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1.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1921-1924, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010061

ABSTRACT

Proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs) are heterobifunctional small molecules by utilizing the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) to degrade proteins of interest. PROTACs have exhibited unprecedented efficacy and specificity in degrading various oncogenic proteins because of their unique mechanism of action, ability to target "undruggable" and mutant proteins. A series of PROTACs have been developed to degrade multiple key protein targets for the treatment of hematologic malignancy. Notably, PROTACs that target BCL-XL, IRAK4, STAT3 and BTK have entered clinical trials. The known PROTACs that have the potential to be used to treat various hematological malignancies are systematically summarized in this review.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Proteolysis Targeting Chimera
2.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 352-357, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982066

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the characteristics and prognosis of acute leukemia(AL) with SET-NUP214 fusion gene.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 17 patients over 14 years old newly diagnosed with SET-NUP214 positive AL admitted in Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital from August 2017 to May 2021 were analyzed retrospectively.@*RESULTS@#Among the 17 SET-NUP214 positive patients, 13 cases were diagnosed as T-ALL (ETP 3 cases, Pro-T-ALL 6 cases, Pre-T-ALL 3 cases, Medullary-T-ALL 1 case), AML 3 cases (2 cases M5, 1 case M0) and ALAL 1 case. Thirteen patients presented extramedullary infiltration at initial diagnosis. All 17 patients received treatment, and a total of 16 cases achieved complete remission (CR), including 12 cases in patients with T-ALL. The total median OS and RFS time were 23 (3-50) months and 21 (0-48) months, respectively. Eleven patients received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation(allo-HSCT), with median OS time of 37.5 (5-50) months and median RFS time of 29.5 (5-48) months. The median OS time of 6 patients in chemotherapy-only group was 10.5 (3-41) months, and median RFS time of 6.5 (3-39) months. The OS and RFS of patients with transplantation group were better than those of chemotherapy-only group (P=0.038). Among the 4 patients who relapsed or refractory after allo-HSCT, the SET-NUP214 fusion gene did not turn negative before transplantation. While, in the group of 7 patients who have not relapsed after allo-HSCT till now, the SET-NUP214 fusion gene expression of 5 patients turned negative before transplantation and other 2 of them were still positive.@*CONCLUSION@#The fusion site of SET-NUP214 fusion gene is relatively fixed in AL patients, often accompanied by extramedullary infiltration. The chemotherapy effect of this disease is poor, and allo-HSCT may improve its prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Retrospective Studies , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Acute Disease , Prognosis , Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell/therapy , Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins
3.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 287-292, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929637

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity profiles of idarubicin, cytarabine, and cyclophosphamide (IAC) in relapse/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) . Methods: This study was a prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial with the registration number NCT02937662. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group was treated with an IAC regimen, and the regimen of the control group was selected by doctors according to medication experience. After salvage chemotherapy, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) was conducted as far as possible according to the situation of the patients. We aimed to observe the efficacy, safety, and toxicity of the IAC regimen in relapse/refractory AML and to explore which is the better regimen. Results: Forty-two patients were enrolled in the clinical trial, with a median age of 36 years (IAC group, 22 cases and control groups, 20 cases) . ①The objective response rate was 71.4% in the IAC group and 40.0% in the control group (P=0.062) ; the complete remission (CR) rate was 66.7% in the IAC group and 40.0% in the control group (P=0.121) . The median follow-up time of surviving patients was 10.5 (range:1.7-32.8) months; the median overall survival (OS) was 14.1 (range: 0.6-49.1) months in the IAC group and 9.9 (range: 2.0-53.8) months in the control group (P=0.305) . The 1-year OS was 54.5% (95%CI 33.7%-75.3%) in the IAC group and 48.2% (95%CI 25.9%-70.5%) in the control group (P=0.305) , with no significant difference between these two regimens. ②The main hematologic adverse events (AEs) were anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia. The incidence of grade 3-4 hematologic AEs in the two groups was 100% (22/22) in the IAC group and 95% (19/20) in the control group. The median time of neutropenia after chemotherapy in the IAC group and control group was 20 (IQR: 8-30) and 14 (IQR: 5-50) days, respectively (P=0.023) . ③The CR rate of the early relapse (relapse within 12 months) group was 46.7% and that of the late relapse (relapse after 12 months) group was 72.7% (P=0.17) . The median OS time of early recurrence was 9.9 (range:1.7-53.8) months, and that of late recurrence patients was 19.3 (range: 0.6-40.8) months (P=0.420) , with no significant differences between the two groups. The 1-year OS rates were 45.3% (95%CI 27.2%-63.3%) and 66.7% (95%CI 40.0%-93.4%) , respectively (P=0.420) . Survival analysis showed that the 1-year OS rates of the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation group and non-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation group were 87.5% (95%CI 71.2%-100%) and 6.3% (95%CI 5.7%-18.3%) , respectively. The OS rate of the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation group was significantly higher than that of the non-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation group (P<0.001) . Conclusion: The IAC regimen is a well-tolerated and effective regimen in relapsed/refractory AML; this regimen had similar efficacy and safety with the regimen selected according to the doctor's experience for treating relapsed/refractory AML. For relapsed/refractory patients with AML, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be attempted as soon as possible to achieve long-term survival.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Cytarabine/therapeutic use , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Idarubicin/therapeutic use , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Neutropenia , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
4.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 383-387, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929572

