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1.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 632-636, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-991684

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the prevalence of skeletal fluorosis in drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis areas in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (Inner Mongolia), and to provide reference for further prevention and treatment of skeletal fluorosis at this stage.Methods:From March to October 2019, a survey of skeletal fluorosis was carried out in all diseased villages of the eight diseased leagues (cities) in Inner Mongolia, including Alxa, Bayannur, Baotou, Ordos, Hohhot, Hulunbeier, Ulanqab and Xilingol. Permanent residents aged 18 years and above in the diseased villeges were investigated. Face to face questionnaires were used to collect the basic data of age, sex, epidemiological history, etc. of all subjects, and clinical examination of skeletal fluorosis was carried out. Drinking water samples were collected from residents for fluoride content testing.Results:A total of 123 166 residents aged 18 years and above were investigated, 1 781 cases of skeletal fluorosis were detected, and the detection rate was 1.45%. The degree of skeletal fluorosis was mild, accounting for 72.26% (1 287/1 781); the others were moderate and severe, accounting for 20.38% (363/1 781) and 7.36% (131/1 781), respectively. There were statistically significant differences in the detection rates of skeletal fluorosis among people of different water fluoride content, age, gender and regions (χ 2 = 565.96, 671.32, 4.38, 17 283.80, P < 0.05). Among them, the detection rates of skeletal fluorosis in water fluoride content > 4.0 mg/L, ≥56 years old and female population were relatively high, which were 5.21% (49/941), 2.26% (1 428/63 188) and 1.52% (905/59 555), respectively. The detection rates of skeletal fluorosis in Xilingol League and Baotou City were significantly higher, 25.48% (745/2 924) and 24.32% (225/925), respectively. Conclusion:The situation of skeletal fluorosis in drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis areas in Inner Mongolia has been effectively controlled, but there are still relatively many patients with skeletal fluorosis in some areas, and further targeted prevention and control work is needed.

2.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 569-575, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-991673

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of adult thyroid nodules in Wuhan City, and to analyze the influencing factors of thyroid nodules, so as to provide basis for prevention and treatment of adult thyroid nodules in Wuhan City.Methods:From 2019 to 2021, two communities or towns were selected from each of the 13 districts in Wuhan City using multi-stage cluster random sampling method. One hundred permanent residents over the age of 16 were selected from each community or town according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria (age and sex ratio balanced), for questionnaire survey, physical examination, urinary iodine test and thyroid ultrasound examination. The influencing factors of thyroid nodules was analyzed using logistic regession and Spearman correlation.Results:A total of 2 578 adults were investigated, including 1 168 men and 1 410 women. The age was (41.79 ± 13.01) years. The prevalence of thyroid nodules was 35.49% (915/2 578). The prevalence of single nodules was 19.16% (494/2 578), which was higher than that of multiple nodules [16.33% (421/2 578), χ 2 = 2 577.00, P < 0.001]. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female ( OR = 2.033, 95% CI: 1.631 - 2.535), older ( OR = 1.404, 95% CI: 1.290 - 1.528), history of thyroid disease ( OR = 1.351, 95% CI: 1.211 - 1.506) and diabetes ( OR = 1.449, 95% CI: 1.083 - 1.938) were independent risk factors for adult thyroid nodules ( P < 0.05). The median urinary iodine of residents in Wuhan City was 185.32 μg/L, at an appropriate level of iodine nutrition, there was no correlation between urinary iodine and thyroid nodules ( r = 0.02, P = 0.391). Conclusions:The prevalence of thyroid nodules of adults in Wuhan City is high. Women, older, a history of thyroid diseases and diabetes are all risk factors for thyroid nodules. No correlation is found between urinary iodine level and thyroid nodules.

3.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 52-61, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995697

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of serological indicators and evaluate the diagnostic value of a new established combined serological model on identifying the minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) in patients with compensated cirrhosis.Methods:This prospective multicenter study enrolled 263 compensated cirrhotic patients from 23 hospitals in 15 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities of China between October 2021 and August 2022. Clinical data and laboratory test results were collected, and the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score was calculated. Ammonia level was corrected to the upper limit of normal (AMM-ULN) by the baseline blood ammonia measurements/upper limit of the normal reference value. MHE was diagnosed by combined abnormal number connection test-A and abnormal digit symbol test as suggested by Guidelines on the management of hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhosis. The patients were randomly divided (7∶3) into training set ( n=185) and validation set ( n=78) based on caret package of R language. Logistic regression was used to establish a combined model of MHE diagnosis. The diagnostic performance was evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic curve, Hosmer-Lemeshow test and calibration curve. The internal verification was carried out by the Bootstrap method ( n=200). AUC comparisons were achieved using the Delong test. Results:In the training set, prevalence of MHE was 37.8% (70/185). There were statistically significant differences in AMM-ULN, albumin, platelet, alkaline phosphatase, international normalized ratio, MELD score and education between non-MHE group and MHE group (all P<0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that AMM-ULN [odds ratio ( OR)=1.78, 95% confidence interval ( CI) 1.05-3.14, P=0.038] and MELD score ( OR=1.11, 95% CI 1.04-1.20, P=0.002) were independent risk factors for MHE, and the AUC for predicting MHE were 0.663, 0.625, respectively. Compared with the use of blood AMM-ULN and MELD score alone, the AUC of the combined model of AMM-ULN, MELD score and education exhibited better predictive performance in determining the presence of MHE was 0.755, the specificity and sensitivity was 85.2% and 55.7%, respectively. Hosmer-Lemeshow test and calibration curve showed that the model had good calibration ( P=0.733). The AUC for internal validation of the combined model for diagnosing MHE was 0.752. In the validation set, the AUC of the combined model for diagnosing MHE was 0.794, and Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed good calibration ( P=0.841). Conclusion:Use of the combined model including AMM-ULN, MELD score and education could improve the predictive efficiency of MHE among patients with compensated cirrhosis.

