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1.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 240-244, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873648

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the possible responses of parents of young children to Child sexual assault (CSA) and the potential influencing factors, so as to provide evidence for prevention programs of CSA.@*Methods@#Part of the data from "2016-2020 Child Injury Prevention Project" was used to analyze responses to CSA among parents of children younger than 3rd grade in primary school by chi square test and Logistic regression analysis.@*Results@#A total of 4 072 parents were included in the analysis. Among them, 86.8% of parents chose "to solve problems together", 51.0% of parents taking children to a "psychologist", 4.9% of parents "scolding children for being too careless", 2.9% of parents "letting child not disclose abuse" and 6.5% of parents chose "other" coping methods. Parents with foreign nationality [OR(95%CI)=2.58(1.25-5.15)] and lower education level (OR=0.26-0.64) tend to "blame" their children. Mothers [(OR(95%CI)=0.54(0.33-0.90)], higher parental education level (OR=0.27-0.72) were more reluctant to encourage their children to keep quiet. Mothers [OR(95%CI)=1.73(1.32-2.27)], older children (OR=1.33-1.78) and parents with higher education level (OR=1.65-2.99) tend to "accompany". Parents aged 30 or more, and from high school/technical school/technical secondary school tend to take their children to see a "psychologist" [OR(95%CI)=1.39(1.14-1.71), 1.79(1.26-2.53)].@*Conclusion@#Parents universally pay attention to the physical and mental health of children after CSA, but some parents still take negative coping methods, e.g. "blame" and "not disclose". Parenting educational level, duration of parent-child communication and age of children are primary factors associated with parental responses to child sexual assault. This study suggests that prevention secondary injury following child sexual assault should be farther strengthened, while fully considering the characteristics of the educated objects.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873554

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the staff structure, turnover and income of human resources in disease control and prevention institutions(CDCs)at different levels in China, to identify the existing problems, and to make policy recommendations accordingly. Methods A questionnaire survey was used to collect the data on the staff of CDCs at different levels in China from 2016 to 2018. Descriptive analysis and trend analysis were conducted on the number of staff, recruitment and turnover, income and other indicators in the three years. Results A total of 606 CDCs were included in the study. The proportion of job openings was 11.97% in 2018. Although the median proportion of professional personnel and health professional personnel in the CDCs reached the national standard(85% and 70%, respectively), a considerable number of institutions failed to meet the national standard. From 2016 to 2018, staff turnover in the CDCs has been increasing, with a minimum of 0.73(in 2016, municipal CDCs)and a maximum of 10.52(in 2018, provincial CDCs). In the staff who quit the CDCs, the proportion of junior professionals was the highest, while that of medium and senior professional increased gradually. Of them, the proportion of staff with graduate education in eastern China and provincial CDCs was higher than that of undergraduate education, while the proportion of staff with graduation education in other regions also increased. From 2016 to 2018, the average annual income in the CDCs in most regions did not reach the national average wage level of urban employees in health, social security and social welfare field in the same period. In county and district level CDCs in central and western China, personal income in 2018 was even less than the national average wage level in 2016. Conclusion Human resources in the CDCs at different levels in China remains insufficient and unbalanced, which warrants a"supporting policy"mechanism for public health personnel. The loss of the personnel in the CDCs continues to increase, in which the loss of senior professionals become increasingly serious. It raises a new concern to establish and improve the incentive mechanism of public health personnel. Furthermore, personal income in the CDCs is lower than the local average level. It is necessary to set personal income reasonably according to local economic level.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 178-189, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872602

ABSTRACT

The emerging nano-black phosphorus materials have created a new platform for biomedical research. Nano-black phosphorus has the following advantages: black phosphorus can produce singlet oxygen under near-infrared light irradiation, so it can be used as a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy;black phosphorus has extensive light absorption in the long wavelength region, and this near-infrared photothermal property can be used in photothermal therapy. The high specific surface area and unique fold structure of the black phosphorus nanosheet make it have very high drug loading.This paper mainly reviews the applications of black phosphorus in biological imaging, photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, and as a drug carrier in recent years. Based on the photoelectric properties of black phosphorus nanomaterials combined with intelligent drug delivery platform, the synergistic effects of light/heat/chemistry, light/chemistry/gene, and light/chemistry/immunity can be produced, which has a broad application prospect.

