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1.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 368-372, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931553

ABSTRACT

Objective:To understand the prevalence of tea-drinking-borne fluorosis in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and to provide a data basis for formulation of prevention and control measures.Methods:All administrative villages of 53 banners (counties) in 10 leagues (cities) of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region were investigated for tea-drinking-borne fluorosis. The basic information and demographic information of each administrative village were collected, and 10 households were selected from each administrative village to investigate the basic information of family members and the drinking situation of brick tea, and collect household brick tea samples to determine the fluorine content. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in children aged 8 to 12 and skeletal fluorosis in adults over 16 years in the administrative villages were investigated.Results:There were 39 banners (counties) in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region that had the habit of drinking brick tea, people who habitually drink brick tea a lot accounted for 70.22% of the total population (4.278 5 million/6.092 8 million). The per capita annual consumption of brick tea was 1.00 kg and the per capita daily intake of brick tea fluoride was 0.68 mg. A total of 24 282 brick tea samples were collected, and the samples with fluorine content exceeding the standard accounted for 74.77% (18 155/24 282). Except that the fluorine content of black brick tea was lower than the national health standard (300 mg/kg), other varieties of brick tea exceeded the standard. A total of 97 295 children aged 8 to 12 years were examined, and 6 558 cases of dental fluorosis were detected. The detection rate of dental fluorosis was 6.74%. Among them, 3 623 cases were very mild, 2 440 cases were mild, 489 cases were moderate and 6 cases were severe. There were significant differences in the detection rates of dental fluorosis in children of different regions and ages (χ 2 = 6 803.76, 30.82, P < 0.05). A total of 115 251 adults over 16 years old were examined, and 1 691 cases of skeletal fluorosis were detected. The detection rate of adult skeletal fluorosis was 1.47%; among them, 1 043 cases were mild, 481 cases were moderate and 167 cases were severe. There were statistically significant differences in the detection rates of skeletal fluorosis among adults of different regions and ages (χ 2 = 3 584.26, 562.67, P < 0.05). Conclusions:The fluoride content of brick tea consumed by residents in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region seriously exceeds the standard. Moderate and severe patients with dental fluorosis in children aged 8 to 12 years and skeletal fluorosis in adults over 16 years old have been detected. The prevention and treatment of tea-drinking-borne fluorosis in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region should be continuously strengthened.

2.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 309-312, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931542

ABSTRACT

Objective:To understand the demographic characteristics and treatment intention, treatment status and therapeutic effect of patients with skeletal fluorosis in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (reffered to as Inner Mongolia) in order to provide a basis for next step treatment program.Methods:From March to June 2020, a face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted among 3 570 patients with skeletal fluorosis in 11 leagues (cities) of Inner Mongolia to understand their basic information, treatment intention, treatment status and therapeutic effect. Patients with skeletal fluorosis of different demographic characteristics were compared with each other in their treatment intention and treatment status, and the therapeutic effects of different drugs were compared by χ 2 test. Results:A total of 3570 patients with skeletal fluorosis were investigated. There were slightly more women than men with skeletal fluorosis (1.29 ∶ 1.00, 2 014/1 556). The ages were mainly from 40 to 79 years old (95.4%, 3 406/3 570). Mongols patients accounted for 36.0% (1 285/3 570). Patients with low education (primary school and below) accounted for 82.2% (2 935/3 570). Eighty-five per cent (3 035/3 570) of the patients had drug treatment intention and 37.1% (1 325/3 570) of the patients had drug treatment. Thirty-seven point five per cent (1 338/3 570) of the patients had surgery intention and surgery was performed in 0.2% (8/3 570) of the patients. Combination therapy (98.5%, 194/197) and chondroprotective agents alone (98.3%, 173/176) were more effective than anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents alone (84.2%, 48/57) in the treatment of skeletal fluorosis ( P < 0.05). Surgery was effective (8/8). Conclusions:Most of the patients with skeletal fluorosis are middle-aged and elderly, and the patients with skeletal fluorosis in Mongols account for a certain proportion. At present, all the patients with skeletal fluorosis who have the will to be treated have not been effectively treated, and the means of treatment is relatively single. It should be advocated to carry out various forms of treatment of skeletal fluorosis, so that patients could relieve symptoms, reduce pain and improve their quality of life.