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the efficacy of two induction regimens, namely, idarubicin combined with cytarabine (IA) versus the combination of homoharringtonine, daunorubicin, and cytarabine (HAD) , in adult patients with newly diagnosed de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) . Methods: From May 2014 to November 2019, 199 patients diagnosed with AML receiving either the IA or HAD regimens were assessed for overall survival (OS) , relapse-free survival (RFS) , as well as the CR rate and the MRD negative rate after induction therapy. The differences in prognosis between the two induction therapy groups was assessed according to factors, including age, white blood cell (WBC) count, NPM1 mutation, FLT3-ITD mutation, 2017 ELN risk stratification, CR(1) transplantation, and the use of high-dose cytarabine during consolidation therapy, etc. Results: Among the 199 patients, there were 104 males and 95 females, with a median age of 37 (15-61) years. Ninety patients received the IA regimen, and 109 received the HAD regimen. Comparing the efficacy of the IA and HAD regimens, the CR rates after the first induction therapy were 71.1% and 63.3%, respectively (P=0.245) , and the MRD negative rates after the first induction therapy were 53.3% and 48.6%, respectively (P=0.509) . One patient in the IA group and two in the HAD group died within 60 days after induction. The two-year OS was 61.5% and 70.6%, respectively (P=0.835) , and the two-year RFS was 51.6% and 57.8%, respectively (P=0.291) . There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Multivariate analysis showed that the ELN risk stratification was an independent risk factor in both induction groups; CR(1) HSCT was an independent prognostic factor for OS and RFS in the IA patients and for RFS in the HAD patients but not for OS in the HAD patients. Age, WBC level, NPM1 mutation, and FLT3-ITD mutation had no independent prognostic significance. Conclusion: The IA and HAD regimens were both effective induction regimens for AML patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Cytarabine/therapeutic use , Daunorubicin/therapeutic use , Homoharringtonine/therapeutic use , Induction Chemotherapy , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Nuclear Proteins , Prognosis , Remission Induction , Retrospective Studies
5.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 307-313, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935531

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the genetic landscape of 52 fusion genes in patients with de novo acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and to investigate the characteristics of other laboratory results. Methods: The fusion gene expression was retrospectively analyzed in the 1 994 patients with de novo ALL diagnosed from September 2016 to December 2020. In addition, their mutational, immunophenotypical and karyotypical profiles were investigated. Results: In the 1 994 patients with ALL, the median age was 12 years (from 15 days to 89 years). In the panel of targeted genes, 15 different types of fusion genes were detected in 884 patients (44.33%) and demonstrated a Power law distribution. The frequency of detectable fusion genes in B-cell ALL was significantly higher than that in T-cell ALL (48.48% vs 18.71%), and fusion genes were almost exclusively expressed in B-cell ALL or T-cell ALL. The number of fusion genes showed peaks at<1 year, 3-5 years and 35-44 years, respectively. More fusion genes were identified in children than in adults. MLL-FG was most frequently seen in infants and TEL-AML1 was most commonly seen in children, while BCR-ABL1 was dominant in adults. The majority of fusion gene mutations involved signaling pathway and the most frequent mutations were observed in NRAS and KRAS genes. The expression of early-stage B-cell antigens varied in B-cell ALL patients. The complex karyotypes were more common in BCR-ABL1 positive patients than others. Conclusion: The distribution of fusion genes in ALL patients differs by ages and cell lineages. It also corresponds to various gene mutations, immunophenotypes, and karyotypes.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Gene Expression , Genes, ras , Oncogene Fusion , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/metabolism , Retrospective Studies
6.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 336-341, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935091