4.
Chinese Journal of Dermatology ; (12): 308-312, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885217

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of Spitz nevus is mainly based on histopathological changes. Combined with the learning experience at Ackerman Academy of Dermatopathology, the author thoroughly analyzed pathological and cytological characteristics of, as well as the body′s reaction to Spitz nevus, hoping to help clinicians with the pathological diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Spitz nevus.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885155

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the clinical characteristics of patients with pituitary thyrotropin-secreting adenoma and evaluate the effect of preoperative short-acting octreotide treatment on hyperthyroidism.Methods:A retrospective analysis was performed in 40 patients with pituitary thyrotropin adenoma diagnosed in Beijing Tiantan Hospital from January 2008 to January 2018. The general data, laboratory examinations and imaging findings were reviewed and analyzed. The clinical effect of preoperative octreotide on hyperthyroidism was evaluated.Results:The age of onset year of the 40 patients (male: female = 24∶16) was (30.5±5.1) years. Among them, 35 patients (87.5%) were with macroadenoma. The most common symptoms were thyroid hypermetabolism syndrome, followed by headache, dizziness, visual field damage and hypogonadism. The thyroid function of 30 patients (75%) recovered to normal within 3-5 days after the octreotide treatment. The total effective rate of the octreotide was 90.0%. The level of free thyroxine (FT 4) before treatment in patients with more than 10 times of effective cumulative dose was significantly higher than that in patients with less than 10 doses. Conclusions:Thyroid hypermetabolism syndrome and pituitary occupying effect are the most common clinical manifestations of thyrotropin-secreting adenoma. Preoperative octreotide treatment can effectively control hyperthyroidism. The level of FT 4 is a crucial factor affecting the efficacy of octreotide.

6.
Journal of Chinese Physician ; (12): 793-797, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-884122

ABSTRACT

At present, the prevalence of heart failure (HF) is still high in China, and its mortality and readmission rate have no downward trend. Therefore, the mechanism of its occurrence and development needs to be explored. In recent years, it has been found that about 13%-15% of HF patients have subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), which can lead to cardiac systolic and diastolic dysfunction, thus promoting the occurrence and development of HF. At present, the curative effect of patients with mild elevation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level in HF patients with SCH is not clear, and a large number of prospective studies are still needed. In addition, in the complications of HF, SCH is the only disease that can reverse cardiac function after treatment. Therefore, this paper summarizes the mechanism of SCH in the occurrence and development of HF, and provides the basis for the formulation of clinical HF treatment strategies and the evaluation of prognosis.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879878

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical data of children with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) or noninvasive pneumococcal disease (NIPD), and to provide a reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data and the drug susceptibility test results of isolated strains of 518 children who were hospitalized due to @*RESULTS@#The children with IPD had a median age of 2.2 years, and the children aged ≤5 years accounted for 80.0%. For the children with IPD, the main type of infection was meningitis which was observed in 19 children (54.3%), and the most common underlying disease was hematological malignancy in 8 children (22.9%); 14 children (40.0%) were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), 18 children (51.4%) experienced complications, and 8 children (22.9%) died. For the children with NIPD, the median age was 1.2 years; the main type of infection was pneumonia in 429 children (88.8%), and the most common underlying disease was congenital heart disease in 60 children (12.4%); 60 children (12.4%) were admitted to the PICU, 102 children (21.1%) experienced complications, and 11 children (2.3%) died. The IPD group had significantly higher incidence rate of complications, PICU admission rate, and mortality rate than the NIPD group (@*CONCLUSIONS@#SP infection is common in children under 5 years of age, and the children with underlying diseases including hematological malignancy are at high risk for IPD. Although the complication rate, PICU admission rate, and mortality rate of NIPD children are lower than those of IPD children, they still cannot be ignored. Penicillin may be used as an empirical treatment for children with NIPD, but not for those with IPD.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Pneumococcal Infections/drug therapy , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Retrospective Studies , Streptococcus pneumoniae
8.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 723-727, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877138