3.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 333-338, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909874

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the characteristics of complications after internal fixation with hallo nails for femoral neck fractures according to OTA/AO classification and analyze the reasons for differences in complications of different classifications based on the current theories and lever-fulcrum balance theory.Methods:A retrospective case series analysis was made on clinical data of 113 patients with femoral neck fractures treated in Peking University People's Hospital from January 2014 to June 2020. There were 49 males and 64 females, with the age of 21-89 years [61(52, 72)years]. According to OTA/AO classification, there were 5 patients with type B1.1 fractures, 18 with type B1.2, 16 with type B1.3, 44 with type B2.1, 5 with type B2.2, 12 with type B2.3 and 13 with type B3. All patients were treated by percutaneous internal fixation with hallo nails. Complications were recorded during follow-up including femoral head necrosis, nonunion, screw back-sliding and screw cut-out. Causes of internal fixation complications were analyzed based on the lever-fulcrum balance theory, taking the location of fulcrum, screw stress (F1), force arm of pressure (L1), resistance of screw (F2) and resistance side (L2) into consideration.Results:All patients were followed up for 1.1-77.5 months [8.2(3.6, 16.6)months]. In all, 24 patients had complications, including femoral head necrosis in 7 patients, nonunion in 3, screw back-sliding in 12 and screw cut-out in 2. The rate of femoral head necrosis of type B1, B2 and B3 was 15%(6/39), 2% (1/61) and 0%, respectively. The rate of femoral head necrosis of type B1 was higher than type B2 ( P<0.05). The nonunion rate was 3%(1/39) in type B1, 3%(2/61) in type B2, and 0% in type B3 ( P>0.05). The rate of screw back-sliding of type B1, B2 and B3 was 3%(1/39), 2%(1/61) and 0%, respectively. The rate of screw back-sliding of type B2.3 and B3 were higher than that of type B1 ( P<0.05). A trend toward a higher rate of screw back-sliding of type B2.3 and B3 was found when compared to type B2.1/2.2, but there was no significant difference ( P>0.05). Moreover, the rate of screw back-sliding showed no significant difference between type B2.3 and B3 ( P>0.05). The rate of screw cut-out was 3%(1/39) in type B1, 2%(1/61) in type B2, and 0% in type B3, which showed no significant difference between type B1 and B2 ( P>0.05). According to the lever-fulcrum balance theory, the extent of pathologic fulcrum of type B1, B2 and B3 gradually increased, resulting in increased L1 and decreased L2. The L1 of type B1, B2 and B3 was (2.2±0.5)cm, (2.8±0.4)cm and (4.7±0.5)cm, respectively ( P<0.01). The L2 of type B1, B2 and B3 was (5.1±0.5)cm, (4.7±0.5)cm, and (3.6±0.4)cm, respectively ( P<0.01). Therefore, the F1 of type B1, B2 and B3 increased progressively. Conclusions:After internal fixation, the rate of femoral head necrosis of type B1 is significantly higher than that of type B2, and the rate of screw back-sliding of type B1 is significantly lower than that of type B3. The lever-fulcrum balance theory can deepen our knowledge of reasons for complications after operation for femoral neck fractures.

4.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 830-834, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909106

ABSTRACT

Objective:To understand the current situation of water improvement and the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children aged 8 to 12 in drinking-water-type endemic fluorosis (referred to as drinking-water-type fluorosis) areas in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (referred to as Inner Mongolia), and to evaluate the effectiveness of prevention and control measures, and provide a basis for timely adjustment of prevention and control strategies.Methods:In 2019, a cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate the situation of water improvement and water fluoride content in all villages of 85 drinking-water-type fluorosis banners (counties) in Inner Mongolia, and all the children aged 8 to 12 were examined for dental fluorosis.Results:Among the 9 623 disease affected villages in the region, the water improvement projects were completed in 8 547 villages, and the water improvement rate was 88.82%. There were 7 145 water improvement villages whose water fluoride content met the national drinking water hygiene standard, which accounted for 83.60% (7 145/8 547) of the total villages with water improvement projects. A total of 118 857 children aged 8 to 12 were examined, and 9 123 cases of dental fluorosis were detected. The detection rate of dental fluorosis was 7.68%, which was lower than the upper limit of the dental fluorosis detection rate of fluorosis area standards (30%).Conclusions:The accomplishment rate of water improvement projects in drinking-water-type fluorosis areas of Inner Mongolia is high, and the condition of children's dental fluorosis has been effectively controlled. However, it is still necessary to strengthen the water quality monitoring, improve the qualified rate of water improvement projects, and effectively implement various comprehensive prevention and control measures.