ABSTRACT

Objective: To retrospectively analyze the data of Chinese patients with newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) to preliminarily discuss the clinical and cytogenetic characteristics. Methods: From February 2004 to June 2020, patients with newly diagnosed APL aged ≥ 15 years who were admitted to the Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College were chosen. Clinical and laboratory features were retrospectively analyzed. Results: A total of 790 cases were included, with a male to female ratio of 1.22. The median age of the patients was 41 (15-76) years. Patients aged between 20 and 59 predominated, with 632 patients (80%) of 790 patients classified as low and intermediate risk and 158 patients (20%) of 790 patients classified as high risk. The white blood cell, platelet, and hemoglobin levels at diagnosis were 2.3 (0.1-176.1) ×10(9)/L, 29.5 (2.0-1220.8) ×10(9)/L, and 89 (15-169) g/L, respectively, and 4.8% of patients were complicated with psoriasis. The long-form type of PML-RARα was most commonly seen in APL, accounting for 58%. Both APTT extension (10.3%) and creatinine>14 mg/L (1%) are rarely seen in patients at diagnosis. Cytogenetics was performed in 715 patients with newly diagnosed APL. t (15;17) with additional chromosomal abnormalities were found in 155 patients, accounting for 21.7%; among which, +8 was most frequently seen. A complex karyotype was found in 64 (9.0%) patients. Next-generation sequencing was performed in 178 patients, and 113 mutated genes were discovered; 75 genes had an incidence rate>1%. FLT3 was the most frequently seen, which accounted for 44.9%, and 20.8% of the 178 patients present with FLT3-ITD. Conclusions: Patients aged 20-59 years are the most common group with newly diagnosed APL. No obvious difference was found in the ratio of males to females. In terms of risk stratification, patients divided into low and intermediate risk predominate. t (15;17) with additional chromosomal abnormalities accounted for 21% of 715 patients, in which +8 was most commonly seen. The long-form subtype was most frequently seen in PML-RARα-positive patients, and FLT3 was most commonly seen in the mutation spectrum of APL.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Chromosome Aberrations , Cytogenetics , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/genetics , Mutation , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Retrospective Studies
7.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1-6, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781497

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the efficacy and safety of arsenic trioxide combined with ATRA and chemo- therapy for treatment of relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients.@*METHODS@#The clinic data of 25 patients with relapse APL treated in our hospital from 1996 to 2013 were collected and analyzed. Among the 25 patients, 15 patients suffered first-time hematological relapse (HR), and the other 10 patients showed first-time molecular relapse (MR). The patients with first-time replase were treated with ATO+ATRA+Anthracycline re-induction chemotherapy. The clinical features, complete remission (CR) rate, overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and adverse events after re-induction therapy were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Fourteen of 15 hematological relapsed patients achieved the second-time hematological complete remission (CR2) after re-induction therapy except one patient died of bleeding complication during the re-induction. 8 of 14 patient showed molecular complete remission (CRm) after two cycles of therapy with this regimen. Totally, eleven out of the 14 HR patients were alive without disease till the last follow-up, and 3 of the 14 HR patients died because of bleeding complications. All of the 10 molecular relapsed patients received the second CRm after treated by the regimen. Among these 10 patients, 6 patients suffered only once relapse and continued with the molecular CR2 status, and for the other 4 patients with more than two-relapses, only 1 survived untill 89.3 months after achieved second-time CRm, and other 3 patients died because of bleeding complications.@*CONCLUSION@#For relapsed APL patients, the treatment with ATO+ATRA+chemotherapy regimen after relapse still shows encouraging efficacy, no matter whether or not the application of ATO in the previous regimens. In addition, patients with more than two molecular relapses show a poor prognosis.

8.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 1008-1014, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012116

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs) after successful treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) . Methods: Clinical data of 4 patients, diagnosed as t-MNs secondary to APL at Hematology Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from October 2012 to January 2019, were collected retrospectively. T-MNs related literature was reviewed. Results: The 4 cases were all females, with the median age 42 (range 40-53) years old at the diagnosis of APL. Regarding the induction and consolidation regimens, 3 patients received all-trans retinoid acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) combined with anthracycline/anthraquinone and/or cytosine. One patient only received ATRA and other auxiliary drugs. Alkylating agents were not administrated. The 4 patients developed t-MNs 40 to 43 months after complete remission (CR) of APL, including 1 case of therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) and 3 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) . The PML-RARα fusion genes were all negative when t-MNs developed. The three patients with t-AML were treated with 3 to 4 re-induction regimens, one of whom underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) after complete remission (CR) . One patient with t-MDS received hypomethylating agents. After a median follow-up of 54.5 (48-62) months, 2 patients with t-AML died, the median overall survival after t-MN was 12 (5-18) months. From 1989 to 2018, a total of 63 t-MN cases were reported in the literature. Therefore, 67 cases were analyzed when four patients in our center were added, including 27 males and 40 females with median age 52.5 (15-76) years. The median latency was 39 (12-126) months and the median overall survival after diagnosis of t-MN was 10 (1-39) months. Conclusions: Although rare, t-MNs may occur after successful control of APL. There are no existing guidelines for prevention and treatment of t-MNs, which have very poor prognosis. If cytopenia or other abnormalities of peripheral blood cells develop after 3 years of APL, t-MNs should be considered as a differential diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Arsenicals , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/therapy , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Oxides , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Tretinoin
9.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 848-852, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012079