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the association of short-term fine particulate matters (PM2.5) exposure and blood pressure in children and adolescents.@*Methods@#A total of 144 813 junior and senior middle school students who participated in the physical examination in the 2017-2018 academic year in a northern city of China, with complete record of demographic characteristics, blood pressure and no history of heart and other important organ diseases were selected as the study subjects. Data on PM2.5 and other pollutants and meteorological data were obtained from the nearest air quality and meteorological monitoring stations of each schools. A generalized linear mixed effect model was used to analyze the association between short-term exposure of PM2.5 and blood pressure.@*Results@#The 6 day average concentration of PM2.5 (lag05) increased by 10 μg/m 3 was associated with an increase of 0.177(95%CI=0.148-0.207)mm Hg (1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa) in systolic blood pressure and 4.4%(OR=1.044, 95%CI=1.030-1.058) increase of the prevalence of high systolic blood pressure. And it was also associated with -0.021(95%CI=-0.040--0.002)mm Hg decrease in diastolic blood pressure, but had no significant correlation with the prevalence of high diastolic blood pressure. In general, a 10 μg/m 3 increase of PM2.5 was associated with 3.3% increase in the prevalence of high blood pressure (OR=1.03, 95%CI=1.02-1.05), and difference of boys and girls were found in different lagged days (P<0.05).@*Conclusion@#Short-term exposure of PM2.5 is associated with increased systolic blood pressure and prevalence of high blood pressure among children and adolescents. Attention should be paid to the prevention of short-term exposure of PM2.5 to protect the health of children and adolescents.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876703

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the monitoring data of Oncomelania hupensis in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, so as to understand the changes of Oncomelania snail status in the schistosomiasis-endemic areas of China and to provide the scientific evidence for Oncomelania snail control. Methods According to the requirements of National Scheme for Schistosomiasis Surveillance in China (2014 Edition), national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in all schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) and the potential endemic counties (cities, districts) in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and Oncomelania snail status was monitored according to different epidemic types. In endemic areas, Oncomelania snail survey was performed by means of systematic sampling and environmental sampling, and the occurrence of frames with Oncomelania snails and the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections in Oncomelania snails were calculated, while in potential endemic areas, the risk of imported Oncomelania snails and Oncomelania snails in floating debris were monitored. Results Oncomelania snail survey was performed covering an area of 116 834.16 hm2 in the national schistosomiasis surveillance of China from 2015 to 2019, with 35 007.62 hm2 Oncomelania snail habitats identified. A total of 6 908 292 frames were surveyed during the 5-year period, and there were 364 555 frames detected with Oncomelania snails, with a 5.28% mean occurrence of frames with Oncomelania snails. Among 997 508 living Oncomelania snails captured, no S. japonicum infections were detected, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay detected 18 positive mixed Oncomelania snail samples. During the period from 2015 to 2019, 147.20 hm2 emerging Oncomelania snail habitats were identified, with an overall tendency towards a rise seen in the proportion of emerging Oncomelania snail habitats in plain regions with waterway networks (0.12% to 92.00%), a tendency towards a rise followed by decline seen in marshland and lake regions (0 to 96.72%), and a large fluctuation in hilly regions (0 to 88.49%). A total of 831.10 hm2 re-emerging Oncomelania snail habitats were found in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, with an overall tendency towards a rise seen in the proportion of re-emerging Oncomelania snail habitats in marshland and lake regions (16.05% to 79.66%), an overall tendency towards a decline seen in hilly regions (19.25% to 81.00%), and a minor fluctuation in plain regions with waterway networks (1.10% to 10.14%). During the 5-year period from 2015 to 2019, a total of 48 656 kg floating debris were captured in 4 surveillance sites in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and 2 204 snails were found, with no Oncomelania snails identified. Conclusions The areas of Oncomelania snail habitats tended to be stable in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China during the period from 2015 to 2019, however, there was a gradual rise in the area of Oncomelania snail habitats year by year, and LAMP assay identified positive Oncomelania snail samples, suggesting Oncomelania snail control is far from optimistic in China.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875380

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#To investigate the biomechanical effect of marginal bone resorption (MBR) on the mandibular mini implant (MI)-retained overdenture (MI-OD) on the edentulous model. @*MATERIALS AND METHODS@# The experimental mandibular edentulous model was modified from a commercial model with 2 mm thick artificial soft tissue under denture base. Two MIs (Φ2.6 mm x 10 mm) were bilaterally placed between the lateral incisor and the canine area and attached with magnetic attachments. Three groups were set up as follows: 1) alveolar bone around the MI without MBR (normal group), 2) with MBR to 1/2 the length of the implant (resorption group), and 3) complete denture (CD) without MI (CD group). Strain around the MI, pressure near the first molar area, and displacement of denture were simultaneously measured, loading up to 50 N under bilateral/ unilateral loading. Statistical analysis was performed using independent-samples t test and one-way ANOVA (α=.05). @*RESULTS@#The strain around the MI with MBR was approximately 1.5 times higher than that without MBR. The pressure in CD was higher than in MI-ODs (P .05). Similarly, the CD demonstrated a greater displacement of the denture base than did the MI-ODs during bilateral and unilateral loadings (P <.05). @*CONCLUSION@#The strain around the MI with MBR was approximately 1.5 times higher than that without MBR. The pressure on posterior alveolar ridge and denture displacement of MI-ODs significantly decreased compared to CDs, even when MBR occurs. Bilateral balanced occlusion was recommended for MI-ODs, especially when MBR occurred.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781776