4.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 368-372, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931553

ABSTRACT

Objective:To understand the prevalence of tea-drinking-borne fluorosis in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and to provide a data basis for formulation of prevention and control measures.Methods:All administrative villages of 53 banners (counties) in 10 leagues (cities) of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region were investigated for tea-drinking-borne fluorosis. The basic information and demographic information of each administrative village were collected, and 10 households were selected from each administrative village to investigate the basic information of family members and the drinking situation of brick tea, and collect household brick tea samples to determine the fluorine content. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in children aged 8 to 12 and skeletal fluorosis in adults over 16 years in the administrative villages were investigated.Results:There were 39 banners (counties) in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region that had the habit of drinking brick tea, people who habitually drink brick tea a lot accounted for 70.22% of the total population (4.278 5 million/6.092 8 million). The per capita annual consumption of brick tea was 1.00 kg and the per capita daily intake of brick tea fluoride was 0.68 mg. A total of 24 282 brick tea samples were collected, and the samples with fluorine content exceeding the standard accounted for 74.77% (18 155/24 282). Except that the fluorine content of black brick tea was lower than the national health standard (300 mg/kg), other varieties of brick tea exceeded the standard. A total of 97 295 children aged 8 to 12 years were examined, and 6 558 cases of dental fluorosis were detected. The detection rate of dental fluorosis was 6.74%. Among them, 3 623 cases were very mild, 2 440 cases were mild, 489 cases were moderate and 6 cases were severe. There were significant differences in the detection rates of dental fluorosis in children of different regions and ages (χ 2 = 6 803.76, 30.82, P < 0.05). A total of 115 251 adults over 16 years old were examined, and 1 691 cases of skeletal fluorosis were detected. The detection rate of adult skeletal fluorosis was 1.47%; among them, 1 043 cases were mild, 481 cases were moderate and 167 cases were severe. There were statistically significant differences in the detection rates of skeletal fluorosis among adults of different regions and ages (χ 2 = 3 584.26, 562.67, P < 0.05). Conclusions:The fluoride content of brick tea consumed by residents in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region seriously exceeds the standard. Moderate and severe patients with dental fluorosis in children aged 8 to 12 years and skeletal fluorosis in adults over 16 years old have been detected. The prevention and treatment of tea-drinking-borne fluorosis in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region should be continuously strengthened.

5.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 309-312, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931542

ABSTRACT

Objective:To understand the demographic characteristics and treatment intention, treatment status and therapeutic effect of patients with skeletal fluorosis in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (reffered to as Inner Mongolia) in order to provide a basis for next step treatment program.Methods:From March to June 2020, a face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted among 3 570 patients with skeletal fluorosis in 11 leagues (cities) of Inner Mongolia to understand their basic information, treatment intention, treatment status and therapeutic effect. Patients with skeletal fluorosis of different demographic characteristics were compared with each other in their treatment intention and treatment status, and the therapeutic effects of different drugs were compared by χ 2 test. Results:A total of 3570 patients with skeletal fluorosis were investigated. There were slightly more women than men with skeletal fluorosis (1.29 ∶ 1.00, 2 014/1 556). The ages were mainly from 40 to 79 years old (95.4%, 3 406/3 570). Mongols patients accounted for 36.0% (1 285/3 570). Patients with low education (primary school and below) accounted for 82.2% (2 935/3 570). Eighty-five per cent (3 035/3 570) of the patients had drug treatment intention and 37.1% (1 325/3 570) of the patients had drug treatment. Thirty-seven point five per cent (1 338/3 570) of the patients had surgery intention and surgery was performed in 0.2% (8/3 570) of the patients. Combination therapy (98.5%, 194/197) and chondroprotective agents alone (98.3%, 173/176) were more effective than anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents alone (84.2%, 48/57) in the treatment of skeletal fluorosis ( P < 0.05). Surgery was effective (8/8). Conclusions:Most of the patients with skeletal fluorosis are middle-aged and elderly, and the patients with skeletal fluorosis in Mongols account for a certain proportion. At present, all the patients with skeletal fluorosis who have the will to be treated have not been effectively treated, and the means of treatment is relatively single. It should be advocated to carry out various forms of treatment of skeletal fluorosis, so that patients could relieve symptoms, reduce pain and improve their quality of life.