5.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 118-123, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883676

ABSTRACT

Objective:To understand the change trend of people's condition in tea drinking endemic fluorosis area of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and to provide scientific basis for formulating prevention and control strategies.Methods:From 2009 to 2018, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 30 villages of 6 banners (counties) of drinking tea type of endemic fluorosis of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The tea drinking habits of residents were investigated. Ten families were selected from each monitoring village to collect brick tea samples, and the fluorine content in brick tea was detected for health risk assessment. In each monitoring village, one water sample was collected from each drinking water source. Fluoride ion selective electrode method was used to detect fluorine in tea and water. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in children aged 8-12 years old was examined and the X-ray examination and analysis were carried out for all the permanent residents aged 36-45 years and living in the local area for more than 5 years.Results:From 2009 to 2018, a total of 3 000 brick tea samples were collected. The geometric mean value of tea fluorine was 522.01 mg/kg, and the annual per capita consumption of brick tea by permanent residents was 2.52 kg. The average daily intake of fluorine in brick tea was 4.11 mg. According to the standard of "Total Fluoride Intake of Population" (WS/T 87-2016), there were 6 years of risk quotient > 1 in 10 years, while according to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommend standard, there were 5 years of risk quotient > 1. From 2012 to 2018, 210 water samples were detected, and the geometric mean value of fluorine in water was 0.90 mg/L, and the qualified rate was 84.76% (178/210). A total of 5 384 children aged 8-12 years old were examined and 1 562 dental fluorosis patients were detected. The total detection rate of dental fluorosis in children was 29.01% (1 562/5 384), and the dental fluorosis index was 0.62 (very mild). A total of 1 890 adults aged 36 to 45 years old were examined by X-ray. The detection rate of skeletal fluorosis was 18.10% (342/1 890). There were 77 patients with moderate and severe skeletal fluorosis.Conclusions:The brick tea fluorine content of residents in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is high, and there are health risks. The dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 years old is very mild, and there are still moderate and severe skeletal fluorosis patients in adults. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the supervision of brick tea market and strengthen health education for residents.

6.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 853-858, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-867788

ABSTRACT

Neurologic heterotopic ossification (NHO) is a pathological phenomenon that involves the formation of ectopic bone in soft tissues, which is associated with central nervous system injury. NHO may cause severe complications such as disorder of limb's activity, severe pain, and skin ulcer. The pathogenesis of NHO is not clear. In the past decades, there's better understanding of NHO pathogenesis, and potential predictive and therapeutic targets were found. The authors overview the NHO pathogenesis based on osteogenic factors, osteogenic precursor cells and microenvironments, soas to provide references for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

7.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 721-725, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-866207

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the distribution of arsenic content in drinking water of residents in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and to provide a scientific basis for formulation of detailed prevention and control measures for endemic arsenic poisoning.Methods:From 2017 to 2019, water arsenic survey was carried out in all natural villages in 103 banners (counties, districts) of 12 leagues (cities) in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and drinking water samples were collected according to different water supply modes (engineering water supply, physical and chemical water purification, decentralized water supply). Among them, engineering water supply: one factory water sample was collected from each water modification project in dry season and wet season; and one terminal water sample was collected in historical arsenism area/high arsenic exposed villages covered by the project. Physical and chemical water purification: one water sample was collected from each household. Decentralized water supply: in historical arsenism area/high arsenic exposed villages, one water sample was collected from each household; in the villages with historical qualified water arsenic, one household was selected according to the five directions of east, south, west, north and middle, and one water sample was collected from each household. The content of arsenic in water was detected by atomic fluorescence spectrometry and a distribution map of water samples with excessive arsenic was drawn using ArcGIS 10.2 software.Results:A total of 90 455 water samples were collected, including 31 617 water samples for engineering water supply, 2 702 water samples for physical and chemical water purification, and 56 136 water samples for decentralized water supply. The medians of water arsenic content of engineering water supply, physical and chemical water purification, and decentralized water supply were 1.00, 1.00 and 0.50 μg/L, respectively, and the differences among different water supply modes were statistically significant (χ 2 = 1 147.831, P < 0.05). A total of 486 water samples with excessive arsenic were detected, the detection rate was 0.54% (486/90 455). The detection rates of water samples with excessive arsenic in engineering water supply and decentralized water supply were 1.48% (469/31 617) and 0.03% (17/56 136), the detection rate of water samples with excessive arsenic in engineering water supply was higher than that in decentralized water supply (χ 2 = 775.401, P < 0.05); there was no water samples with excessive arsenic in physical and chemical water purification. The top three areas with the detection rates of water samples with excessive arsenic were Bayannaoer [15.38% (343/2 230)], Hohhot [2.00% (86/4 293)], and Ordos [0.85% (50/5 848)]. ArcGIS 10.2 software showed that the water samples with excessive arsenic were mainly distributed in the western region in the shape of focal and block, and only existed sporadically in the eastern region. Conclusions:The detection rate of water samples with excessive arsenic in engineering water supply in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is high, the water samples with excessive arsenic are mainly distributed in the western region in the shape of focal and block, and sporadically in the eastern region. The management and supervision of engineering water supply should be strengthened, in areas where the water arsenic exceeds the standard, we should take physical and chemical water purification measures, such as change water sources, increase water purification equipment, and improve water purification technology to reduce arsenic hazards, so as to ensure that residents can drink qualified water.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-866057