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the therapeutic effect of thunder-fire moxibustion combined with vibration training and simple vibration training on low back pain of primary osteoporosis by 's modulus of ultrasonic wave, and seek an objective evaluating method.@*METHODS@#A total of 60 patients were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 30 cases in each one. The patients in the two groups were treated with vibration training using whole body vibration treatment bed. In the observation group, thunder-fire moxibustion was applied at Yaoyangguan (GV 3), Mingmen (GV 4), Ganshu (BL 18), Shenshu (BL 23) and Dachangshu (BL 25). The treatment was given once every other day, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The visual analogue score (VAS), real-time shear wave elastography (RTSWE) and medical outcomes study 36-item short-form hearth survey (SF-36) were used to evaluate pain intensity, multifidus muscle tone ('s modulus) and quality of life before treatment, after 4-week treatment and 1 month after treatment.@*RESULTS@#Compared before treatment, the VAS scores, 's modulus of multifidus muscle and 5 dimensions of SF-36 (physical condition, body pain, general health, social function and mental health) after 4-week treatment and 1 month after treatment were significantly improved in the two groups (all <0.05), the physiological role in the observation group after 4-week treatment and 1 month after treatment were improved (both <0.05). In the observation group, the VAS scores, 's modulus of multifidus muscle and 3 dimensions of SF-36 (physiological role, body pain and general health) after 4-week treatment and 1 month after treatment were superior to the control group (all <0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The therapeutic effect of thunder-fire moxibustion combined with vibration training is superior to simple vibration training in relieving low back pain intensity and multifidus muscle tone, and improving quality of life for primary osteoporosis. RTSWE technique can be an objective examination method to evaluate pain.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Humans , Low Back Pain , Therapeutics , Moxibustion , Osteoporosis , Quality of Life , Treatment Outcome , Vibration
12.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 715-720, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-866194

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the role of rapamycin target protein (mTOR) in lanthanum-induced injury of cerebral cortical neurons in offspring rats, and the effect on brain development, learning and memory ability of offspring rats.Methods:Thirty-two adult female and 32 male Wistar rats, were randomly divided into 4 groups according to their body weight, with 16 rats in each group (half female and half male). Female rats were fed with different amounts of lanthanum chloride[0.0 (control), 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 g/L], while male rats drank normal water. Female and male rats were mated in cages at a ratio of 1∶1. Female rats began to be exposed to lanthanum from pregnancy, while their offspring were exposed to lanthanum until 4 weeks after weaning. Morris water maze experiment was carried out in the 4 groups of offspring rats, and the effects of lanthanum on learning and memory were observed by space exploration. The cerebral cortex of offspring rats was taken, and the amount of Nissl body was observed under microscope after Nissl staining. The expression of mTOR mRNA in offspring rats cerebral cortex nerve cells was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Western blotting was used to detect the protein content of p-mTOR in offspring rats cortical neurons.Results:Compared with the control group, the body weight of offspring rats exposed to lanthanum at 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 g/L was significantly decreased [(121.75 ± 11.20), (110.00 ± 11.59), (98.88 ± 7.95) and (85.63 ± 7.25) g, P < 0.05], and the brain tissue coefficient and cortical coefficient were significantly increased [(1.43 ± 0.10)%, (1.56 ± 0.18)%, (1.66 ± 0.14)%, (1.89 ± 0.16)%; (0.86 ± 0.08)%, (0.94 ± 0.08)%, (1.01 ± 0.07)%, (1.08 ± 0.09)%, P < 0.05]. The brain weight [(1.63 ± 0.05), (1.61 ± 0.03) g] of 5.0 and 10.0 g/L lanthanum-exposed groups were significantly lower than those in the control group and 2.5 g/L lanthanum-exposed group [(1.73 ± 0.06), (1.70 ± 0.06) g, P < 0.05]. Compared with the control group (53.25 ± 9.93), the amounts of Nissl body in cerebral cortical neurons in different lanthanum-exposed groups (36.13 ± 3.98, 27.50 ± 5.21, 13.63 ± 5.93) were significantly decreased ( P < 0.05). The results of space exploration experiment showed that compared with the control group [(5.75 ± 1.98) times, (10.69 ± 2.96) s, (3.75 ± 1.28) times], the times of entering the target quadrant [(3.63 ± 1.41) times] and the stay time in the target quadrant [(5.12 ± 2.09) s] in 10.0 g/L lanthanum-exposed group were significantly reduced ( P < 0.05), and the times of entering the platform [(1.88 ± 0.84), (1.13 ± 1.12) times] in 5.0 and 10.0 g/L lanthanum-exposed groups were significantly reduced ( P < 0.05). There were significant differences in mTOR mRNA (1.00 ± 0.28, 0.74 ± 0.19, 0.58 ± 0.13, 0.45 ± 0.29) and p-mTOR protein expression levels (0.69 ± 0.07, 0.33 ± 0.06, 0.30 ± 0.04, 0.17 ± 0.03) in cortical tissues ( F = 8.33, 139.12, P < 0.05). Conclusion:Lanthanum exposure can damage cortical neurons, affect the brain development of offspring rats, reduce the expression of mTOR mRNA and p-mTOR protein in the brain of offspring rats, reduce the ability of space exploration and observation, resulting in the decline of learning and memory ability of offspring rats.