6.
Chinese Journal of Digestion ; (12): 659-666, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-958349

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the diagnostic value of independent and combined subtests of the psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES) in mild hepatic encephalopathy(MHE) of patients with liver cirrhosis, so as to optimize the PHES.Methods:This was a prospective, multicenter and real-world study which was sponsored by the National Clinical Research Center of Infectious Diseases and the Portal Hypertension Consortium. Twenty-six hospitals from 13 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities countrywide participated in this study, induding Tianjin Third Central Hospital, the Fourth People′s Hospital of Qinghai Province, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Baotou Medical College, the Third People′s Hospital of Taiyuan, the Fifth Medical Center of PLA General Hospital and so on. From October 2021 to February 2022, outpatients and hospitalized patients with liver cirrhosis and no obvious hepatic encephalopathy were consecutively enrolled. All patients received 5 PHES subjects in the same order: number connection test(NCT)-A, NCT-B, digit symbol test(DST), line tracing test(LTT) and serial dotting test(SDT), and the scores were calculated. The total score of PHES <-4 was taken as the cut-off value for diagnosing MHE. Compare the differences in each subtest between MHE group and non-MHE group. Receiver operating characteristic curve(ROC) and area under the curve(AUC) was performed to assess the diagnostic value of independent and combined subtests in MHE. Mann-Whitney U test and DeLong test were used for statistical analysis. Results:A total of 581 patients with liver cirrhosis were enrolled, 457 were diagnosed as MHE, and the incidence of MHE was 78.7%. The results of NCT-A, NCT-B, SDT, LTT, DST of MHE group were 60.00 s(47.01 s, 88.00 s), 90.45 s(69.32 s, 125.35 s), 74.00 s(57.65 s, 96.60 s), 74.72(60.00, 98.61) and 27.00(20.00, 36.00), respectively. Compared those of non-MHE group(34.00 s(29.15 s, 44.48 s), 50.00 s(40.98 s, 60.77 s), 50.00 s(41.07 s, 63.03 s), 46.23(38.55, 59.42) and 42.00(34.00, 50.75)), the differences were statistically significant( Z=12.37, 12.98, 9.83, 11.56, 10.66; all P<0.001). The AUC(95% confidence interval(95% CI)) of subtests of PHES NCT-B, NCT-A, LTT, DST and SDT alone in MHE diagnosis were 0.880(0.849 to 0.910), 0.862(0.828 to 0.896), 0.838(0.799 to 0.877), 0.812(0.772 to 0.851) and 0.788(0.743 to 0.832), respectively. The combination of 2 PHES subtests significantly increased the diagnostic efficacy. Among them the diagnostic efficacy of the combination of NCT-B and LTT was the best, the AUC(95% CI) was 0.924(0.902 to 0.947), the specificity was 91.9% and the sensitivity was 79.2%, which was better than a single PHES subtest (NCT-A, NCT-B, SDT, LTT and DST) and the combination of NCT-A and DST(AUC was 0.879, 95% CI0.847 to 0.910) which was recommended by guidelines on the management of hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhosis, the differences were statistically significant ( Z=3.78, 3.83, 5.57, 5.51, 5.38, 2.93; all P<0.01). Furthermore, compared between the combination of NCT-B and LTT and the combination of 3 subests of PHES, only the diagnostic efficacy of combination of NCT-B, LTT and SDT (AUC was 0.936, 95% CI 0.916 to 0.956) was better than that of the combination of NCT-B and LTT, the difference was statistically significant( Z=2.32, P=0.020). Conclusion:Based on the diagnostic efficacy and clinical feasibility of PHES subtests and their combinations, the combination of NCT-B and LTT is recommended for the diagnosis of MHE.

7.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 649-653, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-955763

ABSTRACT

Objective:To learn about the distribution of fluoride content in drinking water of residents in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, so as to provide scientific basis for formulation of refined prevention and control measures for drinking-water-type endemic fluorosis.Methods:From January 2017 to December 2019, water fluoride surveys were carried out in all natural villages of 103 banners (counties) in 12 leagues (cities) of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and drinking water samples of residents were collected according to different water supply methods (engineering water supply, physical and chemical water improvement, and decentralized water supply). The ion selective electrode method was used for water fluoride detection, and whether the water fluoride exceeded the standard was determined according to the "Standards for Drinking Water Quality" (GB 5749-2006).Results:The survey was carried out in 36 625 natural villages in 103 banners (counties) of 12 leagues (cities) in the region, among which 24 682 were engineering water supply villages, accounting for 67.39%; 2 610 were physical and chemical water improvement villages, accounting for 7.13%; and 9 333 were decentralized water supply villages, accounting for 25.48%. The median values of water fluoride in the engineering water supply villages, the physical and chemical water improvement villages and the decentralized water supply villages were 0.62, 0.23, and 0.52 mg/L, respectively, and the difference between different water supply methods was statistically significant ( H = 2 809.95, P < 0.001); the qualified rates of water fluoride were 96.47% (23 810/24 682), 99.73% (2 603/2 610) and 96.37% (8 994/9 333), respectively, and there was significant difference between different water supply methods (χ 2 = 132.74, P < 0.001). All the 12 leagues (cities) in the region had villages with water fluoride exceeding the standard, among which Chifeng City and Ordos City had more villages with water fluoride exceeding the standard (479, 282). Conclusions:All the 12 leagues (cities) in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region have villages with water fluoride exceeding the standard. It is necessary to urge relevant departments to carry out planning and management of villages with water fluoride exceeding the standard.