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the levels of urinary arsenic metabolites in arsenic-exposed people with different degrees of skin lesions.Methods:A cluster sampling method was used to select people with different degrees of skin lesions in the drinking water arsenic poisoning area of Bayannaoer City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. According to the "Standard of Diagnosis for Endemic Arsenism" (WS/T 211-2001), the research subjects were divided into four clinical grading: normal, suspicious, mild, moderate and above on the basis of the degrees of skin lesions. Urine samples from any 1 middle section were collected, and the levels of urinary arsenic metabolites of different forms in different clinically graded people were detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).Results:A total of 522 people were included, including 309 males and 213 females; the age was (39.11 ± 12.38) years old, ranging from 11 to 65 years old. There were 337, 80, 31, 74 people in normal, suspicious, mild, moderate and above clinical grading, the levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs, medians: 15.46, 37.16, 104.46, 163.06 μg/L), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA, medians: 15.95, 33.27, 82.80, 123.84 μg/L), dimethylarsenic acid (DMA, medians: 78.16, 147.86, 301.28, 371.30 μg/L), total arsenic (tAs, medians: 113.90, 220.94, 501.25, 684.46 μg/L), iAs percentage (iAs%, medians: 15.66%, 15.53%, 21.67%, 21.65%), MMA percentage (MMA%, medians: 13.51%, 15.40%, 17.14%, 16.43%), DMA percentage (DMA%, medians: 70.37%, 67.98%, 63.25%, 61.23%), monomethylation rate (PMI, medians: 0.84, 0.84, 0.78, 0.78), dimethylation rate (SMI, medians: 0.84, 0.81, 0.79, 0.79), and ratio of MMA to DMA (MMA/DMA, medians: 0.20, 0.23, 0.27, 0.27) were compared in different clinically graded people, the differences were statistically significant ( H = 97.98, 96.44, 85.50, 95.08, 38.58, 29.94, 51.98, 38.58, 43.20, 43.20, P < 0.01). Compared with normal people, iAs, MMA, DMA, tAs, MMA%, and MMA/DMA levels significantly increased, and SMI level significantly decreased in suspicious, mild, moderate and above people ( P < 0.017); compared with normal people, iAs% level significantly increased, and DMA% and PMI levels significantly decreased in mild, moderate and above people ( P < 0.017). Conclusion:The levels of urinary arsenic metabolites in arsenic-exposed people with different degrees of skin lesions are different, showing a dose-response relationship.

9.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 781-790, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776448

ABSTRACT

The laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT) is a brain structure involved in distinct behaviors including arousal, reward, and innate fear. How environmental stimuli and top-down control from high-order sensory and limbic cortical areas converge and coordinate in this region to modulate diverse behavioral outputs remains unclear. Using a modified rabies virus, we applied monosynaptic retrograde tracing to the whole brain to examine the LDT cell type specific upstream nuclei. The LDT received very strong midbrain and hindbrain afferents and moderate cortical and hypothalamic innervation but weak connections to the thalamus. The main projection neurons from cortical areas were restricted to the limbic lobe, including the ventral orbital cortex (VO), prelimbic, and cingulate cortices. Although different cell populations received qualitatively similar inputs, primarily via afferents from the periaqueductal gray area, superior colliculus, and the LDT itself, parvalbumin-positive (PV) GABAergic cells received preferential projections from local LDT neurons. With regard to the different subtypes of GABAergic cells, a considerable number of nuclei, including those of the ventral tegmental area, central amygdaloid nucleus, and VO, made significantly greater inputs to somatostatin-positive cells than to PV cells. Diverse inputs to the LDT on a system-wide level were revealed.

10.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 971-974, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-824090

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the epidemic situation and control effect of drinking -water type endemic arsenism in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region from 2009 to 2018, and provide a basis for further development and improvement of prevention and control strategies. Methods In 2009 - 2018, 38 diseased villages were selected from 8 cities in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region as fixed monitoring sites to investigate the water improvement situation of the village and the operation of the water improvement project, and to detect the arsenic content of the water; physical examinations were carried out on all the resident populations who were exposed or previously exposed to high levels of arsenic water in the monitoring villages, and the changes in the condition of arsenic poisoning patients were observed; 30 adult urine samples were collected from each monitoring village to detect urinary arsenic levels. Results The water improvement rate of the 38 monitoring villages increased from 84.21% (32/38) in 2009 to 100.00% (38/38) in 2013, and continued to maintain; the normal operation rate of water improvement project increased from 64.29% (9/14) in 2009 to 100.00% (18/18) in 2016, and continued to maintain; the qualified rate of water arsenic content of water improvement project increased from 64.29% (9/14) in 2009 to 88.89% (16/18) in 2018; the proportion of qualified project covered population increased from 47.79% (4846/10140) in 2009 to 84.35% (5370/6366) in 2018. In 2009 - 2018 the detection rate of arsenic poisoning in the water arsenic content qualified village was 9.17% (3968/43276), and the detection rate in the unchanged water and water arsenic exceeded villages was 7.48% (805/10759); there was no new case for ten consecutive years. There were significant differences in urinary arsenic levels of the water arsenic content qualified villages, the unchanged water and water arsenic exceeded villages between different years (H = 424.04, 100.35, P < 0.05); the urinary arsenic level of water arsenic content qualified villagers was lower than that of the unchanged water and water arsenic exceeded villages in the same year (P < 0.05). Conclusions During the 10-year monitoring period, the prevalence of arsenic poisoning has been effectively controlled. The water improvement rate and the normal operation rate of the project remain in good condition, but the qualified rate of water arsenic still should to be improved.

