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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1471-1476, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924753

ABSTRACT

The joint application of traditional Chinese medicine injection containing chlorogenic acid (CA) and cefotaxime sodium (CS) is sometimes appeared in clinical practice, but the scientific basis of drug molecular compatibility is still weak. This study proposes a sequential analysis strategy based on isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), cold-spray ionization mass spectrometry (CSI-MS) and antibacterial activity test to evaluate the molecular interactions between CA and CS. The results of ITC experiments showed that the Gibbs free energy ΔG < 0 and it was driven by enthalpy change when CA titrated CS, suggesting CA could spontaneously chemically react with CS. Subsequently, the parent ions (m/z 808.143 5) of binding molecular of CA and CS was detected by CSI-MS, indicating CA could chemically bond with CS. Furtherly, the antibacterial experiments found the antibacterial ability of CS against Klebsiella pneumonia was significantly reduced (P < 0.01) by CA in mixed solution. Finally, molecular docking technology showed CA and CS have a common target of penicillin binding protein 3 (PBP3), suggesting that the phenomenon of CA reduced the antibacterial ability of CS may be related to the competitive binding of two components with PBP3. Our studies have shown that CA could spontaneously chemically bond to CS and reduced its antibacterial ability, providing scientific data for molecular interaction evaluation of CA and CS.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2445-2452, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937059

ABSTRACT

The combination of Shuanghuanglian injection (SHLI) and ciprofloxacin injection (CIPI) is frequently prescribed in clinical practice, but the basis for the combination is weak. In this study, isothermal titration calorimetry and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrometry were applied to identify the molecular interactions of SHLI and its main components, chlorogenic acid and neochlorogenic acid with CIPI. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and cold-spray ionization mass spectrometry were performed to confirm that this molecular interaction was related to the formation of self-assembled supramolecular systems induced by chlorogenic acid and neochlorogenic acid with CIPI through weak intermolecular bonds. The antibacterial activity toward Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) was evaluated via molecular interactions, and the inhibitory ability of SHLI, chlorogenic acid and neochlorogenic acid against P. aeruginosa was significantly reduced after interaction with CIPI. A molecular docking study demonstrated that the reduced antibacterial ability was closely related to the competitive binding of drug molecules to the same binding site of the DNA gyrase B (GyrB) subunit of P. aeruginosa. The present study uncovered the intermolecular interactions of SHLI and its main components chlorogenic acid and neochlorogenic acid with CIPI from the perspective of molecular self-assembly and contribute to the reduction of its antibacterial ability, providing a basis for the clinical combination of SHLI and CIPI.

3.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 72-74, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920747

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of the integrated schistosomiasis control measures in Changzhou City from 2015 to 2020, so as to provide insights into the formulation of the strategy used to consolidate the schistosomiasis elimination achievements. Methods The annual schistosomiasis control working report and integrated schistosomiasis control data were collected in Changzhou City from 2015 to 2020, and the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans and livestock and snail status were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of the integrated schistosomiasis control measures. Results During the period from 2015 to 2020, a total of 112 061 person-time individuals received serological tests for S. japonicum infections in Changzhou City, and the sero-prevalence was 0.15% to 1.09% during the 6-year period, with a significant difference seen among years (χ2 = 288.11, P < 0.05). From 2015 to 2020, a total of 13 435 person-time individuals received stool examinations, with no egg-positives identified; among 5 840 herd-time livestock receiving schistosomiasis examinations, no positives were detected, while a 100% coverage of fencing livestock was seen each year. During the 6-year period, a total of 38.40 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 8.97 hm2 emerging snail habitats, and among the 2 344 snails dissected, no S. japonicum infection was found. Chemical treatment covered an area of 385.71 hm2, and environmental improvements covered an area of 200.39 hm2. The mean density of living snails was less than 0.1 snails/0.1 m2 in snail habitats found in Changzhou City each year from 2015 to 2020, and the coverage of harmless toilets was 100% in 2020. During the 6-year period, a total of 3.740 6 million person-time individuals were given schistosomiasis health education in Changzhou City. Conclusions Changzhou City is now at the post-elimination surveillance stage; however, there are still factors affecting schistosomiasis transmission. The schistosomiasis surveillance system remains to be improved to consolidate the schistosomiasis elimination achievements in Changzhou City.