8.
Journal of Leukemia & Lymphoma ; (12): 480-483, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-953989

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the molecular genetic and clinical characteristics of MEF2D-BCL9 fusion gene-positive acute B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), and to provide the reference for the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.Methods:The medical record and experimental examination data of a 18-year-old female MEF2D-BCL9 fusion gene-positive B-ALL patient were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical manifestations and biological characteristics of MEF2D-BCL9 fusion gene-positive B-ALL were summarized.Results:This 18-year-old female patient was treated in a local hospital in December 2018 and was diagnosed as B-ALL. She achieved complete remission after chemotherapy and recurred at 6 months after the initial onset, and then she was admitted to Hebei Yanda Ludaopei Hospital in the 9 months after the initial onset.MEF2D-BCL9 fusion gene was detected through RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and verified by using polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. Bone marrow cell morphology was similar to mature B cells with vacuoles but without characteristic chromosome karyotype abnormalities. The patient achieved remission after VLD regimen chemotherapy, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy and bridged to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). She has maintained complete remission for 2 years at the last follow-up in February 2022.Conclusions:MEF2D-BCL9 fusion gene-positive B-ALL is characterized with high risk, early relapse and poor prognosis. These patients may benefit from CAR-T and allo-HSCT. It further emphasizes the importance of taking MEF2D-BCL9 fusion gene into the detection or identification by using RNA-seq, particularly for those newly diagnosed B-ALL patients in children and adolescents with specific bone marrow morphology.

9.
Chinese Journal of Radiological Medicine and Protection ; (12): 992-998, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993038

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of the combination of Auto-prescription and ODM full on image quality and radiation dose of chest enhanced CT inorder to explore the feasibility of individualized low radiation dose chest enhanced CT. Methods:The phantoms PH-75 in two sizes were scanned with four scanning modes: group A, 120 kVp + Smart-mA; group B, 120 kVp + Smart-mA+ ODM full; group C, Auto-prescription + Smart-mA; group D, Auto-prescription + Smart-mA+ ODM full. The images of each group were reconstructed with 40%-80% ASIR-V (interval 20%), recorded as A 1-3-D 1-3. Image quality and radiation dose were evaluated in order to obtain optimal scanning modes. Totally 35 cases(from the First Hospital of Dalian Medical University during November 2021 to July 2022) of chest enhancement CT were collected prospectively in the clinical study using the parameters of D 2 group recorded as D patients. Patients in this group received chest enhancement CT scanning for the second time within three months. The CT parameters in first enhanced scanning recorded as A patient were as same as those in group A 1, and the parameters in second scanning recorded as D patient were as same as those in group D 2. The SNRs, CNRs, subjective grading and imaging findings of the lesion in two groups were compared. Results:In phantom study, the radiation dose of each group was statistically significant, and that in D group was the lowest. For two sizes of phantoms, A 1 was uesd as the control group in pairwise comparison. The SDs of B 1, C 1, and D 2 images had no statistical difference with that of A 1 ( P > 0.05), and SD of D 1was higher than that of A 1, and SDs of other groups were lower than that of A 1( F=10.77, 122.50, P<0.05). CNR of B 1 had no statistical difference with that of A 1, and the CNRs of other groups were higher( F=136.20, 30.21, P<0.05). Subjective scores of A 2, C 2, D 2 had no statistical difference with that of A 1 and those of other groups were lower than that of A 1( H=52.89, 43.95, P<0.05). In clinical study, 80 kVp was uesd for 22 cases and 100 kVp was used for 13 cases in D patients group. SNRs and CNRs in the D patients group were all higher than those in the A patients group ( P > 0.05). The consistency of image quality scores for two observers was good ( kappa = 0.754, P < 0.05). The median scores of the two groups were (4, 4). Conclusion:Auto-prescription combined with ODM full in chest enhanced CT imaging can achieve individualized low radiation dose with meeting the requirements of image quality and clinical diagnosis.

10.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 961-965, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-991554

