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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873562

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the association between daily diet and physical activity with myopia in middle school students in Shanghai, so as to provide evidence for the prevention of myopia. Methods A stratified cluster random sampling of 795 students from two middle schools and one high school in Jiading District of Shanghai was selected. Data was extracted from 2017 adolescent health related behaviors surveillance in Shanghai. Results The reported rate of myopia among middle and high school students was determined to be 57.2%. The proportion of middle school students reporting no drinking soda, no eating desserts and no eating fried foods during the past week were 45.2%, 16.4% and 31.1%, respectively. The proportion of reporting eating fresh fruit, eating vegetables, drinking a cup of milk or yogurt among middle school students every day were 45.8%, 73.2% and 40.7%, respectively. The proportion of physical activity over 60 minutes and moderate intensity exercise over 30 minutes every day were 25.6% and 15.4%, respectively. The proportion of no drinking soda, no eating fried foods, eating fresh fruit every day, eating vegetables every day, and physical activity over 60 minutes during the past week in the non-myopia group were significantly higher than those in the myopia group(P < 0.01). Middle school students eating fresh fruit every day and physical activity over 60 minutes every day were determined to be protective factors for myopia(P < 0.01). Conclusion The proportions of Middle and high school students in Shanghai reporting healthy diet and physical activity are relatively low. Healthy diet and sufficient physical activity may be protective against myopia.

2.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 978-982, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-792658

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the current status of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) towards antibiotic use among community residents in Hangzhou, and to explore the correlations among them. Methods A total of 449 permanent residents in Hangzhou were randomly selected using a multistage stratified random sampling method. Self-reported data on basic demographic factors, and relevant KAP information were collected by the questionnaire survey. Differences in KAP scores according to each demographic factor were assessed by the t test or ANOVA test, and AMOS 21.0 was used for the path analysis. Results Scores for knowledge, attitude and practice regarding antibiotic use were (6.17±2.45), (6.45±0.99) and (6.21±1.02) respectively. Results of the path analysis showed that education level and age had effects on the knowledge (coefficients: 0.57 and -0.38 respectively) . Age, gender and knowledge had effects on the attitude (coefficients: -0.27, 0.12 和 0.02 respectively), and attitudes, gender, monthly income and the level of education had effects on the practice (coefficients: 0.48、 0.37、 0.06 and 0.02 respectively) . Conclusion Community residents in Hangzhou lack relevant knowledge, and there are some irrational attitudes and practices regarding antibiotic use. There is a correlation between knowledge and attitudes, as well as between attitudes and practices, but the knowledge and practices are not correlated.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-845374

ABSTRACT

Metformin is the preferred first-line drug by current global recommendation for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Drug safety of patients with chronic kidney disease(CKD)has always been the focus of concern, so treatment of CKD by metformin has always been controversial. Recent studies at home and abroad have found that metformin’s treatment of CKD is safe, and the additional benefits far exceed the potential risks. The latest domestic and international guidelines also agree that CKD is not an absolute contraindication to metformin, and suggest relaxing the restriction of metformin for the treatment of mild and moderate renal insufficiency, but the use of metformin for medium and severe renal insufficiency remains controversial. The latest research data and guidelines about the safety of metformin’s treatment of CKD are reviewed in this article to provide a reference for clinical rational use of metformin.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65178

ABSTRACT

We report here a case of pentastomiasis infection in a 3-year-old girl who had high fever, abdominal pain, abdominal tension and anemia. Ultrasound scanning of the abdomen revealed disseminated hyperechoic nodules in the liver and a small amount of ascites. Abdominal MRI showed marked hepatomegaly with disseminated miliary nodules of high signal intensity throughout the hepatic parenchyma on T2-weighted images; retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy and disseminated miliary nodules on the peritoneum were also noted. Chest CT showed scattered small hyperdense nodules on both sides of the lungs. The laparoscopy demonstrated diffuse white nodules on the liver surface and the peritoneum. After the small intestinal wall and peritoneal biopsy, histological examination revealed parenchymal tubercles containing several larvae of pentastomids and a large amount of inflammatory cell infiltration around them. The pathological diagnosis was parasitic granuloma from pentastomiasis infection.