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinic-pathological features, diagnosis and treatment of 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome (EMS) . Methods: Five patients diagnosed as EMS from Jan 2014 to May 2018 at Blood Disease Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences were enrolled. The clinical manifestations, laboratory characteristics, treatment and outcome of these patients were summarized. Results: The peripheral blood leukocyte count of 5 patients with EMS increased significantly, accompanied with an elevated absolute eosinophils value (the average as 18.89×10(9)/L) . The hypercellularity of myeloid cells was common in bone marrow, always with the elevated proportion of eosinophils (the average as 17.24%) , but less than 5% of blast cells. The chromosome karyotype of the 5 cases differed from each other, but presenting with the same rearrangement of FGFR1 gene by fluorescence in situ hybridization technology. The average interval between onset and diagnosis was 4.8 months with a median survival of only 14 months. Conclusion: EMS was a rare hematologic malignancy with poor prognosis and short survival. It was commonly to be misdiagnosed. Analysis of cytogenetics and molecular biology were helpful for early diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8 , Eosinophilia/genetics , Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Karyotyping , Lymphatic Diseases/genetics , Myeloproliferative Disorders/genetics , Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1/genetics , Translocation, Genetic
10.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 497-501, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012020

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the time of the recovery of neutrophils or leukocytes by pegylated recombinant human granulocyte stimulating factor (PEG-rhG-CSF) or common recombinant human granulocyte stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) in the myelosuppressive phase after induction chemotherapy in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. At the same time, the incidences of infection and hospitalization were compared. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted in patients with newly diagnosed AML who met the enrollment criteria from August 2014 to December 2017. The patients were randomly divided into two groups according to a 1:1 ratio: PEG-rhG-CSF group and rhG-CSF group. The time of neutrophil or leukocyte recovery, infection rate and hospitalization interval were compared between the two groups. Results: 60 patients with newly diagnosed AML were enrolled: 30 patients in the PEG-rhG-CSF group and 30 patients in the rhG-CSF group. There were no significant differences in age, chemotherapy regimen, pre-chemotherapy ANC, WBC, and induction efficacy between the two groups (P>0.05) . The median time (range) of ANC or WBC recovery in patients with PEG-rhG-CSF and rhG-CSF were 19 (14-35) d and 19 (15-26) d, respectively, with no statistical difference (P=0.566) . The incidences of infection in the PEG-rhG-CSF group and the rhG-CSF group were 90.0%and 93.3%, respectively, and there was no statistical difference (P=1.000) . The median days of hospitalization (range) was 20.5 (17-49) days and 21 (19-43) days, respectively, with no statistical difference (P=0.530) . Conclusions: In AML patients after induction therapy, there was no significant difference between the application of PEG-rhG-CSF and daily rhG-CSF in ANC or WBC recovery time, infection incidence and hospitalization time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/therapeutic use , Induction Chemotherapy/adverse effects , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Neutropenia , Neutrophils , Prospective Studies , Recombinant Proteins
11.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 288-293, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011977

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the application values of immunophenotypic analysis and molecular genetics in the diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) . Methods: The retrospective analyses of flow cytometric (FCM) immunophenotypic anyalysis, chromosome karyotype and chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of 798 outpatient or hospitalization APL patients referred to our hospital between May 2012 and December 2017 were performed to further study the application values of FCM and molecular genetics in the diagnosis of APL. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of FCM were 91.9% and 98.7% respectively. The typical characteristic immunophenotype for APL was as of follows: a high SSC, absence of expression of cluster differntiation (CD) CD34 and HLA-DR, and expression or stronger expression of CD33, consistent expression of CD13, CD9, CD123, expression of CD56, CD7, CD2 (sometimes) . The rest 10% of the cases harbored atypical APL phenotypes, generally accompanied by CD34 and/or HLA-DR expression, decreased SSC and often accompanied by CD2 expression, it was difficult to definitively diagnose APL by this FCM phenotype, and their diagnoses depended on the results of genetics or molecular biology tests. Compared with normal individuals, complex karyotypes APL with t (15;17) translocation, other variant translocations and variant t (11;17) , t (5;17) had no significant differences in terms of their FCM phenotypes. Conclusions: FCM could rapidly and effectively diagnose APL. Despite the fact that complex karyotypes with various additional chromosomal abnormalities were detected in approximately one third of APL cases in addition to the pathognomonic t (15;17) (q22;q21) , they had no observable impact on the overall immunophenotype. Molecular and genetic criteria were the golden criteria for the diagnosis of APL. About 10% of immunophenotyping cases relied on molecular genetics for diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Flow Cytometry , Immunophenotyping , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
12.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 354-359, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774310