11.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 971-974, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-800063

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To understand the epidemic situation and control effect of drinking-water type endemic arsenism in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region from 2009 to 2018, and provide a basis for further development and improvement of prevention and control strategies.@*Methods@#In 2009-2018, 38 diseased villages were selected from 8 cities in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region as fixed monitoring sites to investigate the water improvement situation of the village and the operation of the water improvement project, and to detect the arsenic content of the water; physical examinations were carried out on all the resident populations who were exposed or previously exposed to high levels of arsenic water in the monitoring villages, and the changes in the condition of arsenic poisoning patients were observed; 30 adult urine samples were collected from each monitoring village to detect urinary arsenic levels.@*Results@#The water improvement rate of the 38 monitoring villages increased from 84.21% (32/38) in 2009 to 100.00% (38/38) in 2013, and continued to maintain; the normal operation rate of water improvement project increased from 64.29% (9/14) in 2009 to 100.00% (18/18) in 2016, and continued to maintain; the qualified rate of water arsenic content of water improvement project increased from 64.29% (9/14) in 2009 to 88.89% (16/18) in 2018; the proportion of qualified project covered population increased from 47.79% (4 846/10 140) in 2009 to 84.35% (5 370/6 366) in 2018. In 2009-2018 the detection rate of arsenic poisoning in the water arsenic content qualified village was 9.17% (3 968/43 276), and the detection rate in the unchanged water and water arsenic exceeded villages was 7.48% (805/10 759); there was no new case for ten consecutive years. There were significant differences in urinary arsenic levels of the water arsenic content qualified villages, the unchanged water and water arsenic exceeded villages between different years (H=424.04, 100.35, P < 0.05); the urinary arsenic level of water arsenic content qualified villagers was lower than that of the unchanged water and water arsenic exceeded villages in the same year (P < 0.05).@*Conclusions@#During the 10-year monitoring period, the prevalence of arsenic poisoning has been effectively controlled. The water improvement rate and the normal operation rate of the project remain in good condition, but the qualified rate of water arsenic still should to be improved.

12.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 755-757, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-790922

ABSTRACT

Inner Mongolia is a region where drinking-water-type endemic fluorosis is seriously prevalent.Huge sums of manpower and financial resources have been invested by Inner Mongolia government in prevention and control of drinking-water-type endemic fluorosis since 1980s,from which some remarkable achievements have been made.However,the current prevention and control work is still difficult due to the wide distribution and complex geological and geomorphological conditions of the drinking-water-type endemic fluorosis.After recent investigation of the disease area conditions,the author has grasped the actual problems in the disease area and the prevention and control work,and pondered the corresponding prevention and control countermeasures.The results are summarized to provide some ideas for prevention and control of endemic fluorosis.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-734705