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the effect of water improvement on urinary arsenic methylation metabolism in population exposed to arsenic through drinking water.Methods:A cluster sampling method was used to select drinking water type arsenism areas in Bayannur City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Permanent residents lived in the arsenism areas for more than 10 years were selected as the survey subjects. Urine samples ( n = 874, 111, 145) were collected in 2004 (before water improvement), 2014 (4 years after water improvement) and 2017 (7 years after water improvement), respectively, and some subjects were followed up in 2014 and 2017. High performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) was used to detect different forms of arsenic metabolites in urine [inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsenic acid (DMA)], and total arsenic (tAs), the iAs percentage (iAs%), MMA percentage (MMA%), DMA percentage (DMA%), monomethylation rate (PMI), dimethylation rate (SMI), and the ratio of MMA to DMA (MMA/DMA) were calculated. The content and distribution of urinary arsenic metabolites in people exposed to arsenic before and after water improvement were compared and analyzed. Results:Compared with 2004, the levels of iAs, MMA, DMA, tAs and iAs% in urine of arsenic exposed population in 2014 were lower ( Z =-14.12,-12.79,-14.27,-14.21,-6.90, P < 0.001), the levels of MMA%, DMA% and PMI were higher ( Z =-3.22,-2.91,-6.90, P < 0.05); in the same drinking water arsenic exposed population, compared with 2004, the levels of iAs, MMA, DMA, tAs and iAs% in urine ( n = 48) were lower ( Z =-5.57,-5.53,-5.54,-5.55,-2.86, P < 0.05) in 2014, and PMI level was higher ( Z =-2.86, P = 0.004). Compared with 2014, the levels of iAs% and MMA/DMA in urine of arsenic exposed population in 2017 were lower ( Z =-4.97,-2.25, P < 0.05), the levels of MMA, DMA, tAs, DMA%, PMI and SMI were higher ( Z =-4.01,-5.39,-4.77,-4.61,-4.97,-2.25, P < 0.05); in the same drinking water arsenic exposed population, compared with 2014, the level of iAs% in urine ( n = 28) was lower ( Z =-2.87, P = 0.004) in 2017, the levels of DMA% and PMI were higher ( Z =-2.32,-2.87, P < 0.05). Conclusion:Water improvement could significantly reduce the levels of urinary arsenic metabolites iAs, MMA, DMA and tAs and increase the level of DMA% in arsenic exposed population.

11.
Chinese Journal of Blood Transfusion ; (12): 287-289, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1004566

ABSTRACT

【Objective】 To compare the effect of different combinations of filter membranes on the removal of IgA by component Ⅱ solution. 【Methods】 The dissolved solution of component Ⅱ was filtered with different combinations of filter membranes, and the turbidity, IgA residue, molecular size distribution and purity were compared. 【Results】 After filtering through the combination of NA-16+ Millpore 0.5μ, NA-16+ EmphazeTMAEX HP, and ZetaPlus™ + Emphaze™AEX HP filter membranes, the turbidity of the filtrate decreased by 35.5%(22.4/63.1), 39.2%(24.8/63.3) and 59.8%(37.4/62.5), the IgA residue decreased by 5.8%(14.77/253.70), 20.0%(50.90/254.00) and 44.3%(112.13/253.33), respectively.Molecular size distribution was 99.60%, 99.85% and 100%, and the purity was 100%, 100% and 100%, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The combination of ZetaPlus™ + Emphaze™AEX HP filter membrane can not only effectively remove IgA in the dissolution solution of component Ⅱ with other quality indicators remaining high-level, which can be used in IVIG large-scale production process.

12.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 333-338, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909874

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the characteristics of complications after internal fixation with hallo nails for femoral neck fractures according to OTA/AO classification and analyze the reasons for differences in complications of different classifications based on the current theories and lever-fulcrum balance theory.Methods:A retrospective case series analysis was made on clinical data of 113 patients with femoral neck fractures treated in Peking University People's Hospital from January 2014 to June 2020. There were 49 males and 64 females, with the age of 21-89 years [61(52, 72)years]. According to OTA/AO classification, there were 5 patients with type B1.1 fractures, 18 with type B1.2, 16 with type B1.3, 44 with type B2.1, 5 with type B2.2, 12 with type B2.3 and 13 with type B3. All patients were treated by percutaneous internal fixation with hallo nails. Complications were recorded during follow-up including femoral head necrosis, nonunion, screw back-sliding and screw cut-out. Causes of internal fixation complications were analyzed based on the lever-fulcrum balance theory, taking the location of fulcrum, screw stress (F1), force arm of pressure (L1), resistance of screw (F2) and resistance side (L2) into consideration.Results:All patients were followed up for 1.1-77.5 months [8.2(3.6, 16.6)months]. In all, 24 patients had complications, including femoral head necrosis in 7 patients, nonunion in 3, screw back-sliding in 12 and screw cut-out in 2. The rate of femoral head necrosis of type B1, B2 and B3 was 15%(6/39), 2% (1/61) and 0%, respectively. The rate of femoral head necrosis of type B1 was higher than type B2 ( P<0.05). The nonunion rate was 3%(1/39) in type B1, 3%(2/61) in type B2, and 0% in type B3 ( P>0.05). The rate of screw back-sliding of type B1, B2 and B3 was 3%(1/39), 2%(1/61) and 0%, respectively. The rate of screw back-sliding of type B2.3 and B3 were higher than that of type B1 ( P<0.05). A trend toward a higher rate of screw back-sliding of type B2.3 and B3 was found when compared to type B2.1/2.2, but there was no significant difference ( P>0.05). Moreover, the rate of screw back-sliding showed no significant difference between type B2.3 and B3 ( P>0.05). The rate of screw cut-out was 3%(1/39) in type B1, 2%(1/61) in type B2, and 0% in type B3, which showed no significant difference between type B1 and B2 ( P>0.05). According to the lever-fulcrum balance theory, the extent of pathologic fulcrum of type B1, B2 and B3 gradually increased, resulting in increased L1 and decreased L2. The L1 of type B1, B2 and B3 was (2.2±0.5)cm, (2.8±0.4)cm and (4.7±0.5)cm, respectively ( P<0.01). The L2 of type B1, B2 and B3 was (5.1±0.5)cm, (4.7±0.5)cm, and (3.6±0.4)cm, respectively ( P<0.01). Therefore, the F1 of type B1, B2 and B3 increased progressively. Conclusions:After internal fixation, the rate of femoral head necrosis of type B1 is significantly higher than that of type B2, and the rate of screw back-sliding of type B1 is significantly lower than that of type B3. The lever-fulcrum balance theory can deepen our knowledge of reasons for complications after operation for femoral neck fractures.

