circadian secretion pattern, melatonin and cortisol are capable of modulating the human physiological processes and neuropsychological status, whereas disorder of their secretion pattern may lead to many diseases. However, it is unclear whether neuroendocrine variations are related to the neuropsychologic status in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty male patients scheduled for CABG with hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (n = 20) or off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) (n = 20) were studied. Blood samples were taken intraoperatively at specific time-points and every 3 hours within the first postoperative 24 hours to determine plasma concentrations of melatonin and cortisol. A neuropsychologic test battery including depression and anxiety was administered preoperatively and 7 to 10 days postoperatively. Statistical methods included the nonparametric analysis, multiple linear regression and cosinor analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The patients in the CPB group exhibited more severe neuropsychologic deficits and more anxious than those in the OPCAB group after surgery. In both groups, patients were more depressed postoperatively than preoperatively and recovered 3 months after surgery. Depression and anxiety were correlated with some factors of cognitive dysfunctions. In the postoperative 24 hours, 2 patients in the CPB group, and 6 patients in the OPCAB group showed a circadian rhythm of melatonin secretion. As for cortisol secretion, there were 3 patients in the CPB group and 7 in the OPCAB group respectively. Parameters of circadian rhythm of melatonin in the CPB group and those of secretion rhythm of cortisol in both groups were correlated with depression and some neuropsychologic tests.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The incidence of neuropsychological deficits was higher in patients receiving CABG with CPB than in those without CPB. The status of mood may contribute to the perioperative cognitive dysfunctions. The disordered circadian rhythm of melatonin secretion in patients undergoing CABG with CPB and the disordered cortisol secretion may correlate directly or indirectly through mood with neuropsychological deficits.</p>


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Circadian Rhythm , Physiology , Cognition Disorders , Coronary Artery Bypass , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Blood , Bodily Secretions , Male , Melatonin , Blood , Bodily Secretions , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , Postoperative Complications
6.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 463-467, 2005.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-264483

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the relationship between the circadian rhythm of perioperative cortisol secretion and neuropsychological states in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty male patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) under hypothermic cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) or off-pump were enrolled in this study. They were allocated into CPB group or off-pump group with 20 patients in each group. Blood samples were withdrawn during surgery at specific time-points and every 3 h for 24 h in the immediate postoperative period. Plasma cortisol was measured by radioimmunoassay. All subjects were investigated preoperatively as well as 7 to 10 d and 3 months postoperatively with a comprehensive neuropsychologic assessment, while depression and anxiety were assessed by Self-Rating Depression Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>During postoperative 24 h, three patients in the CPB group and 7 patients in the off-pump group were demonstrating a circadian secretion pattern, while they were disturbed in the remaining patients in both groups. Postoperative depression scores of patients in both groups were significantly higher than preoperative values. Postoperative anxiety scores of patients in the CPB group were significantly higher than those in the off-pump group. The CABG with CPB patients showed a significant deficit in the Digit Span subtest of the WAIS-R and the Stroop colour word interference test. The disturbed cortisol circadian secretion in the CPB group correlated with depression and the Stroop colour word interference test, whereas in the off-pump group it correlated with depression, Digit Span subtest (forward), symbol digit modalities test and the Stroop colour word interference test. Degree of depression correlated with some items of cognitive dysfunctions.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Perioperative secretion rhythm of cortisol in patients undergoing CABG surgery with CPB or off-pump was disturbed. The disordered cortisol may correlate directly or indirectly through mood with neuropsychological deficits.</p>


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Circadian Rhythm , Coronary Artery Bypass , Psychology , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump , Psychology , Extracorporeal Circulation , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Bodily Secretions , Hypothermia, Induced , Intraoperative Period , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Period
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