13.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 406-410, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-866139

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate whether the squirrels in Yunnan Province carried Yersinia pestis phages and their epidemiological significance. Methods:From 2015 to 2018, plague host animals were investigated in five of Yunnan plague foci and non-plague foci. The spleen, liver and intestinal specimens of the squirrels captured in the investigation were taken and stored at low temperature for later use. Intestinal specimens with PBS solution, were filtered by 0.22 μm and added to LB liquid medium containing 100 μl suspension of plague vaccine strain (EV76) and then oscillated in a constant temperature gas bath at 28 ℃ and 220 r/min for 18 to 24 h. The double-layer plate method was used to isolate and observe the growth of plaque. The morphology and structure of Yersinia pestis phages were observed under electron microscope. Meanwhile, spleen, liver and intestinal specimens were taken for detection of Yersinia pestis specific marker gene caf1. Results:A total of 10 squirrels were captured (8 Callosciurus erythraeus and 2 Dremomys pernyi), and four Yersinia pestis phages were isolated (2 in Callosciurus erythraeus and 2 in Dremomys pernyi). Two were isolated from non-plague foci (Yongshan County), two from house rats plague foci (Mile County and Xinping County), and none was isolated from wild radents plague foci (Jianchuan County and Eryuan County). By naked eye observation, two bacteriophages from the plague foci produced transparent plaques and grew well, while two bacteriophages from non-plague foci produced translucent plaques and with poor growth. By electron microscopy, these Yersinia pestis phages were of typical Myoviridae family, their head diameter was about 40 nm, muscle tail was about 120 nm, and tail filament cluster was slightly visible at the end of muscle tail. And all the 10 samples of squirrels were negative of plague-specific caf1 gene. Conclusions:The proportion of plague phages carried by Yunnan squirrels is relatively high. Although the detection of caf1 is negative. Squirrels may be a carrier of plague transmission due to the existence of Yersinia pestis phages.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-864946

ABSTRACT

Unreasonable usage of antibiotics has become a prominent problem in clinic, which directly leads to the emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria infection, thus significantly increasing the difficulty of clinical anti-infection treatment.Relevant researches show that the infection range of multidrug resistant bacteria continues increasing, and its resistance gradually deepens, especially in children.Because of the distribution of multidrug resistant bacteria in dynamic changes, and the types and drug resistance of multidrug resistant bacteria that infect children are different from those in adults, leading to clinical treatment more difficult in pediatric.Therefore, the status analysis of multidrug resistant bacteria infections in Chinese children can promote the standardized use of antibiotics, therefore delaying or reducing the invasion of children by multidrug resistant bacteria.

