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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906219


Objective:To extract essential oil of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium, to prepare Zanthoxyli Pericarpium essential oil solid preparation and investigate its anti-fungal effect, in order to provide safe, green and efficient fungicide for the storage of Chinese herbal medicine and food. Method:The essential oil of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium was extracted by steam distillation method, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was adopted to analyze the chemical compositions and their relative contents in essential oil of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium from different producing areas, Agilent HP-5 capillary column was used for separation at programmed temperature (the initial temperature was 60 ℃, kept for 2 min, then increased to 280 ℃ by 10 ℃·min<sup>-1</sup>, kept for 5 min), the scanning range was <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 35-590. Zanthoxyli Pericarpium essential oil solid preparation was prepared by nanomolecular sieve adsorption method, and its inhibitory effect on <italic>Aspergillus flavus</italic> and its conidia was investigated. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector (UPLC-FLD) was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium essential oil solid preparation on aflatoxin under the conditions of excitation wavelength of 360 nm and emission wavelength of 440 nm. Result:The average extraction rate of essential oil in Zanthoxyli Pericarpium from four producing areas was 5.2%. (+)-Limonene, linalool and linalyl acetate were the main components of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium<italic> </italic>essential oil<italic> </italic>from different producing areas. When the volume fraction of essential oil in the solid preparation was 0.1%, the inhibition rate of the solid preparation on the conidia of <italic>A</italic>. <italic>flavus</italic> was (16.41±8.89)%. When the volume fraction of essential oil in the solid preparation was 0.2%, the inhibition rate for the growth of <italic>A</italic>. <italic>flavus</italic> was (8.11±2.70)%. When the volume fraction of essential oil in the solid preparation was 0.5%, the inhibition rate for the growth of <italic>A</italic>. <italic>flavus </italic>was (21.62±5.41)%, the inhibition rate for <italic>A</italic>. <italic>flavus</italic> conidia was (45.43±5.67)%, and the inhibition effect for the aflatoxin could reach (90.47±12.77)%. Conclusion:There are some differences in the chemical composition of essential oil of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium from different producing areas. Zanthoxyli Pericarpium<italic> </italic>essential oil has a certain inhibitory effect on the formation of <italic>A. flavus</italic> conidia and the production of aflatoxin B<sub>1</sub>. It shows that Zanthoxyli Pericarpium essential oil can be developed into bacteriostatic preparation and used in the storage of Chinese medicinal materials and food.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906138


Objective:Considering the efficacy of Gegen Qinliantang (GQT) in releasing exterior and clearing interior to alleviate dampness-heat dysentery, we analyzed the mechanism of the chloroform extract of GQT in alleviating enterotoxicity caused by irinotecan to provide an experimental basis for the development of GQT. Method:Kunming mice (<italic>n</italic>=60) were randomly divided into a blank group, a model group, a loperamide group (positive drug of loperamide hydrochloride capsule, 0.4 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>), and high- (2.3 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) and low-dose (1.16 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) GQT chloroform extract groups. The mouse model of delayed diarrhea was established by intraperitoneal injection of irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11, 55 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>) for four consecutive days, meanwhile, the mice in the blank group only received the same volume of normal saline. Corresponding drugs were administered by gavage on the fifth day, respectively, while the ones in the blank group and model group were given distilled water for five consecutive days. The general condition of mice in each group was observed, and diarrhea indexes of mice were recorded. Pathological changes in colon tissues of mice were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-<italic>α</italic>, interleukin (IL)-1<italic>β</italic>, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in colon tissues were detected with the assay kits. Furthermore, the expression levels of Kelch sample epoxy chloropropane associated protein 1 (Keap1), nuclear factor E<sub>2</sub> related factor 2 (Nrf2), tight junction protein-1 (ZO-1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and tight junction protein (Occludin) were detected by Western blot. Result:Compared with the blank group, the model group showed declined body weight and reduced contents of GSH-Px and SOD (<italic>P</italic><0.01), whereas increased diarrhea indexes and TNF-<italic>α</italic>, IL-1<italic>β</italic>, COX-2, ICAM-1, MDA and NO levels (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Abundant inflammatory cells and colonic mucosa with defects, swelling, bleeding, and inflammatory exudation were revealed by HE staining in the mice of the model group. The expression levels of Keap1, Nrf2, ZO-1, HO-1 and Occludin in colon tissues significantly declined (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, the loperamide group and the high- and low-dose GQT chloroform extract groups exhibited improved weight loss, reduced diarrhea indexes, diminished TNF-<italic>α</italic>,<italic> </italic>IL-1<italic>β</italic>, COX-2, ICAM-1, MDA and NO, and elevated GSH-Px and SOD. HE staining indicated that the cells were compactly arranged with clear nuclei in the high- and low-dose GQT chloroform extract groups, and the expression levels of Keap1, Nrf2, HO-1, Occludin, and ZO-1 were up-regulated. Conclusion:GQT chloroform extract may alleviate CPT-11-induced delayed diarrhea by regulating inflammation and oxidative stress for enhancing the intestinal barrier function. These findings are expected to provide a reference for exploring the toxicity-attenuating effect of Chinese medicinals on chemotherapy drugs and for developing famous classical formulas.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237740


During the process of growth, harvesting, transportation, processing and storage, Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) can be easily contaminated by fungi and their metabolites like mycotoxins, which not only express negative effects on the quality and safety of CHMs and their processed products, but also pose great threats to human health. Now, some chemical synthetic fungicides have been frequently used to control the growth of fungi and accumulation of mycotoxins in the preservation of CHMs. However, the concentration and type of chemical fungicides allowed for postharvest application are restricted due to the disadvantages of their high residual toxicity, long degradation period and pollution to the environment and so on. Therefore, it is critical to research and develop some highly effective, safe and non-toxic, natural, environment-friendly fungistatic agents from plants to prevent CHMs from being contaminated by fungi and mycotoxins. The paper reviews mycotoxins and their harmfulness, the effective compounds of fungistatic plants as well as the antifungal mechanism to provide scientific evidences for developing novel and effective fungistatic agents plants. Then, the application prospect of fungistatic agents from plants in the preservation of CHMs was discussed.

Animals , Fungi , Metabolism , Fungicides, Industrial , Pharmacology , Humans , Mycotoxins , Metabolism , Toxicity , Plant Diseases , Microbiology , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Microbiology , Preservation, Biological , Methods
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 517-523, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-245052


A method was developed for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in human urine by HPLC-FLD after molecularly imprinted polymer solid phase extraction (MIP-SPE) column. After the pH being adjusted to 2.5 with 0.1 mol x L(-1) HC1, sample was cleaned up with MIP-SPE column for ochratoxin A, the analyte was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD), and finally all the positive results were confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Recoveries from urine samples spiked with OTA at levels ranging from 2 to 20 ng x mL(-1) were 90.6%-101.9%, and RSDs were 0.1%-1.6%. Sixty-five volunteers living in Beijing took part in the study, of which 5 were found containing OTA in their urine and the highest value was 0.091 ng x mL(-1). The MIP-SPE column was firstly applied to purify and concentrate OTA in human urine, this method is simple, rapid and reliable and can be used to determine the contents of OTA in human urine.

Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Female , Humans , Male , Molecular Imprinting , Ochratoxins , Urine , Polymers , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Solid Phase Extraction