13.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 830-834, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909106

ABSTRACT

Objective:To understand the current situation of water improvement and the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children aged 8 to 12 in drinking-water-type endemic fluorosis (referred to as drinking-water-type fluorosis) areas in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (referred to as Inner Mongolia), and to evaluate the effectiveness of prevention and control measures, and provide a basis for timely adjustment of prevention and control strategies.Methods:In 2019, a cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate the situation of water improvement and water fluoride content in all villages of 85 drinking-water-type fluorosis banners (counties) in Inner Mongolia, and all the children aged 8 to 12 were examined for dental fluorosis.Results:Among the 9 623 disease affected villages in the region, the water improvement projects were completed in 8 547 villages, and the water improvement rate was 88.82%. There were 7 145 water improvement villages whose water fluoride content met the national drinking water hygiene standard, which accounted for 83.60% (7 145/8 547) of the total villages with water improvement projects. A total of 118 857 children aged 8 to 12 were examined, and 9 123 cases of dental fluorosis were detected. The detection rate of dental fluorosis was 7.68%, which was lower than the upper limit of the dental fluorosis detection rate of fluorosis area standards (30%).Conclusions:The accomplishment rate of water improvement projects in drinking-water-type fluorosis areas of Inner Mongolia is high, and the condition of children's dental fluorosis has been effectively controlled. However, it is still necessary to strengthen the water quality monitoring, improve the qualified rate of water improvement projects, and effectively implement various comprehensive prevention and control measures.

14.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 118-123, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883676

ABSTRACT

Objective:To understand the change trend of people's condition in tea drinking endemic fluorosis area of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and to provide scientific basis for formulating prevention and control strategies.Methods:From 2009 to 2018, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 30 villages of 6 banners (counties) of drinking tea type of endemic fluorosis of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The tea drinking habits of residents were investigated. Ten families were selected from each monitoring village to collect brick tea samples, and the fluorine content in brick tea was detected for health risk assessment. In each monitoring village, one water sample was collected from each drinking water source. Fluoride ion selective electrode method was used to detect fluorine in tea and water. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in children aged 8-12 years old was examined and the X-ray examination and analysis were carried out for all the permanent residents aged 36-45 years and living in the local area for more than 5 years.Results:From 2009 to 2018, a total of 3 000 brick tea samples were collected. The geometric mean value of tea fluorine was 522.01 mg/kg, and the annual per capita consumption of brick tea by permanent residents was 2.52 kg. The average daily intake of fluorine in brick tea was 4.11 mg. According to the standard of "Total Fluoride Intake of Population" (WS/T 87-2016), there were 6 years of risk quotient > 1 in 10 years, while according to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommend standard, there were 5 years of risk quotient > 1. From 2012 to 2018, 210 water samples were detected, and the geometric mean value of fluorine in water was 0.90 mg/L, and the qualified rate was 84.76% (178/210). A total of 5 384 children aged 8-12 years old were examined and 1 562 dental fluorosis patients were detected. The total detection rate of dental fluorosis in children was 29.01% (1 562/5 384), and the dental fluorosis index was 0.62 (very mild). A total of 1 890 adults aged 36 to 45 years old were examined by X-ray. The detection rate of skeletal fluorosis was 18.10% (342/1 890). There were 77 patients with moderate and severe skeletal fluorosis.Conclusions:The brick tea fluorine content of residents in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is high, and there are health risks. The dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 years old is very mild, and there are still moderate and severe skeletal fluorosis patients in adults. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the supervision of brick tea market and strengthen health education for residents.

15.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 853-858, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-867788

ABSTRACT

Neurologic heterotopic ossification (NHO) is a pathological phenomenon that involves the formation of ectopic bone in soft tissues, which is associated with central nervous system injury. NHO may cause severe complications such as disorder of limb's activity, severe pain, and skin ulcer. The pathogenesis of NHO is not clear. In the past decades, there's better understanding of NHO pathogenesis, and potential predictive and therapeutic targets were found. The authors overview the NHO pathogenesis based on osteogenic factors, osteogenic precursor cells and microenvironments, soas to provide references for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

16.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 721-725, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-866207

