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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881081

ABSTRACT

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is regarded as the most common liver disease with no approved therapeutic drug currently. Silymarin, an extract from the seeds of Silybum marianum, has been used for centuries for the treatment of various liver diseases. Although the hepatoprotective effect of silybin against NAFLD is widely accepted, the underlying mechanism and therapeutic target remain unclear. In this study, NAFLD mice caused by methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet were orally administrated with silybin to explore the possible mechanism and target. To clarify the contribution of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), PPARα antagonist GW6471 was co-administrated with silybin to NAFLD mice. Since silybin was proven as a PPARα partial agonist, the combined effect of silybin with PPARα agonist, fenofibrate, was then evaluated in NAFLD mice. Serum and liver samples were collected to analyze the pharmacological efficacy and expression of PPARα and its targets. As expected, silybin significantly protected mice from MCD-induced NAFLD. Furthermore, silybin reduced lipid accumulation via activating PPARα, inducing the expression of liver cytosolic fatty acid-binding protein, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (Cpt)-1a, Cpt-2, medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and suppressing fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase α. GW6471 abolished the effect of silybin on PPARα signal and hepatoprotective effect against NAFLD. Moreover, as a partial agonist for PPARα, silybin impaired the powerful lipid-lowering effect of fenofibrate when used together. Taken together, silybin protected mice against NAFLD via activating PPARα to diminish lipid accumulation and it is not suggested to simultaneously take silybin and classical PPARα agonists for NAFLD therapy.

2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1454-1460, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-799962

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study was designed to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of patients with nutcracker syndrome (NCS) who were treated with three-dimensional printing (3DP) extravascular titanium stents (EVTSs). The 3DP EVTS was expected to release the hypertension of the left renal vein (LRV) produced by its compression between the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and the aorta without causing any complications.@*Method@#The pre-operative kidney model of each patient was printed out to enable surgical planning. After that, the EVTS was designed based on the LRV’s primitive physiologic structure using computer-aided design software, and each stent was printed out with a precision setting of 20 μm. Seventeen patients who had been suffering from NCS underwent laparoscopic 3DP EVTS placement. The surgical procedure was designed for the placement of EVTS, taking great care in positioning and fixing the stent. Surgical data, which included patient demographic characteristics as well as pre- and post-operative test results, were collected and analyzed.@*Results@#The mean duration of surgery was 75 ± 9 min, and the mean blood loss was 20 ± 5 mL. Computed tomography examinations revealed that the pre- and post-operative angle between the SMA and the aorta ranged from 18.7° ± 4.3° to 48.0° ± 8.8° (P < 0.05); in patients with left varicocele, the mean diameter of the left spermatic vein ranged from 3.7 ± 0.5 to 1.3 ± 0.2 mm (P < 0.05). Moreover, Doppler ultrasound examinations showed that the peak velocity of blood flow at the hilar area ranged from 12.4 ± 3.3 to 18.5 ± 3.4 cm/s (P < 0.05). No side effects were observed in the 24 to 42 months following surgery.@*Conclusion@#The findings after 2 years of follow-up suggest that the 3DP EVTS is a safe and effective minimally invasive alternative for the treatment of NCS.

3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1454-1460, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#This study was designed to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of patients with nutcracker syndrome (NCS) who were treated with three-dimensional printing (3DP) extravascular titanium stents (EVTSs). The 3DP EVTS was expected to release the hypertension of the left renal vein (LRV) produced by its compression between the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and the aorta without causing any complications.@*METHOD@#The pre-operative kidney model of each patient was printed out to enable surgical planning. After that, the EVTS was designed based on the LRV's primitive physiologic structure using computer-aided design software, and each stent was printed out with a precision setting of 20 μm. Seventeen patients who had been suffering from NCS underwent laparoscopic 3DP EVTS placement. The surgical procedure was designed for the placement of EVTS, taking great care in positioning and fixing the stent. Surgical data, which included patient demographic characteristics as well as pre- and post-operative test results, were collected and analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The mean duration of surgery was 75 ± 9 min, and the mean blood loss was 20 ± 5 mL. Computed tomography examinations revealed that the pre- and post-operative angle between the SMA and the aorta ranged from 18.7° ± 4.3° to 48.0° ± 8.8° (P < 0.05); in patients with left varicocele, the mean diameter of the left spermatic vein ranged from 3.7 ± 0.5 to 1.3 ± 0.2 mm (P < 0.05). Moreover, Doppler ultrasound examinations showed that the peak velocity of blood flow at the hilar area ranged from 12.4 ± 3.3 to 18.5 ± 3.4 cm/s (P < 0.05). No side effects were observed in the 24 to 42 months following surgery.@*CONCLUSION@#The findings after 2 years of follow-up suggest that the 3DP EVTS is a safe and effective minimally invasive alternative for the treatment of NCS.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Methods , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Renal Nutcracker Syndrome , General Surgery , Retrospective Studies , Stents , Titanium , Chemistry , Young Adult
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