4.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 10-14, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812929

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the spatio-temporal characteristics of Oncomelania hupensis snails along the Danyang section of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal and the Danyang-Jintan-Liyang Canal, so as to provide scientific evidence for the dynamic assessment of the risk of snail spread in this region. Methods O. hupensis snail status was collected in the plain regions with waterway networks in the study area from 2012 to 2017. The spatio-temporal variations of snail distribution were investigated along the Danyang section of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal and the Danyang-Jintan-Liyang Canal using buffer zone analysis, spatial autocorrelation, hotspot analysis and standard deviational ellipse with the geographical information system (GIS) tools. Results The number of snail habitats showed a tendency towards a rise in the study area from 2012 to 2017, and snail habitats were predominantly distributed in the 1 000 m long buffer zone of the Danyang-Jintan-Liyang Canal, notably along the Jiuqu River at the junction between the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal and the Danyang-Jintan-Liyang Canal. The distribution of snail habitats appeared spatial autocorrelations in 2014, 2016 and 2017, and the hotspot areas were mainly identified at the junction between the Danyang-Jintan-Liyang Canal and the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal. In addition, the overall distribution of snail habitats was located in the northeastern-southwestern part of the study aera, and gradually shifted to the southern and northern parts with the time. Conclusions The spatial distribution of O. hupensis snails is complex along the Danyang section of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal and the Danyang-Jintan-Liyang Canal, and there is a risk of snail spread from the upper reaches to the lower reaches, where snail control needs to be intensified.

5.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 635-639, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837623

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the prevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infections among high-risk populations in Changzhou City, so as to provide the scientific basis for formulating effective control measures of toxoplasmosis. MethodsFour types of high-risk populations living in Changzhou City were recruited from 2016 to 2018 as the study subjects, including HIV/AIDS patients, cancer patients, pregnant women and livestock and poultry breeding or processing workers. Each subject was investigated for the knowledge on knowledge, attitude and practice of toxoplasmosis prevention and control. In addition, serum specific IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii were detected, and the risk factors of T. gondii infections were identified. Results A total of 900 participants at high risk of T. gondii infections were investigated in Changzhou City from 2016 to 2018, including 150 HIV/AIDS patients, 250 cancer patients, 250 pregnant women and 250 livestock and poultry breeding or processing workers. The overall awareness rate of toxoplasmosis prevention and control knowledge was 16.8% (151/900), and the awareness rate was significantly greater in women than in men (χ2 = 41.34, P < 0.05). The awareness rate of toxoplasmosis prevention and control reduced with ages (χ2 = 147.78, P < 0.05), and increased with the education level (χ2 = 166.42, P < 0.05). In ad dition, there was an occupation-specific awareness rate of toxoplasmosis prevention and control (χ2 = 92.26, P < 0.05), and the highest awareness rate was seen in cadres and staff (47.2%, 34/72). Among all high-risk populations, 34.6% (311/900) had fre- quent contacts with cats/dogs, 40.4% (364/900) raised cats/dogs at home, 0.9% (8/900) ate raw meat, and 15.8% (142/900) sepa- rated chopping boards for raw and cooked food. Among the participants aware of toxoplasmosis prevention and control knowledge, 24.5% (37/151) contacted cats/dogs frequently, which was significantly lower than those not aware of toxoplasmosis prevention and control knowledge (36.6%, 274/749) (χ2 = 8.11, P < 0.05), and 35.1% (53/151) separated chopping boards for raw and cooked food, which was significantly higher than those not aware of toxoplasmosis prevention and control knowledge (11.9%, 89/749) (χ2 = 50.97, P < 0.05). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infections was 11.0% (99/900), and the positive rates of IgG antibodies against T. gondii were 6.0%, 13.9%, 4.8% and 17.3% in HIV/AIDS patients, livestock and poultry breeding or processing workers, pregnant women and cancer patients, respectively (χ2 = 25.87, P < 0.05). A higher seroprevalence of T. gon- dii infection was seen in men than in women (χ2 = 8.88, P < 0.05), and the seroprevalence increased with ages (χ2 = 37.03, P < 0.05) and reduced with education levels (χ2 = 25.07, P < 0.05). There was an occupation-specific seroprevalence of T. gondii in- fection (χ2 = 22.09, P < 0.05), and the highest seroprevalence was detected in peasants (57/330, 17.3%). Conclusions The awareness of toxoplasmosis prevention and control knowledge is low among high-risk populations in Changzhou City. Health edu- cation pertaining to toxoplasmosis prevention and control requires to be strengthened in cancer patients and livestock and poultry breeding or processing workers who have a high seroprevalence of T. gondii infections, so as to change the poor behavior styles.