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the distribution of arsenic content in drinking water of residents in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and to provide a scientific basis for formulation of detailed prevention and control measures for endemic arsenic poisoning.Methods:From 2017 to 2019, water arsenic survey was carried out in all natural villages in 103 banners (counties, districts) of 12 leagues (cities) in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and drinking water samples were collected according to different water supply modes (engineering water supply, physical and chemical water purification, decentralized water supply). Among them, engineering water supply: one factory water sample was collected from each water modification project in dry season and wet season; and one terminal water sample was collected in historical arsenism area/high arsenic exposed villages covered by the project. Physical and chemical water purification: one water sample was collected from each household. Decentralized water supply: in historical arsenism area/high arsenic exposed villages, one water sample was collected from each household; in the villages with historical qualified water arsenic, one household was selected according to the five directions of east, south, west, north and middle, and one water sample was collected from each household. The content of arsenic in water was detected by atomic fluorescence spectrometry and a distribution map of water samples with excessive arsenic was drawn using ArcGIS 10.2 software.Results:A total of 90 455 water samples were collected, including 31 617 water samples for engineering water supply, 2 702 water samples for physical and chemical water purification, and 56 136 water samples for decentralized water supply. The medians of water arsenic content of engineering water supply, physical and chemical water purification, and decentralized water supply were 1.00, 1.00 and 0.50 μg/L, respectively, and the differences among different water supply modes were statistically significant (χ 2 = 1 147.831, P < 0.05). A total of 486 water samples with excessive arsenic were detected, the detection rate was 0.54% (486/90 455). The detection rates of water samples with excessive arsenic in engineering water supply and decentralized water supply were 1.48% (469/31 617) and 0.03% (17/56 136), the detection rate of water samples with excessive arsenic in engineering water supply was higher than that in decentralized water supply (χ 2 = 775.401, P < 0.05); there was no water samples with excessive arsenic in physical and chemical water purification. The top three areas with the detection rates of water samples with excessive arsenic were Bayannaoer [15.38% (343/2 230)], Hohhot [2.00% (86/4 293)], and Ordos [0.85% (50/5 848)]. ArcGIS 10.2 software showed that the water samples with excessive arsenic were mainly distributed in the western region in the shape of focal and block, and only existed sporadically in the eastern region. Conclusions:The detection rate of water samples with excessive arsenic in engineering water supply in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is high, the water samples with excessive arsenic are mainly distributed in the western region in the shape of focal and block, and sporadically in the eastern region. The management and supervision of engineering water supply should be strengthened, in areas where the water arsenic exceeds the standard, we should take physical and chemical water purification measures, such as change water sources, increase water purification equipment, and improve water purification technology to reduce arsenic hazards, so as to ensure that residents can drink qualified water.

17.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 38-41, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-866057

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the levels of urinary arsenic metabolites in arsenic-exposed people with different degrees of skin lesions.Methods:A cluster sampling method was used to select people with different degrees of skin lesions in the drinking water arsenic poisoning area of Bayannaoer City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. According to the "Standard of Diagnosis for Endemic Arsenism" (WS/T 211-2001), the research subjects were divided into four clinical grading: normal, suspicious, mild, moderate and above on the basis of the degrees of skin lesions. Urine samples from any 1 middle section were collected, and the levels of urinary arsenic metabolites of different forms in different clinically graded people were detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).Results:A total of 522 people were included, including 309 males and 213 females; the age was (39.11 ± 12.38) years old, ranging from 11 to 65 years old. There were 337, 80, 31, 74 people in normal, suspicious, mild, moderate and above clinical grading, the levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs, medians: 15.46, 37.16, 104.46, 163.06 μg/L), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA, medians: 15.95, 33.27, 82.80, 123.84 μg/L), dimethylarsenic acid (DMA, medians: 78.16, 147.86, 301.28, 371.30 μg/L), total arsenic (tAs, medians: 113.90, 220.94, 501.25, 684.46 μg/L), iAs percentage (iAs%, medians: 15.66%, 15.53%, 21.67%, 21.65%), MMA percentage (MMA%, medians: 13.51%, 15.40%, 17.14%, 16.43%), DMA percentage (DMA%, medians: 70.37%, 67.98%, 63.25%, 61.23%), monomethylation rate (PMI, medians: 0.84, 0.84, 0.78, 0.78), dimethylation rate (SMI, medians: 0.84, 0.81, 0.79, 0.79), and ratio of MMA to DMA (MMA/DMA, medians: 0.20, 0.23, 0.27, 0.27) were compared in different clinically graded people, the differences were statistically significant ( H = 97.98, 96.44, 85.50, 95.08, 38.58, 29.94, 51.98, 38.58, 43.20, 43.20, P < 0.01). Compared with normal people, iAs, MMA, DMA, tAs, MMA%, and MMA/DMA levels significantly increased, and SMI level significantly decreased in suspicious, mild, moderate and above people ( P < 0.017); compared with normal people, iAs% level significantly increased, and DMA% and PMI levels significantly decreased in mild, moderate and above people ( P < 0.017). Conclusion:The levels of urinary arsenic metabolites in arsenic-exposed people with different degrees of skin lesions are different, showing a dose-response relationship.

18.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 755-757, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-790922

ABSTRACT

Inner Mongolia is a region where drinking-water-type endemic fluorosis is seriously prevalent.Huge sums of manpower and financial resources have been invested by Inner Mongolia government in prevention and control of drinking-water-type endemic fluorosis since 1980s,from which some remarkable achievements have been made.However,the current prevention and control work is still difficult due to the wide distribution and complex geological and geomorphological conditions of the drinking-water-type endemic fluorosis.After recent investigation of the disease area conditions,the author has grasped the actual problems in the disease area and the prevention and control work,and pondered the corresponding prevention and control countermeasures.The results are summarized to provide some ideas for prevention and control of endemic fluorosis.