Subject(s)
Abdomen, Acute/parasitology , Animals , Biopsy , Child, Preschool , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Parasitic Diseases/diagnosis , Pentastomida , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
5.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 329-332, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-309208

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>The study was designed to investigate the changes in CD(69), CD(25) and HLA-DR expressions in peripheral blood T cell in Kawasaki disease (KD).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The authors detected CD(69), CD(25) and HLA-DR expressions in peripheral blood T cell by using flow cytometry. The patients who met the diagnostic criteria for KD comprised sixteen boys and fifteen girls (4 - 60 months of age; mean, 26 +/- 18 months). All received intravenous gammaglobulin at a dose of 1 g/(kg.d), for 2 days and oral aspirin at a dose of 30 - 50 mg/(kg.d). In case of persistent fever, a repeated dose of intravenous gammaglobulin or I.V. methylprednisolone at a dose of 20 mg/(kg.d) for three daily doses was attempted. The authors tested blood samples from 17 healthy controls consisting of nine boys and eight girls (3 - 84 months of age; mean, 25 +/- 18 months) and the samples from 31 patients.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The percentage of peripheral blood CD(3)(+) T lymphocyte was (54.4 +/- 9.0)% in acute stage of KD and (65.0 +/- 7.0)% in healthy controls. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.001). The values of CD(69)(+) [(11.2 +/- 12.6)%, vs. (0.6 +/- 0.4)%], CD(25)(+) [(9.2 +/- 3.5)% vs. (3.9 +/- 1.8)%] and HLA-DR(+) [(8.3 +/- 5.0)% vs. (4.3 +/- 2.3)%] in KD patients were markedly increased compared to those of the healthy controls. After intravenous gammaglobulin treatment, the percentage of CD(3)(+)CD(69)(+) and CD(3)(+)CD(25)(+) significantly decreased [CD(3)(+)CD(69)(+): (14.0 +/- 13.0)% vs. (1.6 +/- 1.2)%, P < 0.05; CD(3)(+)CD(25)(+): (7.8 +/- 4.1)% vs. (2.0 +/- 0.6)%, P < 0.01]. However, the CD(3)(+) T lymphocytes increased [(50.8 +/- 5.0)% vs. (64.9 +/- 5.5)%, P < 0.01]. There was no significant difference in expression of CD(3)(+) T lymphocyte cell activating markers between coronary artery disease group and normal coronary artery group in KD cases (P > 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>CD(3)(+) T cell activation in the early and middle stages is involved in the mechanism responsible for cardiovascular injury.</p>


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD , Blood , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte , Blood , Aspirin , Therapeutic Uses , Biomarkers , Blood , Child, Preschool , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Flow Cytometry , Glucocorticoids , Therapeutic Uses , HLA-DR Antigens , Blood , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Therapeutic Uses , Immunologic Factors , Therapeutic Uses , Infant , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit , Blood , Lectins, C-Type , Blood , Male , Methylprednisolone , Therapeutic Uses , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Blood , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Allergy and Immunology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Therapeutic Uses , Prognosis , T-Lymphocytes , Allergy and Immunology , Treatment Outcome
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-332149

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the methods of interventional catheterization for combined congenital heart disease and to evaluate its efficacy in children.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>From March 1994 to December 2003, 15 cases (6 boys, 9 girls) underwent transcatheter intervention for combined congenital heart diseases. The procedure of transcatheter intervention was as follows: for pulmonary stenosis (PS) and atrial septal defect (ASD) or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), PBPV first, occlusion of ASD or PDA later; for coarctation of aorta (COA) and PDA, dilation of COA first, occlusion of PDA 4-15 months later; for aortic stenosis (AS) and PDA, PBAV first, occlusion of PDA later; for ventricular septal defect (VSD) and PDA, all occlusions with detachable coils.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Transcatheter intervention for combined congenital heart diseases was successful in all patients. There was no residual shunt after occlusion immediately apart from 2 cases of PDA which were little residual after occlusion immediately. Follow-up for (3.57 +/-2.61) years, the systolic pressure gradients across pulmonary valve and coarctation were normal by ultrasonic or transcatheter, except AS. There was 3 cases presented postoperative complications: 1 with mechanical haemolysis, 1 with fall off of coil and 1 with arterial embolism, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Transcatheter intervention for combined congenital heart diseases could obtain satisfactory results with appropriate indications and procedure manipulations.</p>


Subject(s)
Abnormalities, Multiple , General Surgery , Cardiac Catheterization , Catheterization , Child , Child, Preschool , Ductus Arteriosus, Patent , General Surgery , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Defects, Congenital , General Surgery , Heart Septal Defects, Atrial , General Surgery , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular , General Surgery , Humans , Infant , Male , Pulmonary Valve Stenosis , General Surgery
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-355206