6.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 615-618, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818738

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the actual effect of the schistosomiasis control program in Jiangsu Province from 2010 to 2015. Methods A total of 67 schistosomiasis-endemic counties in 10 cities were selected, and a combination of retrospective investigation and on-site investigation was adopted to collect and record the epidemic data of the counties from 2010 to 2015, and a retrospective survey database of epidemic situation was established. The effects of integrated control strategies with both Oncomelania hupensis snail control and infection source control were evaluated. Results From 2010 to 2015, 2 465 911 persons who lived in endemic areas were detected for schistosomiasis, with 16 974 positive cases of blood examinations, and 8 positive cases of fecal examinations. Totally 5 145 people with advanced schistosomiasis were treated and 40 460 people with the history of schistosome cercarial-infested water contact received the expanded chemotherapy. A total of 127 636 cattle raised in the endemic areas were detected, and 51 619 cattle (head-times) with the history of cercarial-infested water contact also received the expanded chemotherapy. The area with snails control by molluscicides was 18 604.84 hm2. By the end of 2015, schistosomeinfected snails had not been found and there was no zoological schistosome infection for 5 consecutive years, and in addition, there had been no acute schistosome-infected persons for 6 consecutive years in the whole province. The area with snails dropped to 1 977.18 hm2, with a decreasing rate of 55.24% compared with that in 2010. Conclusion After the implementation of the plan for the prevention and control of schistosomiasis in Jiangsu Province (2010–2015), the prevention and control of schistosomiasis has achieved remarkable effects and realized the goal of the plan.

7.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 615-618, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818860

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the actual effect of the schistosomiasis control program in Jiangsu Province from 2010 to 2015. Methods A total of 67 schistosomiasis-endemic counties in 10 cities were selected, and a combination of retrospective investigation and on-site investigation was adopted to collect and record the epidemic data of the counties from 2010 to 2015, and a retrospective survey database of epidemic situation was established. The effects of integrated control strategies with both Oncomelania hupensis snail control and infection source control were evaluated. Results From 2010 to 2015, 2 465 911 persons who lived in endemic areas were detected for schistosomiasis, with 16 974 positive cases of blood examinations, and 8 positive cases of fecal examinations. Totally 5 145 people with advanced schistosomiasis were treated and 40 460 people with the history of schistosome cercarial-infested water contact received the expanded chemotherapy. A total of 127 636 cattle raised in the endemic areas were detected, and 51 619 cattle (head-times) with the history of cercarial-infested water contact also received the expanded chemotherapy. The area with snails control by molluscicides was 18 604.84 hm2. By the end of 2015, schistosomeinfected snails had not been found and there was no zoological schistosome infection for 5 consecutive years, and in addition, there had been no acute schistosome-infected persons for 6 consecutive years in the whole province. The area with snails dropped to 1 977.18 hm2, with a decreasing rate of 55.24% compared with that in 2010. Conclusion After the implementation of the plan for the prevention and control of schistosomiasis in Jiangsu Province (2010–2015), the prevention and control of schistosomiasis has achieved remarkable effects and realized the goal of the plan.

8.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 544-547, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818841

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the state of schistosomiasis elimination in 6 districts of Changzhou City, Jiangsu Province, so as to provide the evidence for the formulation of consolidation measures. Methods Three towns (streets) were selected according to the schistosomiasis epidemic degree in each district, and one village was sampled from each town. The on-site assessment was carried out between 2016 and 2017, including Oncomelania hupensis snail survey, population investigation and domestic animal investigation. In addition, the related data and materials were evaluated and the monitoring ability was assessed. Results In the history, there were 54 endemic towns, 368 endemic villages in Changzhou City, with a total area of 3 934.79 hm2 of historic snail spots, and 114 990 schistosomiasis cases so far. In the field assessment in 6 districts, a total of 26 environments were surveyed, with the surveyed area of 36.23 hm2, and there were no living snails captured in each village. A total of 18 199 people were examined for schistosome infection, 255 were blood test positive, and the sero-positive rate was 1.40%. The stool examination was done in 255 sero-positive cases, and no cases were stool-positive. A total of 779 domestic animals were investigated, including 200 cattle, 179 sheep and 400 pigs, and no infections were detected. The files regarding the snail status and schistosomiasis epidemic situation, and the monitoring data were complete and accurate in 6 districts. The annual investment funds for schistosomiasis prevention were 3 120 000 Yuan in Changzhou City, and the number of staff working for schistosomiasis prevention was 86 totally, which could meet the requirements of high quality monitoring. Conclusions All 6 districts of Changzhou City have met the requirements of schistosomiasis elimination.