19.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 971-974, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-824090

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the epidemic situation and control effect of drinking -water type endemic arsenism in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region from 2009 to 2018, and provide a basis for further development and improvement of prevention and control strategies. Methods In 2009 - 2018, 38 diseased villages were selected from 8 cities in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region as fixed monitoring sites to investigate the water improvement situation of the village and the operation of the water improvement project, and to detect the arsenic content of the water; physical examinations were carried out on all the resident populations who were exposed or previously exposed to high levels of arsenic water in the monitoring villages, and the changes in the condition of arsenic poisoning patients were observed; 30 adult urine samples were collected from each monitoring village to detect urinary arsenic levels. Results The water improvement rate of the 38 monitoring villages increased from 84.21% (32/38) in 2009 to 100.00% (38/38) in 2013, and continued to maintain; the normal operation rate of water improvement project increased from 64.29% (9/14) in 2009 to 100.00% (18/18) in 2016, and continued to maintain; the qualified rate of water arsenic content of water improvement project increased from 64.29% (9/14) in 2009 to 88.89% (16/18) in 2018; the proportion of qualified project covered population increased from 47.79% (4846/10140) in 2009 to 84.35% (5370/6366) in 2018. In 2009 - 2018 the detection rate of arsenic poisoning in the water arsenic content qualified village was 9.17% (3968/43276), and the detection rate in the unchanged water and water arsenic exceeded villages was 7.48% (805/10759); there was no new case for ten consecutive years. There were significant differences in urinary arsenic levels of the water arsenic content qualified villages, the unchanged water and water arsenic exceeded villages between different years (H = 424.04, 100.35, P < 0.05); the urinary arsenic level of water arsenic content qualified villagers was lower than that of the unchanged water and water arsenic exceeded villages in the same year (P < 0.05). Conclusions During the 10-year monitoring period, the prevalence of arsenic poisoning has been effectively controlled. The water improvement rate and the normal operation rate of the project remain in good condition, but the qualified rate of water arsenic still should to be improved.

20.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 108-118, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-734705

ABSTRACT

To establish the experts consensus on the management of delirium in critically ill patients.A special committee was set up by 15 experts from the Chinese Critical Hypothermia-Sedation Therapy Study Group.Each statement was assessed based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment,Development,and Evaluation) principle.Then the Delphi method was adopted by 36 experts to reassess all the statements.(1) Delirium is not only a mental change,but also a clinical syndrome with multiple pathophysiological changes.(2) Delirium is a form of disturbance of consciousness and a manifestation of abnormal brain function.(3) Pain is a common cause of delirium in critically ill patients.Analgesia can reduce the occurrence and development of delirium.(4) Anxiety or depression are important factors for delirium in critically ill patients.(5) The correlation between sedative and analgesic drugs and delirium is uncertain.(6) Pay attention to the relationship between delirium and withdrawal reactions.(7) Pay attention to the relationship between delirium and drug dependence/ withdrawal reactions.(8) Sleep disruption can induce delirium.(9) We should be vigilant against potential risk factors for persistent or recurrent delirium.(10) Critically illness related delirium can affect the diagnosis and treatment of primary diseases,and can also be alleviated with the improvement of primary diseases.(11) Acute change of consciousness and attention deficit are necessary for delirium diagnosis.(12) The combined assessment of confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit and intensive care delirium screening checklist can improve the sensitivity of delirium,especially subclinical delirium.(13) Early identification and intervention of subclinical delirium can reduce its risk of clinical delirium.(14) Daily assessment is helpful for early detection of delirium.(15) Hopoactive delirium and mixed delirium are common and should be emphasized.(16) Delirium may be accompanied by changes in electroencephalogram.Bedside electroencephalogram monitoring should be used in the ICU if conditions warrant.(17) Pay attention to differential diagnosis of delirium and dementia/depression.(18) Pay attention to the role of rapid delirium screening method in delirium management.(19) Assessment of the severity of delirium is an essential part of the diagnosis of delirium.(20) The key to the management of delirium is etiological treatment.(21) Improving environmental factors and making patient comfort can help reduce delirium.(22) Early exercise can reduce the incidence of delirium and shorten the duration of delirium.(23) Communication with patients should be emphasized and strengthened.Family members participation can help reduce the incidence of delirium and promote the recovery of delirium.(24) Pay attention to the role of sleep management in the prevention and treatment of delirium.(25) Dexmedetomidine can shorten the duration of hyperactive delirium or prevent delirium.(26) When using antipsychotics to treat delirium,we should be alert to its effect on the heart rhythm.(27) Delirium management should pay attention to brain functional exercise.(28) Compared with non-critically illness related delirium,the relief of critically illness related delirium will not accomplished at one stroke.(29) Multiple management strategies such as ABCDEF,eCASH and ESCAPE are helpful to prevent and treat delirium and improve the prognosis of critically ill patients.(30) Shortening the duration of delirium can reduce the occurrence of long-term cognitive impairment.(31) Multidisciplinary cooperation and continuous quality improvement can improve delirium management.Consensus can promote delirium management in critically ill patients,optimize analgesia and sedation therapy,and even affect prognosis.

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