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical biological characteristics and prognosis of the patients with mixed phenotype acute leukemia with t(9;22)(q34;q11.2) and/or BCRABL1 (Ph MPAL).@*METHODS@#The morphological, immunological, cytogenetic, and molecular features of 33 in patients with Ph MPAL were retrospectively analyzed in our center from June 2002 to June 2016 according to the scoring proposal of European Group for the Classification of Acute Leukemia(EGIL )1998 and WHO 2008 criteria. All the cases were either treated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) induction regimen or combined chemotherapy regimens for both acute lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukemia,part of which also received tyrosine kinase inhibitor(TKI) and 5 cases underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) after complete remission.@*RESULTS@#Ph MPAL occurred predominantly in male patients (ratio of M/F was 1.75∶1), and a high WBC counts at diagnosis; the WBC count was higher than 30×10/L in 25 patients( 75.8% ), and appeared higher than 100 ×10/L in 13 patients ( 39.4%). Among all the 33 PhMPAL patients, 32 (97.0%) had a myeloid / B-lymphoid (M/B) phenotype, and 1 case(3.0%) had a myeloid/ B-lymphoid/ T-lymphoid/ (M/B/T) phenotype. There was no patients displayed myeloid / T-lymphoid (M/T) or B-lymphoid/ T-lymphoid/ (B/T) phenotype. 19 of all cases(57.6%) met the diagnosis criteria of PhMPAL based on EGIL 1998 criteria, while the remaining 14 cases can be diagnosed as Ph MPAL by WHO 2008 classification,but excluded as PhMAPL by EGIL 1998.Karyotype analysis was successfully performed in 31 cases, and out of them 13 (41.9%) had a sole Ph chromosome, 10 (32.3%) had additional chromosome aberration and Ph chromosome was not found in 8 cases (25.8%) .In 31 patients the fusion gene BCR/ABL (P190、P210) was detected,including 17 (54.8%) cases with the p190 BCR/ABL transcript, 8 (25.8%) cases with the p210 BCR/ABL transcript, 4 (12.9%) expressing both transcripts and 2 (6.5%) without any one of these 2 transcripts. 24 out of 33 patients (77.4%) achieved complete remission after induction therapy. The median time achieving CR was 43(26-98)days. The CR rate of patients treated with and without imatinib after the first inducion treatment was 81.3% and 46.7%,respectively (P0.05). Within the 17 patients treated with imatinib at induction stage,2 of which became BCR/ABLnegative.At consolidation chemotherapy stage, 9 out of 16 patients became BCR/ABL negative, including 3 patients already subjected to HSCT. The median time reached to BCR/ABL negative was 2.87(1.13-9.20)months.@*CONCLUSION@#Ph MPAL is more common in male, and inclined to high WBC counts at diagnosis. Myeloid/B lymphoid phenotype is more common, and the prognosis of patients with PhMPAL is poor. Imatinib and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may improve survival of patients with PhMPAL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Acute Disease , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl , Leukemia , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies
13.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 637-640, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771906

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical features and therapeutic efficacy in adult ALL patients with t (1; 19) (E2A-PBX1).@*METHODS@#The clinic data of 19 adult ALL patients with t (1; 19) (E2A-PBX1) in our hospital from Nov. 22, 2010 to Apr. 4, 2018 were collected. The clinical features,complete remission (CR) rate, overall survival (OS) rate and relapse-free survival (RFS) rate of patients received chemotherapy and chemotherapy+HSCT were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#In all the 19 patients, the median age was 24 (14-66), median WBC count was 16.47×109 (1.8-170.34)/L, median Hb level was 98 (65-176) g/L, median Plt count was 50 (15-254)×109/L. Pre B-ALL were 17 cases (89.5%), and common B-ALL were 2 cases (10.5%). Patients received the induction therapy, the overall CR rate was 94.7%, one course CR rate was 94.7%, 4 year OS rate was 47.1% and RFS rate was 43.3%. The OS rate and RFS rate of patients received transplantation were slightly higher than those of patients not received transplantation (OS: 62.5% vs 36.7%) (P=0.188);RFS (62.5% vs 38.9%) (P=0.166).@*CONCLUSION@#Most adult ALL patients with t (1; 19) (E2A-PBX1) is Pre B-ALL by Immunophenotyping, as compared with the pediatric patients, the therapeutic efficacy for adult patients with t (1; 19) (E2A-PBX1) is worsen, therefore, stem cell transplantation is still acquired for better long term survival.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 , Homeodomain Proteins , Genetics , Immunophenotyping , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion , Genetics , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Genetics , Therapeutics , Recurrence , Remission Induction
14.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 977-982, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011901