9.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 544-547, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818719

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the state of schistosomiasis elimination in 6 districts of Changzhou City, Jiangsu Province, so as to provide the evidence for the formulation of consolidation measures. Methods Three towns (streets) were selected according to the schistosomiasis epidemic degree in each district, and one village was sampled from each town. The on-site assessment was carried out between 2016 and 2017, including Oncomelania hupensis snail survey, population investigation and domestic animal investigation. In addition, the related data and materials were evaluated and the monitoring ability was assessed. Results In the history, there were 54 endemic towns, 368 endemic villages in Changzhou City, with a total area of 3 934.79 hm2 of historic snail spots, and 114 990 schistosomiasis cases so far. In the field assessment in 6 districts, a total of 26 environments were surveyed, with the surveyed area of 36.23 hm2, and there were no living snails captured in each village. A total of 18 199 people were examined for schistosome infection, 255 were blood test positive, and the sero-positive rate was 1.40%. The stool examination was done in 255 sero-positive cases, and no cases were stool-positive. A total of 779 domestic animals were investigated, including 200 cattle, 179 sheep and 400 pigs, and no infections were detected. The files regarding the snail status and schistosomiasis epidemic situation, and the monitoring data were complete and accurate in 6 districts. The annual investment funds for schistosomiasis prevention were 3 120 000 Yuan in Changzhou City, and the number of staff working for schistosomiasis prevention was 86 totally, which could meet the requirements of high quality monitoring. Conclusions All 6 districts of Changzhou City have met the requirements of schistosomiasis elimination.

10.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 72-75, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-704229

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the prevalence of major parasitic diseases and related knowledge,attitude and practice among rural residents in Liyang City,so as to provide the evidence for formulating appropriate preventive strategies and mea-sures.Methods Three villages were selected from three towns as survey sites,and the residents who were above three years old and had been in the village for over six months were investigated.The Kato-Katz technique was applied to detect intestinal para-site eggs in residents'feces,and the cellophane anal swab was used to detect Enterobius vermicularis eggs among children aged 3-6 years. The iodine liquid smear and saline smear methods were used to examine intestinal protozoa cysts or trophozoites. Hookworm species were identified by the tube filter paper culture method.A structured questionnaire was used to collect the in-formation on residents'knowledge,attitude and practice of the prevention and control of major parasitic diseases.Results To-tally 759 residents were investigated and tested at the three rural survey sites,and only 2 cases were detected of parasitic infec-tion and the total infection rate was 0.26%.Both cases were mild infections without mixed infection.The total awareness rate of knowledge on ascariasis,trichuriasis and ancylostomiasis was 37.9%,while the awareness rate of knowledge on clonorchiasis was 13.8%.The age and educational level were important factors of the knowledge on prevention and control of parasitic diseases among the residents.The formation rates of washing hands before meal and after using the toilet,and never drinking unboiled wa-ter were 83.8% and 92.1%,respectively. Totally 11.6% of the residents usually ate raw or half-cooked freshwater fishes and shrimps,and 53.0% had not the behavior to prepare raw and cooked food using the different chopping boards.The proportions of residents using fresh feces as manure and working in the field with bare feet were 13.8% and 22.8% respectively.The proportions of residents who thought they could,could not,or were not sure to change the risk behaviors and habits of parasitic infections were 40.2%,28.5% and 31.4%,respectively.Conclusions The infection rate of major parasitic diseases among the rural resi-dents in Liyang City is low,and the awareness rate of knowledge on preventing parasitic diseases is also low. Therefore,the health education on the prevention and control of parasitic diseases should be strengthened to guide them to develop good hy-giene,diet and farming habits.The environmental sanitation should be continuously improved to block the endemic of parasitic infection.

11.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (6): 78-80, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-643276

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the qualification and consuming of iodized salt at wholesale and household levels after Salt Iodization.Methods Iodized salt surveillance at wholesale and household levels every year by detecting iodine content.Direct titration method(GB/T 13025.7-1999)was used for salt iodjne detecting and arbitration method was used for Sichuan salt and special salt.Results Five thousand six hundred and seventy five samples of 227 batches from 3 wholesale industries were detected during 1996-2000,batch qualification rate was 60.79%(138/227)and iodized salt qualification rate was 61.83%(3509/5675).During 2001-2007,2556 samples of 252 batches from wholesale levels were detected.The batch qualification rate and iodized salt qualification rate were 1 00%(252/252)and 99.88%(2553/2556),respectively.At household level.1583 samples from 236 villages were detected during 1996-2000.Iodized salt qualification rate was 74.24%(1 170/1576)and consuming rate of qualified iodized salt was 73.91%(1 170/1583)and iodine median was 45.14 mg/kg.During 2001-2007,13 140 samples from 1656 villages were detected.Iodized salt qualification rate,consuming rate 0f qualified iodized salt and iodine median were 98.03%(12 830/13 088),97.64%(12 830/13 140)and 30.13 mg/kg,respectively. The most difference of iodine content was 3.46 mg/kg in 3 wholesale industries.At household level there was a 4.95%reduction in comparison with at wholesale level.Conclusions Salt iodization level and edible iodine salt reach the national requirements of iodine deficiency control from the starting stage.The quality 0f iodized saIt at household level related to the exclusive wholesale industry and loss phenomenon maybe existed when salt was sold from wholesale industries to residents.

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