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the impact of congenital cytomegalovirus infection on the hearing ability in infants.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>By using the tools of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) and auditory brain-stem response (ABR), the hearing ability of 38 infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection and 16 cases of normal controls during neonatal periods was screened with a follow-up study at 6 and 24 months.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>In infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection, 86.8% (66/76) ears at neonatal stage and 76.3% (58/76) ears at 6 months passed the tests; while in normal controls, 96.9% (31/32) ears passed the tests. The reaction threshold of ABR V in infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection was higher than that in normal controls (P<0.005). Furthermore,in infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection, 13 ears (17.1%) were extreme hearing loss, 5 ears (6.6%) were severe hearing loss, and 6 ears (7.9%) were moderately severe hearing loss. The incidence of hearing loss during the follow-up was 7.9% (3/38) at neonatal stage, 23.7% (9/38) at 3-4 months, and 7.9% (3/38) after 6 months.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The congenital cytomegalovirus infection could cause the prompt and late-onset hearing loss. The combination of the laboratory evidence with the dynamic hearing screening may contribute to the early detection of hearing loss in infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection.</p>


Subject(s)
China , Epidemiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hearing Loss, Bilateral , Epidemiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Neonatal Screening , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous
8.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 192-195, 2005.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-289279

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To understand whether hyperhomocysteinemia and early arterial atherosclerosis exist in simply obese children.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Totally 68 simply obese children (age 6-14 years, mean 10.8 +/- 2.3 years) were enrolled in this study, 50 were male and 18 were female. Body mass index (BMI) of the obese children was equal to or more than 22. The height of the children was (145 +/- 22) cm. Meanwhile, 26 normal children (age 6 - 14 years, mean 10.9 +/- 2.0 years) were selected as control group, 17 of these children were male and 9 were female. Their height was (148.5 +/- 5.8) cm. There were no significant differences in height and age between the obese and the control children. The carotid intimal-medial thickness (IMT), brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation were examined by Doppler Flow/Dimension System and the liver was examined by B-mode ultrasound imager. Plasma homocysteine was determined by the automated chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays. Serum lipid concentration was determined by biochemical analytic method. Blood pressure of the right upper limbs was measured. A detailed medical and family history was systematically recorded.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>BMI was (27.8 +/- 4.5) in the obese children and (16.2 +/- 2.5) in the controls. There was significant difference between two groups (P < 0.01). The obese children had significantly increased values than the controls for the carotid intimal-medial thickness (P < 0.01). Right carotid IMT, right inner-carotid IMT, left carotid IMT and left inner-carotid IMT were respectively (0.54 +/- 0.13) mm, (0.69 +/- 0.14) mm, (0.52 +/- 0.12) mm and (0.67 +/- 0.14) mm in obese children and were respectively (0.45 +/- 0.04) mm, (0.46 +/- 0.04) mm, (0.45 +/- 0.05) mm and (0.46 +/- 0.03) mm in control groups. Conversely, the flow-mediated brachial artery dilation of the obese children was significantly lower than that of the controls [(11.0 +/- 4.3)% vs. (17.5 +/- 4.9)%, P < 0.01]. The obese children had higher level of plasma homocysteine than the controls [(7.9 +/- 2.7) micromol/L vs. (5.6 +/- 2.1) micromol/L, P < 0.01]. Total cholesterol (TC) in the obese children dramatically increased, so did triglyceride concentration (TG), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-ch) and apolipoprotein-B (apo-B). Of the obese children, had fatty liver or the tendency to fatty liver. Six cases of the 68 obese children (8%) had hypertension. Of the 68 obese children, 57 (84%) had the history of consuming excessive food or taking less exercise. Forty-four percent of the obese children (30/68) came from the obese families in which at least one of the parents or grandparents was obese. Twenty-nine percent (20/68) and 22% (15/68) of the obese children respectively came from the families in which at least one of the parents or grandparents suffered from hypertension or coronary heart disease.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Early arterial atherosclerotic changes existed in simply obese children. Hyperhomocysteinemia may be an important factor of the obesity-induced early arterial atherosclerosis during childhood.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Atherosclerosis , Blood , Carotid Artery Diseases , Child , Female , Homocysteine , Blood , Humans , Hyperhomocysteinemia , Lipids , Blood , Male , Obesity , Blood , Tunica Intima , Pathology , Tunica Media , Pathology
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