ABSTRACT

To establish the experts consensus on the management of delirium in critically ill patients.A special committee was set up by 15 experts from the Chinese Critical Hypothermia-Sedation Therapy Study Group.Each statement was assessed based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment,Development,and Evaluation) principle.Then the Delphi method was adopted by 36 experts to reassess all the statements.(1) Delirium is not only a mental change,but also a clinical syndrome with multiple pathophysiological changes.(2) Delirium is a form of disturbance of consciousness and a manifestation of abnormal brain function.(3) Pain is a common cause of delirium in critically ill patients.Analgesia can reduce the occurrence and development of delirium.(4) Anxiety or depression are important factors for delirium in critically ill patients.(5) The correlation between sedative and analgesic drugs and delirium is uncertain.(6) Pay attention to the relationship between delirium and withdrawal reactions.(7) Pay attention to the relationship between delirium and drug dependence/ withdrawal reactions.(8) Sleep disruption can induce delirium.(9) We should be vigilant against potential risk factors for persistent or recurrent delirium.(10) Critically illness related delirium can affect the diagnosis and treatment of primary diseases,and can also be alleviated with the improvement of primary diseases.(11) Acute change of consciousness and attention deficit are necessary for delirium diagnosis.(12) The combined assessment of confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit and intensive care delirium screening checklist can improve the sensitivity of delirium,especially subclinical delirium.(13) Early identification and intervention of subclinical delirium can reduce its risk of clinical delirium.(14) Daily assessment is helpful for early detection of delirium.(15) Hopoactive delirium and mixed delirium are common and should be emphasized.(16) Delirium may be accompanied by changes in electroencephalogram.Bedside electroencephalogram monitoring should be used in the ICU if conditions warrant.(17) Pay attention to differential diagnosis of delirium and dementia/depression.(18) Pay attention to the role of rapid delirium screening method in delirium management.(19) Assessment of the severity of delirium is an essential part of the diagnosis of delirium.(20) The key to the management of delirium is etiological treatment.(21) Improving environmental factors and making patient comfort can help reduce delirium.(22) Early exercise can reduce the incidence of delirium and shorten the duration of delirium.(23) Communication with patients should be emphasized and strengthened.Family members participation can help reduce the incidence of delirium and promote the recovery of delirium.(24) Pay attention to the role of sleep management in the prevention and treatment of delirium.(25) Dexmedetomidine can shorten the duration of hyperactive delirium or prevent delirium.(26) When using antipsychotics to treat delirium,we should be alert to its effect on the heart rhythm.(27) Delirium management should pay attention to brain functional exercise.(28) Compared with non-critically illness related delirium,the relief of critically illness related delirium will not accomplished at one stroke.(29) Multiple management strategies such as ABCDEF,eCASH and ESCAPE are helpful to prevent and treat delirium and improve the prognosis of critically ill patients.(30) Shortening the duration of delirium can reduce the occurrence of long-term cognitive impairment.(31) Multidisciplinary cooperation and continuous quality improvement can improve delirium management.Consensus can promote delirium management in critically ill patients,optimize analgesia and sedation therapy,and even affect prognosis.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-708074

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the ability of a deep machine learning technique for improving the quality of one-stop renal low dose CTP images.Methods Twenty-one cases who underwent renal noncontrast CT,triple-phase contrast enhanced CT,and CT perfusion (CTP) were collected prospectively.Revolution CT scanner was used with the scan protocol as followed:120 kVp,20 mA for CTP and 100 mA for triple-phase conctrast enhancement,axial scan,ASIR-V80%,rotation 0.5 s,coverage area for z-axial 160 mm,thickness 5 mm.A total of 15 phases were obtained for the first 28 s and then scanned once at 39,43,47,51,63,83,113,213,353,593 s for CTP,which the phases at the 22,51 and 153 s were the cortical phase,medullary phase and excretory phase,respectively.All CTP data was reconstructed with a deep machine learning technique pixel shine A7 model.The data before and after reconstruction was in group A and in group B,respectively.Compared the all data of cortex in the cortical phase and CTP parameters between the two groups.Results There were significant differences of CT values of SD of cortex (9.04 ± 1.77 and 5.75 ± 1.00,respectively),CT values of SD of elector spinae (8.52 ±2.28 and 5.67 ±0.98,respectively),CNR(16.28 ±6.61 and 28.90 ±1.50,respectively) and SNR (21.41 ± 6.67 and 30.65 ± 7.67,respectively) between the two groups (t=1.562,6.286,5.925,-5.892,-17.274,P<0.05).The SD of images after PS-B was lower than that before PS-B significantly and SNR was improved obviously.There were no differences of cortical blood flow (BF),blood volume (BV),time to peak (TP) and medullary permeability of surface (PS) between the two groups (P > 0.05).Conclusions The reconstruction of deep machine learning PixelShine technique PS-A7 can reduce the noise of images obtained with low tube current,improve the SNR and can not effect the CTP parameters.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-708061