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical, laboratory characteristics and prognosis of adult early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ETP-ALL). Methods: The clinical data of 13 adult ETP-ALL patients from January 2009 to March 2017 were retrospectively analyzed and compared with non-ETP ALL patients. Results: 13 ETP-ALL patients (17.3%) were identified in 75 adult T-ALL patients, the median age of the patients was 35 years old (15 to 49 years) and 10 patients were male (76.9%). ETP-ALL patients had lower WBC count, LDH level, blasts in peripheral blood, lower incidence of thymic mass and higher PLT count compared to non-ETP ALL patients. The CR rate after one course induction chemotherapy for ETP-ALL and non-ETP ALL patients was 33.3% and 90.1%, respectively (χ(2)=26.521, P<0.001). The median overall survival(OS) was 11.33 (95%CI 0-28.46) and 25.69 (95%CI 11.98-39.41) months, respectively. The 3-year OS was 41.7% and 40.7%, respectively (P=0.699). The median event free survival (EFS) was 1.51 (95%CI 1.23-1.79) and 21.36 (95%CI 4.67-38.04) months, respectively. The 3-year EFS was 16.7% and 39.5%, respectively (P=0.002). The 3-year relapse free survival (RFS) was 53.0% and 52.0%, respectively (P=0.797). Multivariate analysis revealed that CNSL and allo-HSCT were independent risk factors affecting OS of T-ALL and ETP-ALL didn't affect the prognosis of T-ALL. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study is the first report on characteristics and prognosis of adult ETP-ALL patients in China. At total of 13 T-ALL patients (17.3%) were classified as having ETP-ALL. These patients had a lower leukemia burden and lower CR rate after one course induction compared to non-ETP ALL patients. Allo-HSCT can improve the prognosis of ETP-ALL.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , China , Disease-Free Survival , Precursor Cells, T-Lymphoid , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prognosis , Remission Induction , Retrospective Studies
15.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 724-728, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011847

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the predictive value of minimal residual disease (MRD) level in Ph-negative precursor B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. Methods: De novo 193 Ph-negative B-ALL patients from Sep 2010 to Nov 2017 were involved in the study. The patients' MRD evaluation which can be performed by multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC) after 1 month, 3-month, 6-month treatment. Relapse free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared in patients with different MRD level. Results: The median follow-up was 22 months. All patients was evaluated at 497 MRD level. Patients who reach the good MRD level at 1 month (<0.1% or ≥0.1%), 3-month (negative or positive), 6-month (negative or positive) had a significantly higher probability of estimated RFS (74.5% vs 29.9%; 75.6% vs 29.7%; 74.6% vs 11.6%) and of estimated OS (67.5% vs 30.3%; 71.6% vs 27.8%; 74.0% vs 15.7%). Patients who reach the MRD negative at all 3 times had a significantly higher probability of estimated RFS (80.5% vs 30.5%) and better estimated OS (77.1% vs 29.4%) compared to patients with at least MRD failure in one time (P<0.001). Multivariable analysis showed MRD level at 3-month was an independent prognostic factor for DFS and OS. Conclusion: MRD is an important prognosis factor for Ph-negative B- ALL patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Flow Cytometry , Neoplasm, Residual , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prognosis , Recurrence
16.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 471-475, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011788