15.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833435

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: This study aimed to investigate the changes and significance of microRNA155 levels in serum of patients with cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). @*Methods@#: Thirty patients with CSVD who met the inclusion criteria were selected and divided into eight patients with lacunar infarction (LI) group and 22 patients with multiple lacunar infarction (MLI) combined with white matter lesions (WML) group according to the results of head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirty samples from healthy volunteers without abnormalities after head MRI examination were selected as the control group. The levels of serum microRNA155 in each group were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the correlation between microRNA155 in the serum of patients with CSVD and the increase of imaging lesions was analyzed by Spearman correlation analysis. @*Results@#: Compared with the control group, the serum microRNA155 level in the LI group, MLI combined with WML group increased, the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05); serum microRNA155 level was positively correlated with the increase of imaging lesions (p<0.05). @*Conclusion@#: The change of serum microRNA155 level in patients with CSVD may be one of its self-protection mechanisms, and the intensity of this self-protection mechanism is positively correlated with the number of CSVD lesions.

16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 789-798, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828844

ABSTRACT

The limited treatment options for the increasing occurrence of Lassa hemorrhagic fever in West Africa poses an urgent need for the discovery and development of novel therapeutics. Dietary supplements, especially natural products that are edible and safe for human use, are a good source of drug discovery with potential for uncovering novel applications. In this study, we tested 40 natural products of dietary supplements and identified capsaicin, a common dietary supplement abundant in chili peppers, as an inhibitor of Lassa virus (LASV) entry with EC of 6.9-10.0 μmol/L using an HIV based pseudovirus platform. Capsaicin inhibits the entry of five LASV strains but not against the Old World arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), showing a preferential activity against LASV. Capsaicin inhibits LASV entry by blocking the pH dependent viral fusion through affecting the stable signal peptide (SSP)-GP2 transmembrane (GP2) region of the LASV surface glycoprotein. Mutational study revealed the key residues Ala25, Val431, Phe434 and Val435 in SSP-GP2 region in capsaicin's antiviral effect. This study for the first time reveals a direct acting antiviral effect of capsaicin against the hemorrhagic fever causing LASV, providing detailed interaction hot spots in the unique SSP-GP2 interface of LASV glycoprotein that is crucial in fusion inhibition, and offering a new strategy in discovering and developing antivirals from natural products that are safe for human use.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 895-902, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828836

ABSTRACT

Seven indole alkaloid glycosides containing a 1'-(4″-hydroxy-3″,5″-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl unit (-) were isolated from an aqueous extract of leaves (da qing ye). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic data analysis combined with enzymatic hydrolysis as well as comparison of their experimental CD (circular dichroism) and calculated ECD (electrostatic circular dichroism) spectra. Based on analysis of and/or Cotton effect (CE) data of -, two simple roles to assign location and/or configuration of -glycopyranosyloxy and 1'-(phenyl)ethyl units in the indole alkaloid glycosides are proposed. Stereoselectivity in plausible biosynthetic pathways of - is discussed. Compounds and and their mixture in a 3:2 ratio showed activity against KCNQ2 in CHO cells. The mixture of and (3:2) exhibited antiviral activity against influenza virus H1N1 PR8 with IC 64.7 μmol/L (ribavirin, IC 54.3 μmol/L), however, the individual or was inactive. Preliminary structure-activity relationships were observed.

19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 355-365, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-815852

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread throughout China and many other countries around the world. The antivirals are important measures to this epidemic; however, there is no drug approved for against coronavirus yet. With the continuously rising number of confirmed/suspected cases of COVID-19, it is urgent to obtain antiviral drugs for the clinical treatment. In response to this situation, drug repurposing strategy becomes one of the best approaches for anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug discovery. By retrieving the clinical trials registered in Chinese Clinical Trial Registry and ClinicalTrials.gov, a total of 14 chemical drugs were registered for COVID-19. In this review, we summarize and analyze the 14 drugs' indications, targets, and research basis related to the activities against viral infections, esp. coronavirus infections. We are making efforts to understand the evidence basis of these drugs for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection applied by various research and clinical institutions in response to this COVID-19 outbreak, and also providing clues for quick response to possible epidemic in future and reasonable expansion of the indications of drugs.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776873

ABSTRACT

Three new prenylated stilbenes, named as cajanusins A-C (1-3), and one new natural product cajanusin D (4), along with six known derivatives (5-10) were isolated from the leaves of Cajanus cajan. Their structures were fully elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic methods and comparison with data in the reported literatures. The new compounds of 1 and 2 were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activities against a panel of human cancer cell lines.

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