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the feasibility of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-V (ASIR-V) to improve image quality in low-dose CT colonography.Methods A series of thirty artificial polyps were established by ligation in an isolated segment of porcine colon.Volume data was acquired on Revolution CT scanner (GE,USA) with High Definition scan mode and different scan parameter combinations:120 kVp with different mAs (10,30,50,70,90,100,120,140,160,180,200,220,240,260,respectively).Images were reconstructed with six different ASIR-V levels of 0 (filtered back projection,FBP),10%,30%,50%,70% and 90%.Two radiologists were blinded to measure and analyze the objective data independently,including image noise (SD),signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR).The kappa test was used to assess interobserver agreement in subjective image quality score.ICC test was used to examine the consistency of the measurements between two observers.SD,SNR,CNR were performed for statistical analysis in different tube current and different levels of ASIR-V using variance analysis (ANOVA).Results Interobserver agreement for subjective image quality score was good with a kappa value of 0.683.The variation of the tube current(r =0.734,P =0.000) and ASIR-V level(r =0.220,P =0.044) is related to the subjective score of image quality.Under the condition of the same tube current,image quality score of 50% ASIR-V reconstruction was the highest.Two objective data consistency is good.The differences of image noise (F =423.58,P < 0.05),SNRs(F =124.26,P < 0.05) and CNRs (F =1 030.17,P < 0.05) of different tube current and different levels of ASIR-V reconstruction were statistically significant.In the same tube current,with increased levels of ASIR-V,image noise reduced,CNRs increased.Only in 10,120,140,160,220,240,260 mA,the differences of SNRs were statistically significant(F =8.75-31.36,P < 0.05).For the same level of ASIR-V reconstruction,with the increase of tube current,the image noise decreased,SNR and CNR increased gradually.Conclusions In the CT colonography,the application of ASIR-V algorithm can significantly reduce the noise and enhance the image contrast noise ratio and improve image quality.ASIR-V algorithm with 50% has better performance in reducing CT image noise.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-706443

ABSTRACT

Purpose To explore the feasibility of denoising algorithm-PixelShine algorithm based on deep learning to enhance the quality of abdominal arterial phase CT images rebuilt by 70 kVp combined with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-Veo (ASiR-V). Materials and Methods Abdominal arterial phase images of 33 patients [body mass index (BMI) BMI≤20 kg/m2] scanned by GE Revolution CT were retrospectively analyzed (group A) using 70 kVp tube voltage and 50% ASiR-V technique. PixelShine algorithm B2 mode was applied to post-process group A images to obtain PixelShine image (group B). Two observers rated the image quality of the two groups via a 5-point rating system. The consistency of the rating was analyzed. The difference in ratings, noise, virtual signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of liver and pancreas and contrast noise ratio (CNR) were compared between the two groups of images. Results The image quality rating of group A and B were(3.12±0.33) scores and(3.97±0.53) scores respectively,noise value(14.50±1.42)HU vs(10.05±1.80)HU, liver virtual SNR 4.51±0.53 vs 6.78.±1.27,liver virtual CNR 0.89±0.55 vs 1.42±0.81,pancreatic virtual SNR 9.51±1.69 vs 13.87±3.26, and pancreatic virtual CNR 5.83±1.66 vs 8.48±2.46.The quality rating of images,liver and pancreas virtual SNR,CNR in group B were all higher than those in group A, and the image noise of group B decreased about 31% compared with that of group A, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Post-processing with PixelShine algorithm can improve the image quality of 70 kVp abdominal arterial phase, significantly reduce image noise, and increase image SNR and CNR.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-706258

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the impact of deep machine learning Pixel Shine (PS) algorithm on image quality of abdominal low-dose plain CT scanning in BMI≥25 kg/m2 patients.Methods A total of 59 patients (BMI≥25 kg/m2) who underwent abdominal CT scan were collected.The patients were divided into group A (100 kVp,n=30) and B (120 kVp,n=29) according to the tube voltage.According to different reconstruction algorithms and treatment methods,patients in group A were divided into A1 (FBP),A2 (FBP+PS),A3 (50%ASiR-V) and A4 (50%ASiR-V+PS) subgroups,while in group B were divided into B1 (FBP) and B2 (50%ASiR-V) subgroups.CT and SD values of right hepatic lobe and right erector spinae were measured,then SNR and CNR of liver and CT dose index of volume (CTDIvol) were calculated.The consistency of parameters measured by two observers was evaluated.Results The consistency of parameters measured by two observers was good (all ICC>0.80).There was no statistical difference of CT values of liver and erector among A1-A4 subgroups (all P>0.05),whereas statistical differences of SD values of liver and erector spinae,also of SNR and CNR of liver were found (all P<0.001).Among A1-A4 subgroups,SDA4 <SDA2 <SDA3 <SDA1,SNRA4 >SNRA2 >SNRA3 > SNRA1 (all P<0.001) was observed.There was no significant difference of CNR between A1 and A3 subgroup (P=0.078),while CNRA4> CNRA2> CNRA3 or CNRA1 (P<0.001) was noticed.SD values of the liver in subgroup A2 was lower than subgroup B1,and A4 was lower than B2 subgroup (all P<0.001),and SNR and CNR increased significantly in A2 and A4 subgroups (all P<0.001).CTDIvol of group A was lower than that of group B (P<0.001).Conclusion Deep machine learning PS algorithm can improve image quality of abdominal low-dose plain CT scanning in high-BMI patients.