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate the influence of duration of antibiotic therapy on the prognosis of patients with AML who had Gram-negative bloodstream infection during consolidation chemotherapy. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from 591 patients enrolled from the registered "A Phase III study on optimizing treatment based on risk stratification for acute myeloid leukemia, ChiCTR-TRC-10001202" treatment protocol between September 2010 and January 2016 in different treatment cycles. Results: A total of 119 episodes of Gram-negative bloodstream infection occurred during consolidation chemotherapy. Excluding the 5 episodes in which fever lasted longer than 7 days, 114 episodes of infection were analyzed. The median neutrophil count was 0 (0-5.62)×10(9)/L, median neutropenia duration was 9 (3-26) days, median interval of antibiotics administration was 7 (4-14) days. Logistic regression analysis showed that there is no significant difference on 3-day recurrent fever rate and reinfection by the same type bacteria between antibiotics administration ≤7 days or >7 days (1.2% vs 3.0%, P=0.522, OR=0.400, 95% CI 0.024-6.591; 18.5% vs 21.2%, P=0.741, OR=0.844, 95% CI 0.309-2.307). Propensity score analysis confirmed there was no significant difference on same pathogen infection rate between antibiotics application time ≤ 7 days or >7 days (P=0.525, OR=0.663, 95% CI 0.187-2.352). No infection associated death occurred within 7 or 30 days in both groups. Conclusion: Discontinuation of therapy until sensitive antibiotics treated for 7 days does not increase the recurrent fever rate and the infection associated death rate. Indicating that, for AML who had Gram-negative bloodstream infection during consolidation chemotherapy, short courses of antibiotic therapy is a reasonable treatment option when the infection is controlled.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Consolidation Chemotherapy , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
17.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 98-104, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011703

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the spectrum of gene mutations in adult patients with B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), and to analyze the influences of different gene mutations on prognosis. Methods: DNA samples from 113 adult B-ALL patients who administered from June 2009 to September 2015 were collected. Target-specific next generation sequencing (NGS) approach was used to analyze the mutations of 112 genes (focused on the specific mutational hotspots) and all putative mutations were compared against multiple databases to calculate the frequency spectrum. The impact of gene mutation on the patients' overall survival (OS) and recurrence free survival (RFS) was analyzed by the putative mutations through Kaplan-Meier, and Cox regression methods. Results: Of the 113 patients, 103 (92.0%) harbored at least one mutation and 29 (25.6%) harbored more than 3 genes mutation. The five most frequently mutated genes in B-ALL are SF1, FAT1, MPL, PTPN11 and NRAS. Gene mutations are different between Ph+ B-ALL and Ph- B-ALL patients. Ph- B-ALL patients with JAK-STAT signal pathway related gene mutation, such as JAK1/JAK2 mutation showed a poor prognosis compared to the patients without mutation (OS: P=0.011, 0.001; RFS: P=0.014,<0.001). Patients with PTPN11 mutation showed better survival than those without mutation, but the difference was not statistically significant (P value > 0.05). Besides, in Ph+ B-ALL patients whose epigenetic modifications related signaling pathway genes were affected, they had a worse prognosis (OS: P=0.038; RFS: P=0.047). Conclusion: Gene mutations are common in adult ALL patients, a variety of signaling pathways are involved. The frequency and spectrum are varied in different types of B-ALL. JAK family gene mutation usually indicates poor prognosis. The co-occurrence of somatic mutations in adult B-ALL patients indicate the genetic complex and instability of adult B-ALL patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , B-Lymphocytes , DNA Mutational Analysis , Mutation , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prognosis
18.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 9-14, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011678

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical and laboratory characteristics, and prognosis of adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with MLL gene rearrangements. Methods: The medical records of 92 adult AML patients with MLL gene rearrangements from January 2010 to December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: 92 cases (6.5%) with MLL gene rearrangements were identified in 1 417 adult AML (Non-M(3)) patients, the median age of the patients was 35.5 years (15 to 64 years old) with an equal sex ratio, the median WBC were 21.00(0.42-404.76)×10(9)/L, and 78 patients (84.8%) were acute monoblastic leukemia according to FAB classification. Eleven common partner genes were detected in 32 patients, 9 cases (28.1%) were MLL/AF9(+), 5 cases (15.6%) were MLL/AF6(+), 5 cases (15.6%) were MLL/ELL(+), 2 cases (6.3%) were MLL/AF10(+), 1 case (3.1%) was MLL/SETP6(+), and the remaining 10 patients' partner genes weren't identified. Of 92 patients, 83 cases with a median follow-up of 10.3 (0.3-74.0) months were included for the prognosis analysis, the complete remission (CR) rate was 85.5% (71/83), the median overall survival (OS) and relapse free survival (RFS) were 15.4 and 13.1 months, respectively. Two-year OS and RFS were 36.6% and 29.5%, respectively. Of 31 patients underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), two-year OS and RFS for patients received and non-received allo-HSCT were 57.9% and 21.4%, 52.7% and 14.9%, respectively (P<0.001). Among patients with partner genes tested, 9 of 32 cases (28.1%) were MLL/AF9(+), the median follow-up was 6.0(4.1-20.7) months. 3 patients with MLL/AF9 underwent allo-HSCT. 23 cases (71.9%) were non- MLL/AF9(+), the median follow-up was 7.8 (0.3-26.6) months. 14 patients (60.1%) with non-MLL/AF9 underwent allo-HSCT. One-year OS for patients with MLL/AF9 and non-MLL/AF9 were 38.1% and 55.5%, respectively (P=0.688). Multivariate analysis revealed that high WBC (RR=1.825, 95% CI 1.022-3.259, P=0.042), one cycle to achieve CR (RR=0.130, 95% CI 0.063-0.267, P<0.001), post-remission treatment with allo-HSCT (RR=0.169, 95% CI 0.079-0.362, P<0.001) were independent prognostic factors affecting OS. Conclusions: AML with MLL gene rearrangements was closely associated with monocytic differentiation, and MLL/AF9 was the most frequent partner gene. Conventional chemotherapy produced a high response rate, but likely to relapse, allo-HSCT may have the potential to further improve the prognosis of this group of patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Gene Rearrangement , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
19.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 671-677, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690930