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Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 794-797, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-701430

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the changes of skin lesions in population exposed to arsenic through drinking-water in Inner Mongolia after changing water source for 12 years,and to evaluate the long-term harmful effects and the delayed injury to human body due to arsenic exposure and the effect of changing water.Methods The stratified random cluster sampling investigation objects (data derived from the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Comprehensive Center for Disease Control and Prevention) of the arsenic exposure area before water reform (2004) as the foundation,in 2017,we selected three administrative villages (changed water in 2005) in Bayan Nur City of Inner Mongolia as survey sites.The objects of this study were residents who had been living in the survey site and were eligible for previous survey (n =80,35 males and 45 females).To compare the skin damage of the residents exposed to arsenic before and after the water changed,the water samples of the survey objects were measured arsenic content.According to the content of water arsenic,the respondents were divided into low,medium and high exposure groups (10-,150-,≥300 μg/L),to analyze clinical classification in skin damage before and after changing water.Results The water arsenic content after changing [1.42 (0.18-33.45) μg/L] was lower than those before the changes [238.20 (14.56-824.70) μg/L,Z =-8.34,P < 0.05].A total of 63 persons with skin keratinization,7 persons with hyperpigmentation and 19 persons with depigmentation were identified after the changes of drinking water source,while 38,3 and 18 persons were respectively found before the changes.The detection rate of skin keratinization after water changes was significantly higher than that before water changes [78.8% (63/80) vs 47.5% (38/80),x2 =16.78,P <0.05].According to the clinical classification of skin damage,23 patients were normal,44 patients were suspicious,10 patients were mild,and 3 patients were moderate or severe after the water changes,compared with those before the water changes (38,18,6 and 18 persons were respectively found),the clinical fractional suspicious detection rate of skin damage in the arsenic exposed population increased,and the medium-severe detection rate decreased,and the differences were statistically significant (x2 =17.80,12.33,P < 0.05).The detection rate of the clinical score of moderate-severe skin damage in men was significantly decreased,and the difference was statistically significant (x2 =7.65,P < 0.05).The normal detection rate of female skin lesions was reduced,and the rate of suspected detection was increased (x2 =5.48,7.65,P < 0.05).In the high-and medium-dose groups,41.9% (13/31) and 42.9%(12/28) of the arsenic exposure population had a reduced clinical classification of skin damage.The ratios of clinical classification severity of skin damage in the high-,medium-and low-dose groups were 25.8% (8/31),25.0% (7/28),and 42.9% (9/21).The differences were statistical significantly by linear trend chi-square test (x2 =12.96,P < 0.05).Conclusions The skin lesions exposed to arsenic could be effectively improved after changing water.But the skin lesions still appear in some cases due to long-term chronic arsenic exposure.The long-term effects caused by arsenic should be explored persistently.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-710635

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the complication and risk factors in elderly patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD).Methods From Jan 2005 to Dec 2016,358 consecutive patients undergoing PD were divided into ≥ 70 years group (98 cases) and < 70 years group (260patients).Perioperative complications were compared and risk factors explored between the two groups.Results There were differences in coronary heart disease between the two groups in the preoperative medical comorbidities (P =0.008),and that of albumin,alanine aminotransferase,alkaline phosphatase and creatinine (all P < 0.05).Perioperative mortality was higher in the elderly group than in the younger group (P =0.038),probably related to higher systemic complications (P =0.001).The independent risk factors influencing the postoperative medical complications were preoperative total bilirubin ≥ 171 μmol/L and intraoperative blood loss ≥ 1 000 ml.Conclusions Patients over 70 years old have a comparatively higher perioperative mortality rate after pancreaticoduodenectomy,which were probably derived from a higher postoperative vital organ dysfunction.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-710578

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effect or safety of selective paraesophagogastric devascularization with or without splenectomy for treatment of esophagogastric variceal hemorrhage.Methods The clinical data of 70 patients with a history of esophagogastric variceal hemorrhage from 2009 to 2015 were analyzed.29 cases received spleen preserving paraesophagogastric devascularization and 41 were given portoazygous devascularization plus splenectomy.Results Postoperative portal pressure in spleenpreserving group decreased 14%,that in splenectomy group decreased 23% (t =2.87,P =0.01).The average blood loss in without splenectomy group was (829 ± 720) ml in contrast to (1 400 ± 1 329) ml in splenectomy group (t =2.311,P =0.024).Postoperative WBC and platelet count in without splenectomy group were lower (t =-5.379,t =-4.924,all P <0.01).The postoperative complication rate (24% vs.39%),and portal venous thrombosis (10% vs.31%) were all in favour of splenectomy free group (x2 =0.036,P <0.05).The 1-and 3-year's recurrent bleeding rate were 4% and 8% compared with 4% and 8% (all P > 0.05).Conclusion Paraesophagogastric devascularization without splenectomy has less blood loss during the surgery,lower rate of PVT and comparable effect against post-op recurrent bleeding in contrast to devascularization plus splenectomy.

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