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of serum procalcitonin(PCT) levels for predicting the outcome of bacteria bloodstream infection in acute leukemia patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Clinical data from 236 patients with acute leukemia accompanied by bacterial bloodstream infection during July 2014 to November 2017 were retrospectively analyzed, 236 patients were divided into 5 groups (<0.05 ng/ml, 0.05- <0.5 ng/ml, 0.5- <2.0 ng/ml, 2.0- <10.0 ng/ml and >10.0 ng/ml) according to PCT concentrations.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The median age of patients was 40(13-73) years old. The male 123 cases(52.1%) and female 113 cases(47.9%) in 236 patients. The incidence of infection-related dealth in 5 groups was 0%, 1.4%, 13.8%, 25.0% and 33.3%, respectively; the incidence of septic shock and other serious complications in 5 groups was 0%, 2.1%, 13.8%, 25.0%, 33.3% and 6.4%, 7.0%, 24.1%, 41.7%, 50.0%, respectively, showing the concentration dependent manner and statistically significant difference (u=2127, P=0.000; u=2234, P=0.000; u=4102, P=0.000). Further analysis showed that with the increase of PCT concentration, the cumulative incidence of septic shock, infection-related death and other serious complications was gradually increased with statistically significance (HR=2.887, P=0.000, 95%CI:1.960-4.260; HR=3.158, P=0.000, 95%CI: 2.100-4.740; HR=2.158, P=0.000, 95%CI:1.550-3.000) respectively. Increased procalcitonin level is an independent risk factor for septic shock and infection-related death (HR=2.517, P=0.000, 95%CI: 1.520-4.168; HR=2.881, P=0.000, 95%CI: 1.692-4.904)respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Serum procalcitonin level positively correlates with the incidence of serious bacteria bloodstream infection complications in the patients with acute leukemia. Increased procalcitonin level is an independent risk factor for septic shock and infection-related death, indicating that procalcitonin may be an important prognostic factor for infection outcome in acute leukemia patients with bacteremia.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bacteremia , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein , Calcitonin , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide , Protein Precursors , Retrospective Studies
20.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1269-1274, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689492

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the efficacy of primary prophylaxis of voriconazole against invasive infection of pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) during remission-induction chemotherapy (RIC) of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Clinical data of 102 de novo AML patients who received primary anti-IPA prophylaxis during the first induction chemotherapy were analyzed retrospectively. All the cases were divided into voriconazole-treated group and posaconazole-treated group according to the prophylactic agent. The incidences of IPA and systemic antifungal treatment during induction chemotherapy were analyzed for both groups.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among 102 enrolled cases, 42 cases received voriconazole and other 60 received posaconazole as primary prophylaxis. IPA occurred in 3 cases of voriconazole group (1 probable, 2 possible); IPA occurred in 4 cases of posaconazose group, and all were possible cases. The incidence of IPA during remission-induction chemotherapy in variconazole group equaled to posaconazose group (7.1% vs. 6.7%) (P=0.925). Beside IPA cases, 2 cases in voriconazole group and 4 cases in posaconazole group received intravenous anti aspergillosis drugs preemptive treatment, and no significant difference of prophylactic success rate was observed between two groups (88.1% vs. 86.7%) (P=0.831). Visual disturbance was the most common adverse event occurred in voriconazole group, but no significant differences of incidences of other adverse effects were observed when compared with posaconazole group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>According to similar prophylactic effect with posaconazole, voriconazole appears to be a good alternative for primary prophylaxis of IPA during remission-induction chemotherapy in AML patients.</p>

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